Serum Vitamin D

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Serum vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein levels in mother-neonate pairs during the lactation period

Serum vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein levels in mother-neonate pairs during the lactation period

The University of Ataturk, Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee approved the study. Written informed con- sent was obtained from all participants. The study was longitudinal and was conducted in winter and spring months between 2013 and 2016. Serum vitamin D and DBP concentrations of mothers and their neonates were investigated during the first 60 days of the lactation period. First, the mothers were selected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey, which offers tertiary healthcare for a population of more than 4.000.000 indi- viduals. Exclusion criteria for the mothers were multiple gestation, different ethnicity, delivery within the previous 2 years, pre-existing maternal disease, pre-eclampsia, BMI > 35.0 at enrolment, hypertension, smoking, hormonal or drug therapy, and lactation failure. Second, the neonates of the mothers that met the study criteria were evaluated. Inclusion criteria for neonates were term deliveries with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) after uncomplicated pregnancies. Neonates classified as large for gestational age (LGA) or small for gestational age (SGA) and having any fetal malformation, supplementation with formula, and failure for visit 2 were excluded from the study to- gether with their mothers. Then, serum Ca, P, Mg, ALP, PTH and vitamin D concentrations in the mothers selected for the study were measured on postpartum days 5–10. The mothers having normal serum Ca (8.8–10.8 mg/dl), P (2.7–4.2 mg/dl), Mg (1.2–1.6 mg/dl), ALP (130 – 560 IU/l), and PTH (1 – 55 pg/ml) were classi- fied into two groups by their serum vitamin D concentra- tion (Group A: < 10 ng/ml and Group B: > 20 ng/ml), whereas those whose serum vitamin D concentration was 10 – 20 ng/ml were excluded from the study. Finally, the
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Association of serum vitamin D levels and transient tachypnea of newborn: a case control study

Association of serum vitamin D levels and transient tachypnea of newborn: a case control study

In our study it was found that total neonates who developed TTN were having deficient Vitamin D levels as compared to normal newborns in control group and the association between vitamin D levels and TTN were found to be highly significant. (p =0.009). Mean vitamin D levels in cases group was 11.328.21and in control group was 22.6613.15. Similar results were found in the study done by Konca et al. in 2014 in which serum vitamin D levels were studied in infants diagnosed as TTN and those without TTN and found that the serum levels of 25(OH)D 3
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Serum vitamin D levels in acute stroke patients

Serum vitamin D levels in acute stroke patients

In conclusion, our results demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency was an independent risk factor significantly associated with cerebral stroke severity and outcome after controlling other known risk factors. This result suggests a therapeutic role for vitamin D supplementa- tion in the management of cerebral stroke. Further pro- spective studies are needed to verify whether correcting vitamin D deficiency may affect the severity and out- come of the stroke as well as to establish the appropriate therapeutic dose of vitamin D for supplementation in stroke patients. Screening for serum vitamin D concen- trations is likely to identify individuals who are at the highest risks, particularly those with old age, diabetes, and large infarction.
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Relationship of serum vitamin D with hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Relationship of serum vitamin D with hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

limitations. First, relatively lower number of patients enrolled in the study. Second, it is a cross sectional study, hence unable to analyze the temporal relationship of vitamin D status with stage of fibrosis. Moreover, whether stage of fibrosis regresses with vitamin D supplementation, needs to be ascertained in longitudinal studies. Another limitation of this study is lack of data on confounding factors like exposure to sunlight and prevalence of osteoporosis in HCV patients which can affect serum vitamin D levels. The strength of the study is that metavir score, assessed by liver biopsy correlated with vitamin D levels. A significant correlation of vitamin D level with stage of fibrosis was found in our study, further studies on effect of vitamin D supplementation on regression of liver fibrosis may be undertaken in future to validate our finding.
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Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community dwelling older people

Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community dwelling older people

