Skin Regeneration

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Multifunctional and biomimetic fish collagen/bioactive glass nanofibers: fabrication, antibacterial activity and inducing skin regeneration in vitro and in vivo

Multifunctional and biomimetic fish collagen/bioactive glass nanofibers: fabrication, antibacterial activity and inducing skin regeneration in vitro and in vivo

In this study, biomimetic electrospun fish Col/BG nanofibers were manufabricated by composting biosafe and inexpensive collagen with BG. The tensile strength of the composite nanofibers was improved and they contained a certain degree of antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The Col/ BG nanofibers could not only induce HaCaTs proliferation and migration, but also promote the secretion of COL-I and VEGF in HDFs, which further stimulated the prolifera- tion of HUVECs. In vivo results showed that the Col/BG nanofibers could effectively induce skin regeneration in the wound area. This study suggests that the multifunctional fish Col/BG nanofibers have a great potential for use as a wound dressing.
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Healing Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on a Collagen-Based Scaffold for Skin Regeneration

Healing Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on a Collagen-Based Scaffold for Skin Regeneration

14 days. Histological observation was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining procedure in order to compare normal, burned, implanted, and healed skins (Fig. 8). In normal skin, epidermal layer is observed as a compact and dark layer with the corny layer at its surface. Dermal layer has located under the epidermal layer consisted of cells, blood vessels and collagen fibers. In the burned skin (Fig. 8c and 8d), there is no sign of epidermal layer. A thick compact layer of cells can be observed as a newly formed epidermis in the implanted skin with a little infiltration of epidermis. In healed skin, the epidermal and dermal layers seem to be in a normal condition. In comparison with a normal skin, natural level of collagen production can be seen in dermal layer. Also, epidermis layer is much thicker in healed skin than normal skin. The quantifying results of skin regeneration with the comparison of sample and control sides are observed in Table 3. There was no sign of epidermal layer in the control side after 14 days, while in 50% of the sample side, the epidermal layer was observed.
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Successive Release of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 1 Through Graphene Oxide Based Delivery System Can Promote Skin Regeneration

Successive Release of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 1 Through Graphene Oxide Based Delivery System Can Promote Skin Regeneration

include PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) [13], chi- tosan [14], PLGA nano-spheres [15], and hydrogels. The use of a delivery vehicle would help reduce the TIMP-1 dosage for skin regeneration and allow a re- gional delivery of the agent. Graphene is composed of carbon atoms with a flat monolayer and a honeycomb- like two-dimensional structure [16]. Graphene oxide (GO) has been used as a small molecule drug delivery vehicle in literature as it has efficient loading (absorp- tion), is biocompatible, and has low toxicity [17–19]. Essential characteristics of GO include hydrophobic π domains in the core of the structure with ionized re- gions along the edges. The distinctive π–π stacking interaction makes GO efficient with water solubility, with a large specific surface area for high loading cap- acity [20, 21].
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Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

Notes: re-epithelialization level at day 4 and day 7 (A): histological scoring of the results of scald regeneration in rats treated with rhuePO or vehicle at different healing times (4 and 7 days). representative photomacroscopic images of wounds directly after tangential excision (day 0), and on day 4 and 7 after wounding with (B) ePO gel treated and (C) control (no EPO gel). In the rHuEPO group, we noticed a significant decrease in wound size and quicker wound closure than in the control group at day 7. in addition, we found increased epithelial covering in the rhuePO treatment group than in the control group. a considerably better skin regeneration, re-epithelialisation, and wound closure, and visibly less scar formation was found on day 4 in rats with topical rHuEPO treatment as compared to controls. The final score for epithelialization of skin regeneration for each animal specimen is demonstrated as the sum of the three partial score values. Values are the mean ± standard error of the mean of each group. *P  0.05 versus control group.
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Ultrasmall CuS@BSA nanoparticles with mild photothermal conversion synergistically induce MSCs-differentiated fibroblast and improve skin regeneration

Ultrasmall CuS@BSA nanoparticles with mild photothermal conversion synergistically induce MSCs-differentiated fibroblast and improve skin regeneration

