Shadow Education or Private Tutoring

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Shadow Education in China: What is the relationship between private tutoring and students’ National College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) Performance?

Shadow Education in China: What is the relationship between private tutoring and students’ National College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) Performance?

The connection between education and job opportunity has been indicated as one of the major reasons for an intense demand for more education (Bray, 1999). In East Asian countries, the traditional culture highly values education. It has led to the demand for more private tutoring when mainstream education fails to meet students’ need (Bray, 1999; Stevenson & Baker, 1992). The Gaokao in China serves not only as the primary path to higher education resources, but also as a vehicle to increase social mobility and equity (Zheng, 2008). Although debates on the Gaokao have continued ever since the 1980s, Gaokao is still the current approach to screen and promote students in China. Most of students must participate in the highly competitive Gaokao for a bright future. In this context, the demand for more education has never ceased in China. Private tutoring (shadow education) plays a very important role in providing additional education resources to students. Some scholars have noticed this phenomenon and investigated the
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Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good : Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good : Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

of formal education, and a similarly short history of private supple- mentary tutoring. The Bhutanese authorities are able to restrain and shape the phenomenon in a way that is not possible in Sri Lanka and the Republic of Korea, for example, where shadow education has become entrenched in society and has become a social norm (Seth 2002; Lee et al. 2010; Pallegedara 2012). In Hong Kong, the public accepts that teachers would encounter a conflict of interest if they provided private supplementary tutoring to students for whom they are already responsi- ble in regular schools. Moreover, since teachers are well paid and the profession would frown on them undertaking additional remunerated employment, it is uncommon for teachers to provide private supple- mentary tutoring even to students from other schools. In most parts of Mainland China teachers are explicitly forbidden to provide tutoring to their own students, but the rules are not always enforced and teachers sometimes find themselves under pressure from parents who want extra tutoring (Zhang 2013a).
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The effect of school base assessment (SBA) on private tutoring: A pilot study

The effect of school base assessment (SBA) on private tutoring: A pilot study

China, Korea and Japan, but the numbers are increasing by year. In the Republic of Korea, nearly 90% of elementary students receive some sort of shadow education. In Hong Kong, China, about 85% of senior secondary students do so. 60% of primary students in West Bengal, India, and 60% of secondary students in Kazakhstan receive private tutoring ( Asian Development Bank, Fast Facts on “Shadow education ,2012 ) . Parents are spending a big portion of their household disposable income on private tutoring. According to Bray, 2012, the trend is increasing in Asian countries. Examples in Japan, the number doubled from 12.0 percent in 1976 to 23.6 in 1993 (Japan Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, 1995) In Singapore the percentage increases from 26.0 to 49.0 percent within 1982 to 1992 (George, 1992, cited by, Bray, M. 2012). There are a few factors which could contribute to the increasing trend in Asians. Shift towards a new market in China and Vietnam government permitted and encourage the private tutoring services (Bray, M. 2012) are some of the factors contributed to the growth of private tutoring in Asians.
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Learning English in the Shadows: Understanding Chinese Learners' Experiences of Private Tutoring

Learning English in the Shadows: Understanding Chinese Learners' Experiences of Private Tutoring

its “far-reaching implications for the nurturing of new generations, for economic and social development, and for the operation of school systems” (Bray & Kwo, 2014, p. viii; also Bray, 2009). Defined as fee-paying teaching of academic subjects outside school hours, private tutoring is a form of “shadow education,” whose content mimics and is parallel to mainstream education (Bray, 2009, p. 11). Driven by the hope that investments in private tutoring may help children achieve educational successes and social mobility, enthusiastic parents have made private tutoring a major industry across the globe (Buchmann, Condron, & Roscigno, 2010; Bray & Kwo, 2014; Bray & Lykins, 2012; Bray, Mazawi, & Sultana, 2013; Dawson, 2010; Forsey, 2013). In many contexts, English language is one of the major subjects offered by tutorial institutes and an increasing number of learners participate in English private tutoring (EPT) as one of the most important out-of-class learning activities, with the intention to improve their English results in mainstream education and high-stakes examinations. However, little is known about these learners’ experiences and reflections. Since EPT significantly impacts student experiences, attitudes and motivations in English learning (Hamid, Sussex, & Khan, 2009), it has become necessary for TESOL researchers and practitioners to have a better understanding of language learners’ participation in EPT. Without considering these experiences, teachers, researchers and policymakers “would only see a partial picture of [students’] real English-learning experiences and proficiency” (Lee, 2010, p. 70) and miss “alternative perspectives on the meaning of, and social and cognitive processes involved in, language learning and teaching” (Benson & Reinders, 2011, p. 1).
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A MICRO VIEWING TO SHADOW EDUCATION MARKET IN TURKEY: FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ PREFERENCE OF PRIVATE PREPARATION COURSES