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a widely used and reliable marker of vitamin D status in humans [1], and its seasonal variation is a well-documented phenomenon [2]. The latter is a reflection of the importance of exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation (wavelength 290–315 nm) as an initiator of the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D [3]. The other main source of vitamin D in humans is dietary, but recent evidence suggests that in Caucasians, the typical daily intake of vitamin D from food contributes less than UVB exposure to average year-round 25(OH)D levels [4]. Therefore, appropriate UVB exposure is of great impor- tance to achieve optimum vitamin D status; however, above 35°N latitude, the angle of the sun is too low from November to February, so little or no vitamin D can be produced (regardless of the amount of sunshine available) because most of the UVB radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere [5]. Other factors associated with increased risk of vitamin D deficiency are older age, female gender, darker skin pigmentation and poor dietary habits (i.e. reduced intake of vitamin D-rich foods) [6]. Obesity is also a well-recognised risk factor for vitamin D deficiency [7, 8]. Cross-sectional studies have found a positive association between exercise and vitamin D [9, 10], but debate remains as to whether this is a causal effect of vitamin D (i.e. those with a high vitamin D level are able to do more exercise) or is a consequence of sunshine exposure during outdoor physical activity [11].
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Vitamin D Levels in Serum, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Semen Quality Correlations in Lebanon: A Pilot Cross Sectional Study

Vitamin D Levels in Serum, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Semen Quality Correlations in Lebanon: A Pilot Cross Sectional Study

Abstract Background: The role of the steroid hormone Vitamin D (VD) and its nuclear receptor (VDR) in skeletal metabolism is well known. Furthermore, research suggests that VD plays a role in female and male reproduction. However, semen quality status is not clear in infertile men with different VD serum concentrations. The aim of this study is to measure serum VD levels in infertile Lebanese men, to investigate semen quality parameters and their correlation to serum VD levels and polymorphic variations in the VDR. Materials and methods: From March to April 2013, 40 men presenting to an IVF center located in Mount-Lebanon to undergo IUI or ICSI procedure were recruited to our study. VD in serum was evaluated using ELISA method. The polymorphic regions were amplified using PCR followed by digestion with restriction enzymes FokI (rs10735810), ApaI G/T(rs11168271), TaqI T/C(rs731236). Results: No correlation was found between the ApaI and FokI polymorphisms and both VD levels in serum (P= 0.367, P=0.75 respectively) and sperm count (P= 0.919).Positive correlation was found between ApaIpolymorphisms and the number of non progressive and immotile spermatozoa (P=0.012, P=0.033 respectively). Also, positive correlation was found between TaqIpolymorphisms and VD serum levels (P= 0.038). Conclusions: More studies on VD could be relevant of a potential VD supplementation that might improve semen quality of involuntary infertile men and would be beneficial both for the infertile couples and the society in general. VD supplementation can opens for a safe treatment of some cases of "idiopathic" impaired semen quality.
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The Relationship between Psoriasis and Serum Levels of Vitamin D

The Relationship between Psoriasis and Serum Levels of Vitamin D

significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D than those without [37]. In the study by Abdalla et al. at Khartoum Dermatology Hospital in 2014, there was also significant difference in vitamin D levels among psoriasis patients and healthy individuals [44]. The studies conducted by Rameshwar et al. at the Hiranandani hospital in India in 2014 [45] and by Bergler-Czop et al. at Silesia University in Poland in 2014-2015 [46] also found similar results. Also, Ricceri et al. in their studies at the Department of Dermatology at Florence University in Italy found that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in psoriasis patients was significantly higher than controls [39]. It is clear that the result of our study is consistent with the results of above studies that serum levels of vitamin D in the patient group are significantly lower than in the control group. While the results of the population-based study conducted by Wilson in the United States in 2013 using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data failed to establish a difference in serum vitamin D levels among
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Significance of Serum Vitamin D Level in Tuberculosis Patients

