Silybum Marianum

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THE PHENOMENON OF SILYBUM MARIANUM

THE PHENOMENON OF SILYBUM MARIANUM

The article presents the results of study of composition, properties, biological activity Silybum marianum. It is shown that the unique components of the plant possess wide range of biological effects. On the basis of the conducted researches we developed drugs Natursil and Silystrong, biologically active supplements to food, with well-expressed membrane-protective, antioxidant, reparative, immunomodulatory, cardiotonic, choleretic, hepato- protective properties. This leads to the use of drugs in different branches of medicine: gastroenterology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pulmonology, cardiology, otolaryngology, dentistry. With the use of experimental models at different levels of structural-functional organization, the molecular mechanisms of action and biologically active substances of milk thistle were studied. We installed their activating effect on enzymes of glycolysis, including revitalizing effect under conditions of oxidative stress, studied neuron activating properties of drugs. The ability of silystrong to affect protein-protein interaction allows the use of the drug as a metabolic probe. Shows the different responses of group-specifi c antigens of the system АВ0 to the introduction of Silystrong, demonstrating the speci- fi city of individual response to the action of biologically active substances, drugs, xenobiotics, toxicants, due to the peculiarities interprotein relationships. The obtained results allow to recommend drugs from Silybum marianum as tools for targeted correction of metabolism, ecoprotection with broad spectrum.
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Extract from Silybum marianum as a nutraceutical: a double blind placebo controlled study in healthy young men

Extract from Silybum marianum as a nutraceutical: a double blind placebo controlled study in healthy young men

Volunteers and Study Schedule: Twenty-nine healthy men aged 18–32 years were randomised to the active-treat- ment group (17 men, aged 20.65 ± 0.88 years, BMI [body mass index] 22.61 ± 0.91, W/H ratio [waist-to-hip ratio] 0.81 ± 0.01) and the placebo group (12 men, aged 20.75 ± 0.69 years, BMI 21.69 ± 0.78, W/H ratio 0.79 ± 0.01). No significant differences in age and BMI (at 99% of LSD, p < 0.01) were found between the two groups. At the 95% level LSD a significance at p < 0.05 was found in W/H ratio between the treatment and placebo group. The vol- unteers were non-smokers, non-drinkers and did not take any medication. The extract of Silybum marianum or pla- cebo was administered in a single dose of 286 mg three times a day with meals for a period of 60 days.
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The efficacy of the aqueous extracts of Anethum graveolens, Urtica dioica, and Silybum marianum on the liver function in iron overloaded rats

The efficacy of the aqueous extracts of Anethum graveolens, Urtica dioica, and Silybum marianum on the liver function in iron overloaded rats

experimental period and had free access to normal rats chow and drinking water. Correspondingly, rats of the normal group received (i.p.) injection with isovolumic normal saline and were maintained on normal chow and drinking water ad libitum. To test the treatments (groups 3, 4, 5, and 6), the rats were given Anethum graveolens, Urtica dioica, and Silybum marianum orally at dose of 50mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (once a week), respectively. Likewise, the rats in the DFO group were injected subcutaneously at the dosage of 50 mg/kg/day. Food intake and activities of all rats were observed carefully every day. The entire experimental period lasted for 21 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the final bodyweight of each rat was recorded , and then the rats were anesthetized with diethyl ether(50mg/kg) and blood was collected from their eyes ( venous pool)by standard venous puncture with glass capillary tubes in dry, clean, and screw capped tubes and left to clot. The liver tissue was quickly removed and weighed for further analysis (15, 16).
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Sub acute and acute toxicity of Ferula asafoetida and Silybum marianum formulation and effect of the formulation on delaying gastric emptying

Sub acute and acute toxicity of Ferula asafoetida and Silybum marianum formulation and effect of the formulation on delaying gastric emptying