A MICRO VIEWING TO SHADOW EDUCATION MARKET IN TURKEY: FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ PREFERENCE OF PRIVATE PREPARATION COURSES

Licensed under Creative Common Page 224 feature of educational systems of the countries where the practice of private tutoring is extensive is the existence of competitive entrance examinations to the universities (Tansel ve Bircan, 2006: 303). For example, in South Korea, Greece, Japan and Turkey, high school graduates are required to take nation-wide university entrance examinations. The period since the turn of the century has seen considerable expansion of what is widely called the shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring (Bray and Lykins, 2012:1). The literature on shadow education has historically been most visible in East Asia (Zeng, 1999; Bray 2009; Dawson, 2010). The terminology used to identify diversity in different education systems and countries. In Japan tutoring centers known as juku, in South Korea for as hagwons, in Taiwan for as buxiban and in the United Kingdom for as crammers (Harnisch, 1994; Zeng, 1999; Seth, 2002; Roesgaard, 2006; Bray, 2007; Liu, 2012). In Turkey, private tutoring centers called as dersane. These terms are sometimes translated as cram schools, though that description only addresses one dimension of the works of the institutions and tends to focus on the senior secondary level (Bray, 2013:19).
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Private tutoring and social equity in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina: a comparative qualitative study

Private tutoring and social equity in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina: a comparative qualitative study

These elements of vocabulary are stressed at the outset not only to allow readers to interpret and compare the individual chapters but also to highlight a number of complexities and ambiguities – linguistic, yet also historical, cultural and institutional. Although this book is written in English, only in Malta is English an official language – and even in that country, English shares space with Maltese as the other official language. Thus the book relies on translations of words which may have nuances in their original languages that are lost when translated into English. Equally, the same word may have different meanings when used in different locations. Thus, while ‘coaching’ in France has been used for analogy in the educational sphere to its usage in sports and particularly on a one-to-one basis, in India ‘coaching’ tends to refer to larger groups and parallel academic courses (see e.g. Sujatha & Rani, 2011). Again, shadow education implies mimicry, but the edges of shadows are commonly blurred and may have overlaps with educational practices which supplement rather than just repeat the content of regular classes. Further comments will be made on these matters in the final chapter, which highlights some of the practical and conceptual lessons that may be drawn from the set of country studies.
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Shadow education: Effects on students’ self-efficacy in science

Shadow education: Effects on students’ self-efficacy in science

Some benefits of shadow education include the reduction of the workload of the main stream teachers particularly in instruction. Students get to better understand concepts taught in the classroom with the help of tutors. Follow up and practice exercises are being provided so that when the student gets into the classroom, he or she is ready for the academic tasks for the day. However in certain countries, private tutoring poses a threat to government systems and can be problematic (Bray, 2009). The mainstream teachers may utilize the situation to force tutoring classes to their students and cite reasons such as not covering the topic, or worst, they purposely slow down the pacing of the lesson to make sure that tutoring classes will be done. In doing so, mainstream teachers get extra income. Such practice can be considered as a form of corruption. Thus, shadow education system should be monitored and regulated.
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A group of primary 4 students' perceptions of shadow education in their English language learning

A group of primary 4 students' perceptions of shadow education in their English language learning

According to Mori & Baker (2010), shadow education has been used to describe private tuition, which supplements mainstream education. In Hong Kong, students attending private tutorial lessons is a common phenomenon. Based on a survey carried out by the Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department (2009), about one-third of primary students have received private tutoring. It is evident that a high proportion of primary school pupils receive private tuition in Hong Kong. Meanwhile, shadow education has become very commercialized with lots of private companies advertising how joining their tutorial classes can boost students’ academic results. Many parents believe that private tutoring services can enhance their children’s English ability, and guarantee their children a better career in the future because of the good command of English (Ho, 2010 ). Yet, students, who are the end-users of private tuition, may hold different views on shadow education from their parents. To better
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Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