MSCs that did not undergo preheating but NIR irradiating exhibited weaker improvement in the skin regeneration, although it still favored the closure of the wound while comparing with the saline-treated group (Figure 7). The results illustrate in situ mild heating also improved the regeneration of the skin wound by stimulating the generation and formation of collagen deposition in the wound site. It further demonstrated that the CuS@BSA nanoparticles self-synergistically improved the regeneration of injured skin by combining with CuS@BSA mediated photothermal generation and their potential in inducing MSCs differentiation to fibroblasts. However, the input laser power should be strictly controlled. While the input power of the laser was further increased, in situ heating seems to impede the closure of the injured wound (Figure S4). Overheating of Matrigel may cause damage to the encapsulated MSCs and surrounding Matrigel-tissues interfaces. Toxicity of CuS@BSA in vivo
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Original Article Safety and efficacy of three-dimensional vacuum-assisted bipolar plasma skin regeneration for tissue tightening

Original Article Safety and efficacy of three-dimensional vacuum-assisted bipolar plasma skin regeneration for tissue tightening

Five PSR anti-aging treatment regimens have been reported: PSR 1 (low energy), PSR 2 (low and high energy), PSR 3 (high energy), and PSR 2/3 combinations selected according to the severity of the problem and the recovery time available, and the fifth treatment is the newly US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-aging procedure for treating non-facial areas of the body. All of these protocols can be used for lines, but higher energy treatments are needed for skin tightening. The main char- acteristics of the higher energy PSR configura- tion are the high-power density and the deep power penetration [8]. This energy induces heat-dependent damage that removes the upper epidermis layers, inducing keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation with the conse- quent de novo synthesis of collagen that acts as a new tissue scaffold [4]. Unfortunately, the high thermal energies required to induce skin remodeling often cause several side effects and unavoidable discomfort for the patients. Thus, we developed a better approach to skin regeneration that combines vacuum with PSR to stimulate the regeneration of connective tis- sue through distinct pathways.
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The role of stem cell metabolites derived from placenta for skin regeneration: An in vitro study

The role of stem cell metabolites derived from placenta for skin regeneration: An in vitro study

The inflammatory response in skin regeneration is an important process that affects the performance of stem cell metabolites. This assay aimed to reveal the role of cytokines IL-12 and INF-γ in rejuvenation, by analyzing the differences in cytokine levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) groups. All cytokine ELISA kits were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific, and the experiment was conducted based on their protocols. Samples were then matched with Fisher’s exact test. Cytokine levels were measured using the ELISA technique from human peripheral venous blood samples. A multivariate analysis was performed to see the role of cytokines together between groups.
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Nano-drug delivery systems in wound treatment and skin regeneration

Nano-drug delivery systems in wound treatment and skin regeneration

Thanks to the innovative and impressive development of nanotechnology, numerous nano-drug delivery sys- tems (nano-DDSs) were invented and introduced into the areas relevant to skin regeneration. It is universally testi- fied that nano-DDSs evidently accelerate wound healing and improve the healing quality for the several promi- nent advantages they enjoy: (1) Nano-DDSs are found to be non-toxic, perfectly compatible with skin and favora- bly create a beneficial moist environment for activation and acceleration of wound healing process. (2) Some specific nano-DDSs are equipped with ability of enter- ing into the cytoplasmic space across cellular barriers or activating specific transport mechanisms to improve the drug retention [5]. (3) When incorporated with bioactive molecules, nano-DDSs protect drugs from degradation elicited by proteases in wounds, remarkably enhanc- ing therapeutic effectiveness [6]; (4) The sustained drug release also prolongs the maintenance of effective drug concentration, reduces the frequency of administration and leads to decline of cost as well as improvement of compliance.
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Fat and epidermal cell suspension grafting: a new advanced one-step skin regeneration surgical technique

Fat and epidermal cell suspension grafting: a new advanced one-step skin regeneration surgical technique

The grafts of epithelial cell suspensions (cultured or non-cultured) have generated interest due to the broad- spectrum of applications such as severe burns, chronic non-healing wounds, vitiligo, and reconstruction after excision of giant congenital nevi [5-7,17,18]. These transplantation techniques make easier the choice of an adjacent skin donor site and greatly reduce the amount of skin to be resected for cell preparation, if compared to other procedures. Moreover, skin substitutes, includ- ing autologous cultured cells, are markedly expensive [18], whereas non-cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions can be low cost prepared in a relatively short time, during the same surgical operation. Never- theless, this therapeutic approach is still rarely applied in modern clinical practice. In this experimentation, we modified the standard protocol by adding autologous plasma as a carrier for keratinocyte-melanocyte cell sus- pension instead of the defined chemical cell medium. Plasma components, especially dissolved proteins and hormones, act as a natural source of growth factors and essential nutrients for grafted cells.
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Engineering Bioactive Self-Healing Antibacterial Exosomes Hydrogel for Promoting Chronic Diabetic Wound Healing and Complete Skin Regeneration