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Similar studies in the UK reported that serum 25(OH)D concentrations among immigrants from developing countries may decrease by a factor of ten following arrival, recommending supplements to increase 25(OH)D serum concentrations is therefore important. Another study done in Asian immigrants to UK, demonstrated there was no significant improvement in the immunity against TB by doubling the serum vitamin D levels indicating that higher concentrations of vitamin D intake may be required in order to achieve significantly increased levels [17]. In certain populations, genetic differences have been proposed for low vitamin D levels in addition to availability of vitamin D. This genetic variability may partially account for specific immune responses to TB present in specific ethnic groups. In fact, multiple VDR gene polymorphisms could have an effect on host responses to MTB infection. Time to response to anti mycobacterial treatment shows a significant association with certain VDR gene polymorphisms, suggesting that a change in structure or activity of VDRs could change host response to active TB. It is also seen that this VDR gene polymorphism affects the host response and time to respond to antimycobacterial treatment [18]. Vitamin D deficiency was recently shown to be associated with TB reactivation among Gujarati Hindus in the UK. It was seen that in the same population there was increased VDR gene polymorphism which explained vitamin D deficiency better than insufficient dietary intake [19]. The role of vitamin D status in modulating host immune response to respiratory infection and inflammation appears complex. Evidence based information from both clinical and laboratory driven studies are clearly needed to help clarify the complex encircled by vitamin D status, vitamin D metabolism, infection and inflammatory mechanism in human lungs. With all the increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a major a risk factor for TB reactivation, it can be hypothesised that the vitamin somehow plays a vital role in the immune maintenance and integrity of granuloma, thus preventing
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1 Circulating 25-hydroxyviamin D levels and Risk of

1 Circulating 25-hydroxyviamin D levels and Risk of

serum Vitamin D levels and body antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients: A case-control study. Vitamin D status and risk of[r]

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The Effect of Oral Vitamin D on Patients with Alopecia Areata

The Effect of Oral Vitamin D on Patients with Alopecia Areata

These results suggest the close relationship between AA and serum vitamin D deficient levels, despite the incompatible results described in some studies. A study in Turkey on children with AA didn’t find a significant dissimilarity between vitamin D levels of the patients and control (P > 0.05) [22]. Also other studies in Turkey [23], Iran [24] and Italy [25] had similar findings. This is mostly caused by the little sun exposure due to religious and regional causes. In the present study, the results showed that there is a non- significant difference in vitamin D levels between patients and control with regard to ages of the subjects.
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25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression

25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression

Although basic research using cell culture and animal models has identified pathways by which vitamin D impacts upon muscle function, the situation in humans requires further delineation. In particular, although biopsy studies have demonstrated changes in muscle mor- phology in vitamin D deficient disease states, detailed analyses of the relationship between vitamin D status and gene expression of muscle atrophy markers are lacking [1]. There is also debate as to the optimal circulating levels of vitamin D, with further data on the impacts on human health and function required [5]. Furthermore in clinical practice, vitamin D status is defined by measurement of a single metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). Recently developed high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques allow the quantification of multiple vitamin D metabolites, and to date this approach has not been used to assess their relationship with markers of muscle mass and func- tion [7]. With these observations in mind, the aim of the current study was to perform an in- depth analysis of the relationship between serum vitamin D metabolites and muscle phenotype in a healthy human cohort.
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The impact of vitamin D deficiency on immune T cells in asthmatic children: a case-control study

The impact of vitamin D deficiency on immune T cells in asthmatic children: a case-control study

The fact that Th1/Th2 ratio and Th17 were correlated to serum vitamin D raises a question about the origin of vitamin D deficiency in asthma. More studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates cellular immunity. Similarly, the genetic factors influencing 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 produc- tion and vitamin D receptor expression should be explored. The microbial pattern-recognition receptor known as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was described as a biomarker of vitamin D-induced IL-10 + Tregs. Ligation of TLR9 with its agonist
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Vitamin D Deficiency among Patients with Tuberculosis: a Cross-Sectional Study in Iranian-Azari Population

Vitamin D Deficiency among Patients with Tuberculosis: a Cross-Sectional Study in Iranian-Azari Population