Silybum marianum (Fam. Asteriaceae) commonly known as milk thistle is a medicinal plant valued for its potential health benefits long since. Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that the plant is used exten- sively for treating liver disorders due to its potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects [17]. It has been also studied for hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities [18]. The pharmacological benefits of milk thistle have been largely studied in various experimental models. Milk thistle exerted anti-inflammatory effects in NASH model rats [19]. In another study, rats fed with high fat diet exhibited significant amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) following a 6-week treatment with silybin, the active principle of milk thistle [20].
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DIRECT ROOT REGENERATION AND INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN SILYBUM MARIANUM AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ITS CALLUS

DIRECT ROOT REGENERATION AND INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN SILYBUM MARIANUM AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ITS CALLUS

Callus and shoot formation in Silybum marianum cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.25 mg/l and 10 mg/l). This composition was effective in promoting callus induction and transferred callus to MS medium containing similar combination of PGRs for shoot organogenesis. The callus was yellow and friable. [7] But in the present study, the callus induction on the leaf explants was achieved at low concentration of 2,4-D (1.0- 3.0 mg/l) in higher rate and the nature of the callus is also found similar as yellow and friable and then the callus was transferred to MS medium containing different concentrations of NAA and BAP. The results are similar but the growth regulators are
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Plant Tissue Culture of Silybum Marianum L. and Check out Elicitor Effect on the Amount of Silymarin

Plant Tissue Culture of Silybum Marianum L. and Check out Elicitor Effect on the Amount of Silymarin

Silymarin (Sm) is a group of flavonolignans that are accumulated in the external cover of the seeds (achene fruits) of the milkthistle Silybum marianum (Katiyar, 2002). The silymarin content most often ranges from 1.0% to 3.0% of achene dry matter, but it can exceed 4.0% (Chiavari et al., 1991; Kozłowski and Hołyn´ ska, 1985). A fruit of S. marianum contains a relatively high amount (approx. 20%) of oil, which makes one step extraction of silymarin from seeds impossible. Oil has to be removed from seeds prior to the extraction of silymarin and is a by-product of silymarin production.
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 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF IRAQI SPECIES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM SEEDS

 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF IRAQI SPECIES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM SEEDS

In our present work we conclude that extracts of Silybum marianum are rich in phytochemicals particularly phenols and flavonoids, The results of antioxidant evaluation based on two models (DPPH and TAC) used in this study revealed that different extracts and especially ethyl acetate extract of this plant have a powerful antioxidant activity. Our findings reinforce the potentials of Silybum marianum as a valuable source of natural antioxidants and support its medical uses in the treatment of many diseases.

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Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle): Review on Its chemistry, morphology, ethno medical uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle): Review on Its chemistry, morphology, ethno medical uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