Besides the urban-rural stratum, there are also ethnic differences in countries and education systems that are multi-ethnic. For instance in Malaysia, it was found that households of Malaysians who are of Chinese and Indian descent are more likely to send their children to private tuition as compared to ethnic Malays who are the majority ethnic group in Malaysia (Jelani and Tan, 2012). Similarly, white students in England are less likely to participate in tutoring as compared to other minority ethnic groups where Indian students have the highest participation, followed by Chinese, African, Pakistani and Caribbean (Ireson and Rushforth, 2005). In contrast, Dang (2007) explained that spending on private tutoring reduced by as much as 32% when a primary school student is from an ethnic minority group in Vietnam, although there is no significant difference at the lower secondary level. On a similar note, the Tamils, which is the ethnic minority in Sri Lanka are less likely to spend money on private tuition classes as compared with the Sinhalese majority (Pallegedara, 2011). In general, ethnicity does have an impact on a student’s participation in shadow education especially in explaining intra-system differences within a multi-ethnic context.
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The causes of shadow education in English language for secondary school students

The causes of shadow education in English language for secondary school students

On a day near the Chinese Lunar New Year, I participated in a family gathering at a Chinese restaurant. When everyone arrived, my relatives and I mutually updated our lives with one another. Having heard that I am serving as a private English tutor with considerable monthly income, my cousin, who had never received any mass tutoring before, asked whether I wanted to become a full-time tutor after my graduation. I replied it depended on the situation the following months. A minute later, one of my uncle who is a businessman and whose son studied at an international school, wondered how some star tutors could earn over million(s) of dollars per year and attracted a multitude of secondary school students to enroll their courses. The cousin owed this to the fascination of mass tutoring: the tutorial classes are like talk shows and star tutors ‘act’ as if popular actors/actresses in their lessons.
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Private tutoring participation among form three students in Malaysian rural and urban schools / Magaswari Ubbudari

Private tutoring participation among form three students in Malaysian rural and urban schools / Magaswari Ubbudari

In Malaysia, the private tutoring industry is controlled by the education department under the 2006 regulations. All the private tutoring centers must be registered with the private education department. It does not include private tutoring provided by an individual or one- to-one private tutoring. This has implication for the value and quality of the private tutoring services and government. There is no regulation that controls the individual tutors. They also could avoid paying taxes on the income received from the tutoring services. Silova (2010), identify four reasons why private tutors operate in the shadow economy and avoid registering themselves legally. Firstly, the bureaucratic procedure to legalize their services, burden the tutors. Most of the individual tutoring centers are reluctant to register as they deem the procedures to be tedious and lengthy. Lack of enforcement, the absence of implementation mechanism and insufficient taxation incentive, are other factors contributing to the legalization of private tutoring. The government should set up a special bureau that could improve the implementation of regulations, supervision, and control of private tutoring. The government should monitor private tutoring to ensure it becomes a supplement rather than the competition to the school system.
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Abdullah: An Intelligent Arabic Conversational Tutoring System for Modern Islamic Education

Abdullah: An Intelligent Arabic Conversational Tutoring System for Modern Islamic Education

Figure 1, illustrates one of the features of the new Arabic CA Scripting Language. The CA has the ability to retrieve dynamic information by calling (RunSQL) when the user type an utterance like “How many times the word Muhammad repeated in Quran” this will match with the pattern in rule #1. The CA will then extract the word (Muhammed) from the user utterance and then use the word in (RunSQL) to get the response from the Quran table in IDB. And if the RunSQL statement returns a null value this mean word is not in the Quran and the CA will display the default response which is (the word ‘User Word’ is not in the Quran). The IDB is the most important part in Abdullah CITS brain, as it is the source of the tutoring material during the session. The Islamic Database has been derived from two main sources that are being the Quran and Hadith (the statements of prophet Muhammed) [15]. The Quran is originally written in classical Arabic language, and is organized into 114 chapters (surah) of various lengths with specific number of verses (ayat) in each chapter. While the Hadith is organized according to Sahih Al-Bukhari [16]. Al- Bukhari groups Hadiths to a number of chapters each one covers the almost aspects of Muslim life (so there is for example a chapter about prayers, charity, and so on) [17] [18].The Arabic Grammar Database is an essential part for Abdullah CITS as it contain the classification of the Arabic sentences (Questions and Statements sentences), and information related to the specific language grammar such as whether the given sentence is a question or an exclamatory sentence. The tutorial knowledge base is the second partition of Abdullah CITS knowledge base and it’s responsible for managing subject information between learners.
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English language teachers’ conceptualizations of one-to-one private tutoring: An international phenomenographic study