The results of the present study showed that the mean serum vitamin D levels in patients with TB before treatment was significantly lower than that of the controls. Also, vitamin D levels in patients reduced after treatment, but this reduction was not significant. In the other word, TB treatment did not improve the vitamin D levels. In a cohort study with a similar method of vitamin D measurement (ECLIA), the mean baseline vitamin D levels of the patients were 13.7±6.3 ng/mL and 25.7±12.7 ng/mL in the controls (33). This study showed that TB is associated with a reduced vitamin D levels. However, there are different findings on the level of vitamin D after treatment. In the present study, the findings on reduced levels of vitamin D after treatment are in line with a previous study in the Korean population (23), but in contrast with the results of Hong et al. (34) study in that population. These contrary findings among different studies might be due to the difference in dietary habits, that is, marine fish consumption (27), comorbidities in the study population (35), exposure to sunlight (36), effect of seasons (36), ethnic (37), skin color, difference in laboratory assay methods and difference in vitamin D deficiency range.
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<p>Vitamin D receptor rs7975232, rs731236 and rs1544410 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effect of vitamin D co-therapy</p>

<p>Vitamin D receptor rs7975232, rs731236 and rs1544410 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effect of vitamin D co-therapy</p>

Luo et al, 57 in a meta-analysis study, concluded the presence of strong association between vitamin D de fi ciency and increased risk of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, vitamin D plays an essential promoter for secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) which inturn reg- ulates the sensitivity and phenotype of nociceptor fi beres, and its defective secretion results in clinical diabetic small nerve fi ber neuropathy. 58 Ozuguz et al 59 reported signi fi - cant positive correlation between serum NGF and vitamin D in T1DM patients with neuropathy, which con fi rms the mechanism of neuropathy in diabetic patients with vitamin D de fi ciency. In line with our results, Shillo et al 60 sug- gested a possible role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy as evidenced in their study by report- ing signi fi cant lower serum vitamin D levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.
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Vitamin D deficiency in patients with cluster headache: a preliminary study

Vitamin D deficiency in patients with cluster headache: a preliminary study

Various factors influence serum vitamin D levels, mak- ing, it is difficult to speculate on the role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of cluster headache. Our study could not control for all of the environmental and demographic factors that significantly affect the serum vitamin D levels There was no information on the exposure of the subjects to sunlight, their sun protection habits or the extent of vitamin D supplementation through food, though we did collect information on smoking status, BMI, sampling time, and sampling season, all of which are known to in- fluence vitamin D concentration. We also analyzed the in- fluence of these variables on serum vitamin D levels. There were no significant differences in smoking status and BMI among the three groups. Additionally, current smoking was not a significant determinant of serum vita- min D levels in this study population using multivariate regression analysis. Second, our study had a relatively small sample size due to the rarity of cluster headache. This study suggests that the influence of vitamin D may warrant analysis in a larger cohort of CH patients with seasonal propensity for winter to spring. This study also included mostly men, due to a sex-matched research de- sign, so these findings may not be truly representative of migraine and normal controls, or generalizable to other groups. Third, the outcome variables collected, such as the seasonal propensity, were assessed on self-report by recall and the classification of the sunny season was arbi- trary. While we did not obtain fasting serum samples, there were no significant differences in sampling times among the three groups based on the time the blood sam- ples were collected.
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7.	Reena Jain, K. L. Mali, Pankaj Jain and Ketan Mangukiya

7. Reena Jain, K. L. Mali, Pankaj Jain and Ketan Mangukiya

Evidences are becoming increasingly available in adults suggesting Vitamin D deficiency in adulthood might be associated with chronic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Calcium is important for insulin secretion and Vitamin D has a role in calcium metabolism (Cangoz et al., 2013). This explains the indirect role of Vitamin D in insulin secretion. Certain experimental studies have depicted that Vitamin D is responsible for glucose induced insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity, and exerts anti- inflammatory effect (Talaei et al., 2013). Previous studies have already established an inverse association among Vitamin D status, impaired glucose level and T2DM (Mata-Granados et al., 2008). Low Vitamin D levels are a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM (Wilmot et al., 2013). However, there are limited studies, which have been performed in the region of Puducherry (Southern India), which reflects the Vitamin D status and insulin resistance observed in T2DM. Hence, in the present study, we evaluated the Vitamin D levels in T2DM subjects and normal healthy controls and examined the association of serum Vitamin D, calcium and magnesium levels.
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Vitamin D deficiency and its impact on asthma severity in asthmatic children