Engineering Bioactive Self-Healing Antibacterial Exosomes Hydrogel for Promoting Chronic Diabetic Wound Healing and Complete Skin Regeneration

process involving three typical phases: inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, which involves many types of cells, cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) [2]. Mechanisms underlying poor healing of diabetic wounds are still unclear, yet the reasons for this dread complication of diabetes mainly involves hypoxia, impaired angiogenesis, damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathy, leading to long-time medical burden and compromised life quality of those patients [3]. Conventional clinical treatment of diabetic wounds includes surgical debridement and negative pressure therapy with wound dressings [1, 4]. However, these treatments often seem ineffective for many patients due to impaired cell function around the wound sites [5]. To solve these problems, therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed great potential for wound healing due to their ability to recruit cells and release growth factors and proteins, yet problems still arose because of immunological rejection, limited differentiation and proliferation ability, and chromosomal variation of stem cells [6, 7]. Recently, emerging studies showed that transplanted stem cell therapy may exert its function through a paracrine mechanism instead of direct differentiation, particularly by secreting extracellular vesicles [8, 9]. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles (40-150 nm) that are considered as primary secretory products from MSCs and can regulate cell-to-cell communication through transferring the contained mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins to target cells and facilitate wound healing [6]. Moreover, they are immune-tolerant, have similar biological functions to those of the cells from which they are derived, and can be used as a possible alternative to MSCs therapy [10]. Angiogenesis is a critical factor determining the outcome of diabetic wound healing [2, 11]. Recent studies also showed that exosomes could improve wound healing by speeding up angiogenesis, which exhibited great promises for diabetic wound therapy application [12, 13]. For example, Guo et al. reported that exosomes derived from platelet-rich plasma can promote chronic cutaneous wound healing through YAP activation [14]. However, the common method of exosomes administration is injection, which can affect their function due to the rapid clearance rate [15]. On the other hand, diabetic wound repair and regeneration require a relatively long healing time. Herein, it is necessary to develop a novel biocompatible scaffold that can serve as a sustained release carrier for exosomes to maintain their bioactivity at the diabetic wound area and further accelerate wound healing.
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EGF and curcumin co-encapsulated nanoparticle/hydrogel system as potent  skin regeneration agent

EGF and curcumin co-encapsulated nanoparticle/hydrogel system as potent skin regeneration agent

In the established excisional full-thickness wound model, EGF- Cur-NP/H treatment significantly enhanced wound closure through increasing granulation tis- sue formation, collagen depositi[r]

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Skin tissue regeneration for burn injury

Skin tissue regeneration for burn injury

Moreover, the stem cells described above can enable true skin regeneration and decrease scar formation and have the clear manipulation step procedure for autologous use (Fig. 1). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that bone marrow, urine, adipose-derived, and other stem cells can significantly improve the wound healing process in chronic wounds [51, 76, 187, 224, 225]. However, despite these successful re- sults, still FDA has not approved any stem cell-based skin substitute for wound treatment, and for them to make the approval, certain points such as optimal cell type and population and time and way of administra- tion should be clarified. There is an essential need to find out the mechanisms of cell action, survival, and incorporation after transplantation and their stability and differentiation features in the wound microenvir- onment. Moreover, the delayed postoperative out- comes should be studied in large-scale clinical trials to prove the safety of stem cell-based products. Thus, stem cells are a promising tool for skin substitute de- sign and fabrication for advanced burn therapies.
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Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects by differentiated adipose-derived stem cells into fibroblast-like cells by fibroblast-conditioned medium

Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects by differentiated adipose-derived stem cells into fibroblast-like cells by fibroblast-conditioned medium

Recently, it has been recognized that fibroblasts can play an important role in skin regeneration and aug- menting healing of wounds through their implantation [4]. However, for autogenic cells, being present in insuf- ficient numbers limits their usage. As an alternative, allogeneic cells pose ethical and safety issues when con- sidered for skin wound repair [5]. After full-thickness dermal injuries it is important to have an effective dermal replacement, because dermal tissue does not regenerate into normal dermis in vivo [6]. For these reasons, although still in the research stage, cells offer a more favorable choice for skin regeneration or wound healing than transplantation of dermal substitutes [4, 7], and stem cell therapy is clinically being investigated as a safe and effective method for repair of several types of tissue damage [8 – 10].
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A role for pericytes as microenvironmental regulators of human skin tissue regeneration

A role for pericytes as microenvironmental regulators of human skin tissue regeneration