The oldest remedies identified to mankind are herbal medicines. India is recognized worldwide for its Ayur vedic treatment. India has rich history of using many plants for medicinal purposes. Remedial plants are cooperating extremely dynamic position in customary drugs for the action of a variety of illness. However a key obstacle, which has hindered the promotion in use of alternative medicines in the developed countries, is no evidence of documentation and absence of stringent quality control measures. There is a demand for the evidence of every investigate effort execute on conventional remedies in the appearance of certification. The purpose of current review is to make accessible up-to-date information on, botany, morphology, ecological biodiversity, therapeutic uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on diverse parts of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (S. marianum). This review was assembled using technical literature from electronic search engine such as Springer link, Bio Med Central, Pub Med, Scopus, Science Direct, S cielo, Medline and Science domain. Supplementary texts were obtained from books, book chapters, dissertations, websites and other scientific publications. S. marianum a member of the Asteraceae family, is a tall herb with large prickly white veined green leaves and a reddish-purple flower that ends in sharp spines. It is native of the Mediterranean region and which has also spread in East Asia, Europe, Australia and America. It is grown as a commercial crop in several countries, including Iran and Pakistan. Confident chemical constituents were exposed cognate as silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, silydianin, apigenin 7-O-β-(2″- O-α-rhamnosyl)galacturonide, kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside-7-O-β-galacturonide, apigenin 7-O-β-glucuronide, apigenin 7-O-β- glucoside, apigenin 7-O-β-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol, taxifolin and quercetin. The plant is exclusively used as anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and as an anti- oxidant. Seeds of the plant are also used as an anti-spasmodic, neuroprotective, anti-viral, immunomodulant, cardioprotective, demulcent and anti-haemorrhagic. The plant is also serves as a galactagogue, agent that induces milk secretion and used in the treatment of uterine disorders. The plant is employed in dissimilar conventional schemes of remedy in the cure of different illness. The present paper enumerates the Pharmacognostic, morphological and ethnobotanical, pharmacological importance of the S. marianum, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of the plant.
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Evaluation of the Growth Dynamics and Morphological Characteristics of Genetic Sources of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Evaluation of the Growth Dynamics and Morphological Characteristics of Genetic Sources of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), an important medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family, is native to the Mediterranean region, gradually spread to the warm sunny areas of many countries. While in some states of North- and Central America, Africa, Australasia and in the Middle and Near East the milk thistle is considered a problematic invasive weed (Holm et al., 1997; Montemurro et al., 2007). In Central and East European countries, Austria, Germany, Egypt, China and Argentina it is commercially cultivated as a medicinal plant. The anthodia provide the seeds with a valuable number of fl avonolignans (silymarin), consists of
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Anti-Hyperlipidemic and Anti-Atherosclerotic Activities of Silymarins from Cultivated and Wild Plants of Silybum marianum L. With Different Content of Flavonolignans

Anti-Hyperlipidemic and Anti-Atherosclerotic Activities of Silymarins from Cultivated and Wild Plants of Silybum marianum L. With Different Content of Flavonolignans

Milk thistle has been known since ancient time and recommended in traditional European and Asiatic medicine mainly for treatment of liver disorders [ 2]. In recent years, there have been explosions of scientific papers that deal with drugs from the fruits of milk thistle and its active substances silymarin [ 4]. Silymarin has clinical applications as a potential anti-hepatotoxic drug and it is currently used for supportive treatment of liver aliments [ 3, 5]. Several studies showed that silymarin has also anti-oxidative [ 4- 7], immunomodulatory [ 5, 6, 8, 9] and anti- inflammatory [ 5, 6, 10, 11] effects. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner,
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Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of <em>Berberis aristata</em> and <em>Silybum marianum</em> standardized extracts versus only <em>Berberis aristata</em> in patients with type 2 diabetes

Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of <em>Berberis aristata</em> and <em>Silybum marianum</em> standardized extracts versus only <em>Berberis aristata</em> in patients with type 2 diabetes

aristata and one receiving Berberis aristata plus Silybum marianum tablets. All the patients of the Berberis aristata group received a galenic preparation containing a standardized extract corresponding to 500 mg of pure berberine per tablet. All the patients of the Berberis aristata group took 1 tablet on an empty stomach twice a day (before breakfast and dinner) for the whole length of the study (120 days). All the Berberis aristata tablets were prepared by the same pharmacist and herbal specialist authorized to manufacture galenic prepara- tions according to a medical prescription. All the patients of the Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum group received the add- on oral therapy in a nutraceutical combination, in tablet form (Berberol ® ; PharmExtracta srl, Pontenure, Italy), containing
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Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

