Many fungi are parasite on plants and animals (includ- ing humans) causing serious diseases in human such as candidose among others. Furthermore, persons with immune-deficiencies are particularly susceptible to dis- eases by candida . Supported especially a reduction in the immune system due to a lack of antioxidants, this study was therefore designed to evaluate the possible beneficial antioxidant, anticandicidal and immunostimu- latory potencies of the total alkaloid fractions from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae). Our results would strengthen the traditional use of this Malvaceae and contribute to the acceptance of traditional medicine for the best man- agement of candidoses of which the women suffer much nowadays.
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Sida cordifolia L (Malvaceae) is important medicinal plant of Ayurvedic system of medicine and used as home remedy as cardioprotective agent without any scientific background. In this investigation an attempt was made to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L (HESC) on serum lipid profile, which is closely associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Albino rats were administered HESC (100 mg/kg and HESC 500 mg/kg) once daily orally for 30 days. Accordingly, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were among the parameters investigated. We also evaluated the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a measure of hepatic cell damages. It was found in our study that the administration of both doses of HESC to animals fed with high fat diet (HFD) lowered their serum TC, TG and LDL-C significantly, while raised the serum HDL-C. Treatment with HESC reduced serum ALT and AST levels compared to HFD groups. Further, it was also observed that the high dose of HESC significantly decreases serum TC, TG and LDL-C and increases HDL-C in animals fed with normal fat diet (NFD). Based on these data, it is concluded that the chronic administration of HESC in high dose up to 500 mg/kg has definite cardioprotective potential and these results constitute a valid scientific basis for consuming Sida cordifolia L for medicinal application.
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The Sida species belonging to Malvaceae, is one of the most important Genera of medicinal plants in India. Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) is an herbaceous plant that grows to a height of 3–5 ft and is used as a common herbal drug in the Indian subcontinent. The roots, leaves, stem, and seeds of S. cordifolia are used in Ayurveda against chronic dysentery, asthma, and gonorrhoea and it is popularly known as Bala S. cordifolia showed anti- inflammatory, anti-cancer, antibacterial activities and its aqueous extract has been investigated for liver regeneration activity. 8,9 S.
This excludes the possibility of anaemia or disturbance linked to erythrocytes. However, a significant decrease was observed between the control group (10% DMSO) and the treated groups for monocytes, basophils, haemo- globin, haematocrit and MCV (p <0.05 or p <0.01). This is an indication of the relative low toxicity of the aque- ous acetone extracts on the haemopoetic system. The extracts of S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. contain flavonoids  which have been shown to increase vascu- lar integrity and also to act as antihaemorrhagic . No obvious dose response was observed; however, changes observed between blood parameters do not suggest that the aqueous acetone extracts of S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L., produced toxicity in the treatment period. These differences may be explained by biological vari- ation which is specific to each rat. .
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S. cordifolia L. (family Malvaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Rasayana group that contains various chemical constituents such as gelatine, asparagine, mucin, ephedrine, vasicine, hypaphorine, vasicinone, potassium nitrate, vasicinol, and phytosterols . This plant is already reported to have significant in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant property , anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering activities . Besides, it is reported to be useful in the various nervous disorders such as unilateral paralysis, facial palsy , and Parkinson’s disease [13-16] as mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature. These related activities reported for this plant suggests the evaluation of this plant for this debilitating condition of dementia. Thus, the objective of current study was to assess the mitigating effect of S. cordifolia L. against Sco-induced amnesia model using mice.
In conclusion, the crude methanolic extracts of Rosa indica L., and Sida cordifolia L. have exhibited a potent protein anti-glycation activity in in-vitro BSA-MG anti- glycation model. On the basis of these findings, one of the possible mechanisms of their reported antidiabetic activities is the inhibition of glycation and antioxidant properties. The anti-glycation activity of these medicinal plants are in good agreement with their uses in antidia- betic herbal medicines. Therefore, these plants needs to be further investigated phytochemically as well as pharmacologically to identify the active constituents and to establish their therapeutic potential against glycation induced pathologies in diabetes.
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The application of plants as medicines date back to prehistoric period. Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognized systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy. Sida cordifolia L. is a perennial shrub belonging to family Malvaceae widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical plains all over India. It has wide variety of therapeutic and pharmacological uses like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti- stress, anti-diabetic along with anticancer activity. Apart from these it also has many uses like emollient action, demulcent, bronchodilator, vaso-relaxant properties etc. Due to all of these properties this plant is one of the cornerstones in ethnopharmacology and ethanobotanical sciences. Pharmacological screening of botanicals is necessary for viewing new chemical entities which is designed to search for novel drug actions at an early stage of drug development and this review highlights about all the pharmacological activities of Sida cordifolia L.