The cellular and molecular microenvironment of epithelial stem and progenitor cells is poorly characterized despite well-documented roles in homeostatic tissue renewal, wound healing, and cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that, in organotypic cocultures, dermal pericytes substantially enhanced the intrinsically low tissue-regenerative capacity of human epidermal cells that have committed to differentiate and that this enhancement was independent of angiogenesis. We used microarray analysis to identify genes expressed by human dermal pericytes that could potentially promote epidermal regeneration. Using this approach, we identified as a candidate the gene LAMA5, which encodes laminin a5, a subunit of the ECM component laminin-511/521 (LM-511/521). LAMA5 was of particular interest as we had previously shown that it promotes skin regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis using immunogold localization revealed that pericytes synthesized and secreted LAMA5 in human skin. Consistent with this observation, coculture with pericytes enhanced LM-511/521 deposition in the dermal-epidermal junction of organotypic cultures. We further showed that skin pericytes could also act as mesenchymal stem cells, exhibiting the capacity to differentiate into bone, fat, and cartilage lineages in vitro. This study
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NATURAL BIOMATERIALS FOR SKIN TISSUE ENGINEERING: REPAIR AND REGENERATION   A SHORT REVIEW

NATURAL BIOMATERIALS FOR SKIN TISSUE ENGINEERING: REPAIR AND REGENERATION A SHORT REVIEW

The development of new materials and the enhancement of existing materials to develop skin regeneration are wide areas of research in polymeric biomaterials. The paper presents the analysis of a wide range of several natural polymers such as proteins and polysaccharides which can be utilized for skin tissue repair and regeneration. The reviews look at the few examples of commercially available natural - origin polymers with applications in tissue engineering. Natural polymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, being components of, or structurally similar to, the glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are valuable materials for tissue engineering applications. Natural polymers have great coincidence to natural ECM elements, particularly in biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, the attention is focused on several natural polymers that found application in research work for drug or cell delivery within the skin tissue engineering field, namely collagen, chitin, chitosan, alginate, gellan, gelatin, and curcumin.
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Contribution of regeneration on dead wood to the spontaneous regeneration of a mountain forest

Contribution of regeneration on dead wood to the spontaneous regeneration of a mountain forest

On the dead wood of lying stems and stumps, only spruce regenerates abundantly. In the case of a sufficient amount of dead wood (P2 and P3, partly also P6), natural regeneration on the wood represents a significant propor- tion of the total regeneration of spruce. In SP P2 and P3, it is more than 75 and 44%, respectively (Fig. 13). In plots P4 and P5, there is not a sufficient amount of suit- able decomposing wood and, therefore, the proportion of spruce regeneration is small. Regeneration on stumps and in their close vicinity is comparable in all plots of the managed forest not exceeding 10% (but some exceptions). In plots P11R and P12R in the reserve, natural regener- ation occurs nearly exclusively on the dead wood (85 and 97%, respectively). In SP P10R, there is not a sufficient amount of fallen suitable wood and, therefore, regenera- tion predominates on the soil surface. Beech regenerates only sporadically on completely decomposed wood. Silver fir regenerates mainly on the soil surface.
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Ceftaroline in complicated skin and skin-structure infections

Ceftaroline in complicated skin and skin-structure infections

Abstract: Ceftaroline is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibiotic recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs). This intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. A high affinity for the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) makes the drug especially beneficial to patients with MRSA cSSSIs. Ceftaroline has proved in multiple well-conducted clinical trials to have an excellent safety and efficacy profile. In adjusted doses it is also recom- mended for patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness and high cure rate demonstrated by ceftaroline in cSSSIs, including those caused by MRSA and other multidrug-resistant strains, warrants its consideration as a first-line treatment option for cSSSIs. This article reviews ceftaroline and its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data to further elucidate its role in the treatment of cSSSIs.
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Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