while no significant differences were observed in other groups. However, SMS supplemented feed restored the normal weight of bursa and liver completely. Spleen and heart weights did not significantly change by treatments (Table 6). The findings of the present study are supported by Tedesco et al. (2004), who reported reduced bursal weight in broilers by feeding aflatoxin contaminated feed. Kalorey et al. (2005) reported the protective role of SMS against aflatoxicosis on the weight of bursa of fabricius. Post-mortem lesions included pale, enlarged (swollen), yellow friable livers with pinpointed hemorrhages, swollen kidneys and atrophy of bursa and thymus in broiler suffering form aflatoxicosis. Heart showed hydropericardium, and intestines revealed hemorrhagic enteritis. These findings are conformed by those reported by Rahim et al. (1999). Gross pathological changes in the liver and other organs were in a milder degree in SMS fed birds as compared with the birds fed on contaminated feeds only and those raised on toxin binders. Table 5. Effect of Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and Silybum marianum seeds (SMS) on
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Phytochemical screening and GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in ethanolic leaves extract of Silybum marianum (L).

Phytochemical screening and GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in ethanolic leaves extract of Silybum marianum (L).

In the present study 10 compounds from the ethanolic leaves extract of Silybum marianum (L). were identified by Gas- chromatography– Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The biological activities of each of the identified phytocomponents used for antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-tumour and anti-cancer activities. Chemical identification of the plant constituents was conducted based on their retention time (RT), molecular formula, molecular weight and mass spectral data, as well as by computer search mass spectral databases. The chemical structures and medicinal properties also identified. The results revealed the presence of medicinally significant constituents in the plants studied. Therefore, ethanolic extracts from these plants could be seen as a good source for using drugs. The traditional medicine practice is recommended strongly for these plants as well as it is suggested that further work should be carried out to isolate, purify and characterize the active constituents responsible for the biological activity of the organism. Also, additional work is encouraged to see whether these plants have said health benefits, especially as anti-cancer drugs, and elucidate the possible mechanism of action of these extracts. The presence of phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) is responsible for their therapeutic effects. It further reflects hope for the development of many more novel therapeutic agents or templates from such plants which in future may serve for the production of synthetically improved therapeutic agents. Acknowledgement
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Performance, Biochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Hens Supplemented with Addition of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Seed Cakes in Diet

Performance, Biochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Hens Supplemented with Addition of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Seed Cakes in Diet

This experiment was carried out on laying hens after 69 weeks of age to investigate the  possible influence of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) addition on hens liver and performance (including egg quality parameters). In older laying hens, summation of hepatic tissue occurs during the laying cycle due to its own high performance. In our experiment, 7% of milk thistle seed cakes was added to the  mixture, which was 5.3% crude fiber content in the  diet. Albiker  et  al. (2015) recommends up to 7% of crude fiber in diet for laying hens. The  Lohmann Tierzucht Chicken Hedge Technological Guidelines provide the  recommended content of crude fiber in feed mixtures for laying hens 5 – 6% (Lohmann Tierczucht, 2016).
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Production and quality of milk thistle (Silybum marianum[L ] Gaertn ) cultivated in cultural conditions of warm agri climatic macroregion

Production and quality of milk thistle (Silybum marianum[L ] Gaertn ) cultivated in cultural conditions of warm agri climatic macroregion

Selected quantitative and qualitative parameters of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.) yields were analyzed during 2004–2007 growing seasons. The highest yields of milk thistle fruits were record- ed in 2006, which was statistically determined. The highest content of silymarin complex in dry fruits of milk thistle was recorded in 2007. However, the highest total yield of silymarin per ha was recorded in investigated variants in 2006. The obtained yield of silymarin per ha was more influenced by the level of milk thistle fruits yield in 2006 than the content of silymarin in dry fruits in 2007. The highest yield of silymarin complex per area unit in this experiment, with respect to the intercrop, was obtained in 2007, in variant without intercrop, as it was statistically determined. Based on the four-year results, it is rec- ommended to continue the research of the produc- tion parameters of milk thistle yields in following growing seasons.
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Rumen degradability and whole tract digestibility of flavonolignans from milk thistle ( Silybum(marianum) fruit expeller in dairy cows

Rumen degradability and whole tract digestibility of flavonolignans from milk thistle ( Silybum(marianum) fruit expeller in dairy cows