English language teachers’ conceptualizations of one-to-one private tutoring: An international phenomenographic study

In popular understanding, the primary aim of private tutoring from a tu- tor’s point of view is earning extra money. Results from this study are in line with such thinking, as the category of EPT as a source of income has received the most recognition. A majority of tutors in this group prepared private learners for language examinations, both school-related and com- mercial. It can be said that all the participants have acquired one skill – fol- lowing a set of ready-made materials related to an examination in question and / or successful teaching of examination techniques. This makes them popular on the tutoring market and may contribute to their sense of self- confidence about their expertise. The last point merits special attention, as it may not matter much whether or not they are truly expert teachers. What may carry weight is what others (learners and their parents) say about them, and what effects their discourse has on the tutors’ teaching practices. It is interesting that tutors are not asked about formal teaching qualifications by their customers. Since they are popular with learners and parents who are willing to pay fees for tuition, the participants may believe they are good tutors who explain what they are doing and why they are doing certain ac- tivities during lessons, which corroborates McArthur et al.’s (1990) study. In other words, quantity of work may be thought equal to the quality of work, which, in turn, influences their self-esteem and the construction of their tutor-as-active-entrepreneur identities.
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The Effect of Private Tutoring Expenditures on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Nonparametric Bounding Method

The Effect of Private Tutoring Expenditures on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Nonparametric Bounding Method

Although vocational high school graduates are eligible for CSAT, the majority of the CAST writers are general high school graduates; they are also the majority of students taking private tutoring. Therefore, we restrict our analysis to the general high-school sample of 2,000 students. From this sample, we exclude those students whose guardian is not one of the parents, because patterns of private educational investment and academic performance among these students may be far from typical due to the absence of both parents. In addition, we exclude students if they either attend a special high school for music, fine arts and athletics, take private tutoring to major in these subjects in universities, or both. Tutoring costs among them are generally much greater than costs of a normal tutoring of academic subjects. And these students are likely to be poor performers in such a general subject test as CSAT. At last, students are excluded if the information of key variables used in the analysis is missing. The preceding three restrictions leave a total of 1,467 students for further analysis. Descriptive statistics of the main sample and their differences between first-born and later-born students are documented in Table 1.
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Hunt the shadow not the substance : the rise of the career academic in construction education

Hunt the shadow not the substance : the rise of the career academic in construction education

3 relatively recent times (Snell, 1996). This system of neophytes learning through a rigorous, experiential process of apprenticeship and journeyman has enabled continuity of construction skills and behaviours that are practically important but also culturally significant. Over the past fifty years, the transformative nature of the university sector in the UK has provided a catalyst for ever-increasing interest in construction science and built environment studies. Whilst the educational backdrop, direction and experiential learning of the time-honoured „master-builder‟ have unquestionably evolved, the custom of HE academics drawing upon the venerated vocational rationale of construction education has endured.
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The Influence of Shadow Education on Cognitive Ability and Non Cognitive Ability

The Influence of Shadow Education on Cognitive Ability and Non Cognitive Ability

The core explanatory variables of this study are family factors and participa- tion in shadow education. Family factors include family socioeconomic status and family membership. In this study, the principal component factor analysis of the parents’ highest education (No education = 1, primary school = 2, junior high school = 3, technical secondary school/technical school = 4, vocational high school = 5, high school = 6, college degree = 7, university undergraduate = 8, graduate student and above = 9), the highest occupational status of parents, and the current family economic conditions were used to obtain quantitative indica- tors of family socioeconomic status. Family membership is measured by “How is your relationship with your mother? Not close = 1, generally = 2, very close = 3”, “How is your relationship with Dad? Not close to = 1, generally = 2, very close = 3 “, “My parents have a good relationship? Not like this = 1, this is = 2”. Wheth- er to participate in shadow education consists of whether to participate in cul- tural class counseling (including Olympics, general mathematics, Chinese, Eng- lish) and whether to participate in interest class counseling (including painting, calligraphy, musical instruments, dance, chess, sports), both of which are dummy
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Shadow education in Beijing: Determinants and disparities from the perspectives of the students