Vitamin D deficiency and its impact on asthma severity in asthmatic children

49.1%, and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 18.9 and 18.9%, while normal vitamin D level was re- vealed in 7.5 and 32.1%, respectively with a significant difference (p = 0.005). As summarized in Figs. 1 and 2, despite the presence of asthma was strongly associated with reduced level of vitamin D in serum, but neither se- verity of asthma nor lack of controlling disease was asso- ciated with vitamin D deficiency. In this regard, mean serum level of vitamin D in the patients with mild asthma was 12.85 ± 7.06 ng/ml, in the group with mod- erate asthma was 16.98 ± 8.63 ng/ml, in the patients with severe asthma was 12.42 ± 7.52 ng/ml, and in those with persistent asthma was 12.01 ± 5.00 ng/ml (p = 0.260). Furthermore, the mean serum level of vitamin D in chil- dren with controlled asthma was 15.11 ± 8.22 ng/ml, in the group with partially controlled asthma was 15.56 ± 7.88 ng/ml, and in those with uncontrolled asthma was 13.55 ± 8.42 ng/ml with no difference (p = 0.711). Among children younger than 5 years, no difference was found in low-risk and high-risk subgroups for disease attacks in mean level of vitamin D (14.40 ± 10.54 ng/ml versus 14.53 ± 7.72 ng/ml, p = 0.976), while in older group, the level of serum vitamin D was significantly lower in the high-risk group than in low-risk group (9.21 ± 3.08 ng/ ml versus 17.05 ± 8.99 ng/ml, p = 0.038). There was no difference in mean level of vitamin D in male and fe- male asthmatic patients (15.54 ± 8.79 ng/ml versus 13.20 ± 7.07 ng/ml, p = 0.303), whereas an adverse cor- relation was found between patients ’ age and level of vitamin D (r = −0.300, p = 0.029) (Fig. 3). No associ- ation was revealed between duration of disease and level of vitamin D ( r = − 0.155, p = 0.267). Also, level of vitamin D was not associated with the frequency of hospitalization (r = −0.125, p = 0.274). As shown in
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Vitamin D and VDR gene polymorphism (FokI) in epithelial ovarian cancer in Indian population

Vitamin D and VDR gene polymorphism (FokI) in epithelial ovarian cancer in Indian population

The increased risk of ovarian cancer in combined vita- min D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphism is expected to be due to modulation of same target mol- ecules. But we observed that low serum vitamin D levels along with homozygous TT allele didn’t lead to synergis- tic increase in the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (syn- ergy factor:2; p value < 0.4). There are other novel ligands of vitamin D receptor and co-modulators influ- encing vitamin D signaling mechanism [29-31]. The non-synergistic effect indicates that these novel ligands of vitamin D receptor and co-modulators might also play a role in determining the risk of ovarian cancer which is worth exploring.
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Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358(9292):1500-3.Patel S, Farragher T, Berry J, Bunn D, Silman A, Symmons D. Association between serum vitamin D metabolite levels and disease activity in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(7):2143-9. 25. Napoli N, Carmina E, Bucchieri S, Sferrazza C, Rini GB, Di Fede G. Low serum levels of 25- hydroxy vitamin D in adults affected by thalassemia major or intermedia. Bone. 2006;38(6):888-92. 26. Jorde R, Grimnes G. Vitamin D and metabolic health with special reference to the effect of vitamin D on serum lipids. Prog Lipid Res. 2011;50(4):303-12.
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Evaluation of vitamin D status in suspected cases of metabolic syndrome

Evaluation of vitamin D status in suspected cases of metabolic syndrome

Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has been linked to glucose metabolism and insulin regulation. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the association between the serum level of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. This may help generate additive strategies in the prevention and management of this syndrome. The objective of the study was to compare the levels of serum vitamin D in subjects with metabolic syndrome and subjects without metabolic syndrome.
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