Fruits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum /L./ Gaertner, Asteraceae) have been used for more than 2000 years to treat liver and gallbladder disorders, including hepatitis, cirrhosis and jaundice, and to protect the liver against poisoning with chemical and environmental toxins (Křen and Walterová, 2005). Its active compound – the silymarin com- plex – is found primarily in fruits (Rainone, 2005). The fruits consist of approximately 70–80% of si- lymarin flavonolignans and approximately 20 to 30% of chemically undefined fractions, compris- ing mostly polymeric and oxidized polyphenolic compounds (Křen and Walterová, 2005). Further, the fruits also contain betaine, trimethylglycine,
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Abstract: Silybum marianum L. is a well-known medicinal herb, primarily used in liver protection.

Abstract: Silybum marianum L. is a well-known medicinal herb, primarily used in liver protection.

Abstract: Silybum marianum L. is a well-known medicinal herb, primarily used in liver protection. Light strongly affects several physiological processes along with secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plants. Herein, S. marianum was exploited for in vitro potential under different light regimes in the presence of melatonin. The optimum callogenic response occurred in combination of 1.0 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine under photoperiod. Continuous light associated with melatonin treatment increased total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential, followed by photoperiod and dark treatments. The increased level of melatonin has a synergistic effect on biomass accumulation under continuous light and photoperiod, while adverse effect was observed under dark condition. More detailed phytochemical analysis showed maximum total silymarin content (11.92 mg/g DW) when placed under continuous light + 1.0 mg/L melatonin. Individually, the level of silybins (A and B), silydianin, isolsilychristin and silychristin was found highest under continuous light. Anti-inflammatory activities were also studied and highest percent inhibition was recorded against 15-LOX for cultures cultivated under continuous light (42.33%). The current study helps to better understand the influence of melatonin and different light regimes on silymarin production as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in S. marianum callus extracts.
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Anatomical Structure of Vegetative and Generative Organs of Silybum marianum (L ) Gaertn  (Fam  Asteraceae)

Anatomical Structure of Vegetative and Generative Organs of Silybum marianum (L ) Gaertn (Fam Asteraceae)

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.101004 42 American Journal of Plant Sciences Figure 3. The structure of the fruit of Silybum marianum : (a) detail general view of the seed skin; (b) the shell of the fetus; in sclereides; g shell of the seed coat. 1 the rest of the endosperm, 2 the collapsed cells of the parenchyma of the seed coat, 3 the collapsed cells of the fetal parenchyma, 4 the sclereides, 5 collapsed cells of the endocarp, 6 fibrous cells of the mesocarp, 7 pigment layer, 8 elongated cells of the epidermis of the endocarp, 9 cuticle; 1 - 4 shells of the testa, 5 - 9 shells of the fetus.
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Silymarin content in Silybum marianum extracts as a biomarker for the quality of commercial tinctures

Silymarin content in Silybum marianum extracts as a biomarker for the quality of commercial tinctures

marianum tincture compared with 60% v/v. According to Bone (2003), the suggested daily dose of a Silybum marianum tincture (70%, 1:1) is 4.5 – 8.5 mL containing not less than 25 mg/mL silymarin. Our data shows that of eleven commercial tincture products, only J could be reasonably administered following the recommended daily dose of 8 mL per day (Table 1); whereas for sample E, F and I, a daily dose of 150 mg (median daily dose) silymarin would correspond to approximately 30 mL of tincture daily. Remarkably, all the tinctures extracted with 25% were far from

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FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE LIPID CLASSES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM SEED OIL

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE LIPID CLASSES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM SEED OIL

Powder seeds 100 g of category 1 silybum marianum was taken in soxhlet apparatus and n- hexane 400 ml was taken in a one-liter conical flask. After five hours of reflux the solvent was removed under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator. Yellow colored residual oil thus obtained was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and percentage yield was determined on dry basis. Similarly category 2 seed oil was also extracted.

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