Shadow education in Beijing: Determinants and disparities from the perspectives of the students

Using 696 questionnaires from grade 12 students from four senior secondary schools in Beijing, this study investigates the types, cost, determinants and disparities caused by shadow education from the perspectives of the students. The paper investigates disparity through the parameters of ‘actual disparity’. Unlike disparity which focuses on numbers, actual disparity focuses on the reasons behind such decision and how a person feels about it. The results show that 53% of the students opted for shadow education during the last one year. Parents’ education and income appear to have a positive influence on their children’s tendencies to receive shadow education. The biggest reason for receiving it was to practice exam questions (enrichment as a group). Amongst those who did not receive it, only 21% stayed away due to unfavorable circumstances. A vast majority stayed away due to their own choice. These findings tentatively suggest that the notion that shadow education causes disparities amongst the students is exaggerated as most of them abstain by their own choice. It suggests a need to look at this issue more deeply, focusing more on the reasons and the feelings than mere numbers.
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Development of An Arabic Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System for Education of Children with ASD

Development of An Arabic Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System for Education of Children with ASD

Abstract—This paper presents a novel Arabic Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System (CITS) that adapts the learning styles VAK for autistic children to enhance their learning. The proposed CITS architecture uses a combination of Arabic Pattern Matching and Arabic Short Text Similarity to extract the responses from the resources. The new Arabic CITS, known as LANA, is aimed at children with autism (10 to 16 years old) who have reached a basic competency with the mechanics of Arabic writing. This paper describes the architecture of LANA and its components. The experimental methodology is explained in order to conduct a pilot study in future.
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Educational Innovation And Personalized Tutoring In Higher Education:  A Personal And Professional Guidance

Educational Innovation And Personalized Tutoring In Higher Education: A Personal And Professional Guidance

The design of TAP involves four areas. These areas, in order to draw and get a complete picture of the student’s training and development process, are interested in doing an effort for easily recognize the potential weaknesses and strengths. Also, designers of this TAP are interested by providing appropriate responses to real needs and demands of students. The first area responds to the teaching-learning tutoring, of a pure teaching or academic nature (Del Rincón, 2000; García et al., 2004; Hernández & Torres, 2005). The goal is to support and evaluate the teaching-learning-research by pondering strategies and ways of studying for each subject and/or knowledge area (Del Rincon, 2000). In this area of the TAP, academic problems of students are analyzed; the teaching content which is offered in the different subjects is completed, extended and enriched; and the study technique, career development, bibliography, sources of information and other various interesting resources are also documented and communicated (Garcia et al., 2004). The second area refers to the personalized/customized tutoring, which is focused on addressing other aspects and needs of students trying to cover areas of his intellectual, social, academic and personal activities (Garcia et al., 2004) transcending the exclusively academic one. The third area of intervention focuses on peer tutoring (Del Rincon, 2000; Garcia et al., 2004). Here, group tutorials between students in are planned to allow students perform such supervisory and mentoring/advising duties between equals. Thus, experiences, questions, concerns, and strategies of senior students can be usefully shared and offered to newbie’s when they face up with same circumstances and challenges. The last area of the proposed TAP is tutoring practicum and internship activities in order to help job seeking and/or college-labor market transition process (Del Rincón, 2000; Hernández & Torres, 2005). It is hast do to with support and advice which is provided to students when they are in a life-situation of developing professional practices in companies or close to be incorporated and participate in the labor market, especially when they are job searching in an active manner. In this final stage of the TAP the idea is to provide the students with information and training that serves for guarantee the best process of post-academic decision making.
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Tutoring on-line

Tutoring on-line

Online tutors may use many applications of web 2.0 to enhance their online tutoring in more flexible and up to date ways :e.g. podcasts with the advantage of the human voice, ease of use and mobility (Salmon and Edisiringha 2008), or blogs providing ‘hot knowledge’ – often excellent for debate (xxx).

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