Male circumcision involves cutting off the penile foreskin, as was done starting with Abraham in Genesis 17:10, 17:12, 17:13, 17:14, 17:23, 17:24, 17:25, 17:26, and 17:27, and continues to be practiced by Jewish families to this day. This removal of a portion of the male genital skin empowers a male child to be entered into a sacred covenant within Jewish tradi- tion. This has both religious significance and health effects. Skin infections that tend to occur under the foreskin are usu- ally avoided in the circumcised. Abraham circumcised Isaac at 8 days of age in Genesis 21:4. Circumcision of the penile foreskin is prescribed in Genesis 34:1, 34:22 and in Exodus 12:44, 12:48, Leviticus 12:3, and Joshua 5:3, 5:5, 5:7. Jewish males continue to be ritually circumcised when 8 days of age and are thereby entered into the covenant of Abraham. By analogy, circumcising the foreskin of your heart is spoken of in Deuteronomy 10:16, Deuteronomy 30:6, and Jeremiah 4:4 as ways of spiritually and religiously overcoming the hardened heart. Skin color is mentioned in Jeremiah 13:23: “Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots?” Boils were mentioned as one of the ten plagues in Exodus 9:11 and as afflicting Job from head to toe in Job 2:7. Lice were also mentioned as one of the ten plagues in Exodus 8:16–18 that preceded the liberation by הוהי (this holy name is not translated in Jewish tradition, it is too holy to be spoken) of the Israelites from Egypt. Ritual cleansing of a priest or other person was performed by placing blood from a ritually sacrificed animal onto the skin of the right ear, right thumb, and right great toe in Leviticus 14:14, 14:17, 14:25, or oil could be used in place of blood as in Leviticus 14:28. Blood was considered to contain the spiritual life force of the animal. Anointing the skin on a person’s head with oil was also considered a sanctifying act when performed in the appropriate ritual, as in Exodus 28:41, 29:7, 30:30, 40:15, and Leviticus 16:32. Anointing the skin of a king sanctified him, as in Judges 9:8, 1 Samuel 9:16, 15:1,
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Skin-to-Skin Contact Is Analgesic in Healthy Newborns

Skin-to-Skin Contact Is Analgesic in Healthy Newborns

The study subjects were 30 healthy full-term newborns deliv- ered at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, between March and October 1998. They were assigned randomly the morn- ing of the study to 1 of 2 study groups: skin-to-skin contact (n 5 15) and no-contact controls (n 5 15). Five infants were delivered via cesarean section; 11 subjects were males; 16 were black, 4 white, 6 Hispanic, and 1 American Indian. Three infants were not classified racially. Birth weights ranged from 2.6 through 3.7 kg (mean birth weight: 3.3 kg). All Apgar scores were $ 8 at 5 min- utes. All infants had been delivered at or beyond 37 completed weeks of gestation and were between 33 and 55 hours old at the time of testing, which generally began between 7 and 8 am. Infants had been fed in their usual manner between 30 minutes and 4 hours before the start of the study. Of the infants, 16 were breast- fed, and 4 had been circumcised on the previous day. All these characteristics were distributed equally between the 2 groups. No infant presented any evidence of congenital abnormalities, medi- cal complications, or drug exposure. No infant required either oxygen administration or ventilatory support. This was the initial heel stick for all infants. A single physician (L.G.) performed all the heel sticks, thereby minimizing variability. As an additional precaution against procedural variability, blood collection time was capped at 3 minutes. The infant then entered the recovery phase of the study, which lasted an additional 3 minutes. In point of fact, for 27 of 30 infants, blood collection was completed in advance of the 3-minute cutoff. Blood collection was terminated for the remaining 3 infants at 3 minutes, and these infants entered the recovery phase. All 3 of these infants were in the experimental group. After the recovery period ended, blood harvesting was completed without additional data collection.
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Skin

Skin

ABSTRACT. Human skin provides a barrier between the host and the physical, chemical, and biological envi- ronment. It is also a potential portal of entry for hazard- ous or infectious agents and a potential target of envi- ronmental toxins. Cutaneous vulnerability may take on many forms in the embryo, infant, child, and adolescent. Teratogenic agents may occasionally target skin, as ap- preciated in the proposed association of the antithyroid medication methimazole, with the congenital malforma- tion known as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the po- tential for resultant drug toxicities are important consid- erations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability bar- rier results in disproportionately increased absorption. Immature drug metabolism capabilities may further contribute to the increased risk in this population. Ultra- violet (UV) radiation exposure, which increases an indi- vidual’s risk of cutaneous carcinogenesis, may be a par- ticularly significant risk factor when it occurs during childhood. The “critical period hypothesis” suggests that UV exposure early in life increases the risk of eventual development of malignant melanoma. Other risk factors for malignant melanoma may include severe sunburns during childhood, intense intermittent UV exposure, and increased susceptibility of pediatric melanocytes to UV- induced DNA damage. Last, percutaneous exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals, such as insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, may differ between chil- dren and adults for several reasons, including behavioral patterns, anatomic and physiologic variations, and devel- opmental differences of vital organs. Pediatrics 2004;113: 1114 –1119; skin, vulnerability, teratogen, percutaneous, ultraviolet light, toxin.
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