The fresh whole plant was first washed with water, dried in shade, finely powdered, and then passed through sieve (400 µm). The whole powdered material was defatted with petroleum ether at 50°C using Soxhlet apparatus till no oily spot remains on filter paper. Then, the defatted plant material was subjected to extraction with 70% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. This 70% ethanol extract of S. cordifolia (EESC) was lyophilized and stored at 4°C for the preliminary pharmacological screening.
Although studies showed that the toxicity of the secondary metabolites , however it should be noted that no test of toxicity was carried out on the extracts of Sida alba. Despite the extensive use of this plant in traditional health care, the literature provides little information regarding their toxicity so that the toxicities effects of the plant very used are unknown. So, the present study was carried out to investigate the toxicological study and evaluation of pharmacology properties of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba.
concentration gave highest 5.4±0.5 cm shoots length significantly different from shoot length obtained from callus receiving either lower or higher hormone concentration. Moreover, the same hormone concentration produced higher frequency of shoots (1.9 per culture), but it was not statistically significant. Our findings are supported by the studies of Sanghamitra et al (1998) and Arias et al (2010), who have reported that the inclusion of BAP and AdS in the culture medium increases the shooting capacity of the explants. Ghatge et al (2011) and Radha et al (2011) have shown the most satisfactory effect on promoting the proliferation of multiple shoots through direct organogenesis in R. cordifolia. Where, maximum shoot induction 45 and 88% with an average shoot length of 3.25 and 3.7 cm on MS medium containing 3 mg L -1
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The edema inhibitory effect of extracts was highest in the delayed phase (at 3 hours) of carrageenan induced acute inflammation which opines that Sida rhombifolia L. root extract involve mainly in the cyclooxygenase pathway mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Eventhough, lipoxygenase pathway take part in the inflammatory course of action, the inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathway is more efficient in inhibiting carrageenan induced acute inflammation than lipoxygenase inhibitors 28 . Previous Studies on aerial parts, flower buds, leaves and stems of Sida rhombifolia L. confirmed the anti-inflammatory activities of its fractions 11 and 13 .
Methods: Albino rats of either sex were divided into nine groups and treated for 7 days. Group I and II served as normal and toxic control, Group III were treated with Silymarin (100 mg/kg), and Group IV to IX were treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg hydro-alcoholic (70%v/v) extract of S. dulcamara (HASD) and hydro-alcoholic (70%v/v) extract of N. cordifolia (HANC) respectively. The biochemical markers like serum glutamic- pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin (total and direct), total protein, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). The in vivo antioxidant activity was determined by estimating the tissue levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Histopathology of liver was also carried out.
and amount to 0.75% for nitrogen and to 0.29% for sul- phur. Such divergences also appear in the investigations regarding the Miscanthus × giganteus biomass conducted by Jegurim et al. (2010), wherein nitrogen was 1.1%, and sulphur was 0.2%, while Bilandžija et al. (2016) found the nitrogen content to range from 0.20 to 0.54%, and sulphur to be between 0.07 and 0.08%, depending on the harvest time. Our investigation, which found a nitrogen content of 0.27% and a sulphur content of 0.18%, corroborates with the conclusions drawn by Bilandžija et al. (2016). Howaniec and Smolinski (2011) determined the nitrogen and sulphur contents in the biomass of Sida hermaphrodita to be at rather low levels, i.e. nitrogen at 0.01% and sulphur at 0.04%, while Šiaudinis et al. (2015) determined nitro- gen to be at 0.75%, and sulphur at 0.17%, respectively. Our investigations fall within the scope of these literature refe- rences, with nitrogen reaching 0.65%, and sulphur 0.23%.
Tinospora cordifolia also called guduchi, the whole plant posses diverse health benefits and used since ancient times in the traditional system of medicine. The recent scientific researches has explored the antipyretic, anti- inflammatory antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti allergic, anti-rheumatic, anti leprotic, anti stress, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti cancerous activities of Tinospora cordifolia. It has the therapeutic potential to detoxify and cleanse the whole body system by having direct action through liver. Guduchi is commonly used as anti-microbial, anti fungal, analgesic and also used for the treatment of jaundice, skin diseases and anemia. It is quite effective in gastro intestinal disorders like dyspepsia and gastritis. The traditional medicinal system of Thailand utilized Tinospora cordifolia for the management of diarrhea, which has been reported to inhibit the in vitro growth of intestinal protozoan parasite Blastocystis hominis. Shade-dried- leaves are ground into powder and mixed with hot water and the mixture is taken orally in the treatment of diabetes by the people living in sacred-groves in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. The leaf and root parts are used by many village-folks for its aphrodisiac action.
The result of the present study is in comparison with Ram S M,  who reported that Tinospora cordifolia have anti bacterial and antifungal properties. It also share common properties of amalaki, which is fortified with Vitamin C which is a natural, abundantly available powerful antioxidant, anti inflammatory and free radical scavenger.  Stanley P and Venugopal P  reported the anti inflammatory and heaptoprotective properties for Tinospora cordifolia. It acts on liver, the chief site of metabolism of food and drugs, normalizing the elevated transaminases and repletes the glutathione sodium dismutases responsible for scavenging of free radical. The leaf extract has memory enhancing and tranquilising properties which treat the depression often associated with HIV patients.  These all could be the added benefits of Tinospora cordifolia when used among AIDS patients. However long term clinical trials should be conducted in this field to prove its effect.
The results of this study show that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Sida rhombifolia L. (EHASr) reflect an insignificant toxicity, evidenced by both the high values of LD50 (oral and intraperitoneal) and the lack of toxic symptoms in male and female mice. Also, a null behavioral effect was observed after oral and intraperitoneal administration of several doses of EHASr. As no gender-related death or non-fatal toxicity was perceived, an increased chance of receiving innocuous agent is supported (Stallard et al., 2010). All animals fully recovered after 24 hours of observation periods, allusive for a possibly safe natural product and could have a weak potential for adverse events occurrence, confirming a possible harmless use by human population. In addition, motor coordination is one of the physiological parameters finely regulated by the central nervous system. Impairment of motor coordination clearly is linked to a loss of the quality of normal behavioral profile of experimental animals. In this context, the rota-rod test is a model used to evaluate peripheral neuromuscular blockade and motor coordination (Dunham and Miya, 1957). Our results denoted that all EHASr treatments (10.0- 1 000.0 mg/kg), unlike diazepam, had no significant effect on motor coordination using rotating rod test.
Mental depression represents a major public health problem worldwide. The high prevalence of suicide in depressed patients (up to 15%) coupled with complications arising from stress and its effects on the cardiovascular system have suggested that it will be the second leading cause of death by the year 2020. The use of alternative medicines is increasing worldwide day by day. Thus, there is a constant need to identify newer natural antidepressants with greater efficacy, and to explore their potential over synthetic antidepressant.Tinospora cordifolia (Family: Menispermaceae), a well know plant of IndianMedicinal System, was selected for evaluating antidepressant like activity in laboratory animals, since this plant has been reported to possess antistress activity(21).According to the AyurvedicSystem of medicine, Tinospora cordifolia is an antigout, analgesic, antipyretic, antiperoidic, bitter tonic, blood purifier, antidiabetic and digestant. The chemical constituent Makisterone-A is ansteriod widely used as antidepressant agent. Dhingra and Goyal study the action of antidepressant potential of Tinospora cordifolia in mice(22).
The present study provides the basic information and the interrelationship between the different plant species of Sida which are currently found in Kanyakumari district. The knowledge of taxonomy is a great tool for identification of the different plant species. Taxonomic knowledge is crucial to meet the challenges of biodiversity conservation in the 21st century. It is of fundamental importance for understanding biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, as it provides us with the data to explore and describe biodiversity through scientific analysis. Since most of the species of Sida are used in Ayurvedha, Sidha and Homeopathy, the unscientific and skill-less uprooting of the whole plant results in the deterioration of this genus in the near future. Hence it becomes the role of the local and regional authorities to take proper steps to conserve this precious phyto- diversity for better future use.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: The roots of Rubia cordifolia were collected from Divya Yog pharmacy, Haridwar and identified by Quality Control Department of Patanjali Ayurved Limited, Haridwar. The instacoat powder (ready mix coating powder, Ideal cure, Delhi), was obtained as free sample from Divya Yog Pharmacy, Haridwar. Insta coat powder is consists of HPMC, Polyethylene glycol(PEG), titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )
The extracts showed good anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation. The inhibition by extracts was maximum after 3 h of administration of phlogistic agent. The effect of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was comparable to that of leaf derived callus extract of T. cordifolia (100 mg/kg) after 4 h. Inflammation induced by carrageenan involves three distinct phases of the release of the mediator, including serotonin and histamine in the first phase (0-2 h), kinins in the second phase (3 h) and prostaglandin in the third phase (>4 h). In the first phase increase in vascular permeability occurs. Infiltration of leukocytes occurs in second phase and granuloma formation in third phase .