Social Ontology

Top PDF Social Ontology:

Social ontology and the modern corporation

Social ontology and the modern corporation

In an assessment of Lawson’s social ontological analysis of the modern corporation, we consider what is marginalized: the significance of the status and the effects of the separate legal entity (SLE). The SLE is conceived as a specific type of construct that is ascribed particular properties through its stabilization within and between different (legal and economic) discourses. By showing how the SLE, as a reified construct, is rendered meaningful, real and/or consequential, we illustrate how the ‘social ontology’ of the modern corporation is radically contingent and inescap- ably contested. Given that the social ontology of the corporation defies definitive specification, we regard the prospect of the completeness of its disclosure (e.g. by foregrounding a specific referent) as problematic. Indeed, any account of social ontology that foregrounds a specific referent is seen to obscure a political process in which the stabilization of the SLE rests on the contingent foregrounding of par- ticular priorities. This leads us to reflect on the power-inflected social organization of knowledge generation. Key to the explication of social ontology, and with specific reference to the corporation, is not, as Lawson contends, the concept of ‘commu- nity’ but the inescapability of contestation within relations of power that translate ontological openness into specific but precarious forms of ontic closure.
Show more

17 Read more

Analytic ecclesiology : the social ontology of the church

Analytic ecclesiology : the social ontology of the church

It is important to note that my claim in this paper is not that a modified functionalist social ontology can exhaustively explain the nature of the Church. Yet, in reflecting on the ways in which social ontology explains the nature of social wholes more generally, we have seen that there is much that can help explain the nature and ontology of the Church. In exploring these ideas, I hope that more philosophers and theologians in the analytic tradition will take seriously the need for thinking analytically about the Church. In particular, one of the topics which my proposed model depends heavily on, is the role of the Holy Spirit in uniting the actions of those who participate in the Church. Yet, just as the topic of ecclesiology has been largely ignored by analytic thinkers, the topic of pneumatology has received equally, if not lesser, attention. Perhaps, this article will provide the beginning of a conversation and that those working in analytic theology can see the importance and value of analytic ecclesiology. 25
Show more

24 Read more

Social ontology and agency  Methodological holism naturalised

Social ontology and agency Methodological holism naturalised

The thesis argued for over and over again in this dissertation is that the social world in general and meaningful social actions in particular cannot exhaustively be explained and understood as consisting o f conceptually prior intentional actions o f disparate, ulti­ mately asocial individuals seeking to fulfil their private goals. Rather, we must admit that often individual actions are accurately understandable only when the acting indi­ vidual is seen essentially as a member o f a group, seeking to realise the goals o f the group. In truly social action individual roles are derived from the more fundamental col­ lective project. What is more, participation in social practices must ultimately be seen as constitutive o f individual agency, and in this sense the social really is conceptually prior to the individual. However, this priority o f the social is argued to be completely natural­ istic both in the sense o f building on a strictly naturalistic ontology (the world is gov­ erned by blind causal laws and consists entirely o f physical particles in fields o f force, as John R. Searle likes to put this in) and being supported by our best understanding o f the natural sciences (again, as Searle voices this, our theory o f agency and society must fit into the same picture with our fundamental and evolutionary biology). In sum, this dissertation is a defence o f naturalised methodological holism vis-a-vis social ontology and agency.
Show more

311 Read more

Effects and feelings as the basis of human autonomous poseism and as a "mechanism" for the self-organization of social ontology

Effects and feelings as the basis of human autonomous poseism and as a "mechanism" for the self-organization of social ontology

У цілому, від якості АЧС, які проявляються у межах індивідуальної людської природи безпосередньо залежить якість персонального автопоезису, бо, наприклад, негативні А[r]

9 Read more

The Blockchain as a Narrative Technology: Investigating the Social Ontology and Normative Configurations of Cryptocurrencies

The Blockchain as a Narrative Technology: Investigating the Social Ontology and Normative Configurations of Cryptocurrencies

Prefigured time indicates the moment at which a human starts to interact with a text. From the prefigured time, we proceed to the moment of the configured time, which is the backbone of Ricoeur’s theory. The paradigm of configured time is the notion of the plot in a story, brought about by the process of emplotment. The plot is defined as an organisation of events that mediates between heterogeneous factors (such as agents, goals and interactions) and the syntagmatic order of a narrative as a whole (Ricoeur 1983, p. 65). More commonly said, the plot is the organisation of elements of a narrative (characters, events) that makes it possible for someone interacting with the text to follow it to a certain conclusion. By means of configuration, Ricoeur argues, a text refigures our understanding of the social world we live in. This notion can be related to Searle’s account of the constitution of a new social reality by means of status function declarations. However, the configuration of social reality as considered by Ricoeur does not entail an analytical, Bdirect^ but rather a hermeneutic, Bindirect^ mediation of the world. The world of the text and our human world intersect at the moment of refiguration (Ricoeur 1983, p. 71). Refiguration is therefore the third conceptual moment in Ricoeur’s model: the moment at which the narrative circle has been closed, or rather completed, and the life world of the reader has been transformed. For our analysis of blockchain technologies, we will focus on their configurative capacities, limiting our discussion to the second conceptual moment of Ricoeur ’ s model. At this point, we should note that, as Ricoeur acknowledges (1983, p.76), the relation between narrative structures and our understanding of the social world is a circular one. To understand this relation, we have to deal with a hermeneutic circle that consists of the stages of prefigured, configured and refigured time. However, this hermeneutic circle is, in the words of Ricoeur, a Bhealthy^ one, Bin which arguments advanced about each side of the problem aid one another^ (ibid.). In other words, the organisation of the narrative structure helps us to understand the social world, but at the same time, the understanding of the social world is the basis for any new narrative structure. In what follows, we will use Ricoeur’s model of configuration to conceptu- alise the way in which technologies can configure human social reality.
Show more

28 Read more

The authority of us : on the concept of legitimacy and the social ontology of authority

The authority of us : on the concept of legitimacy and the social ontology of authority

Rather, my point is that the internal, social standpoint of an institution has its own normative force that can be exploited in order to determine the legitimacy of a command.. My point [r]

210 Read more

Shrouded in darkness : a phenomenological path towards a new social ontology in international relations

Shrouded in darkness : a phenomenological path towards a new social ontology in international relations

others cannot be correctly understood as a mere add-on to existing scholarship in IR but has to be seen as a iconoclastic enterprise that in its very nature challenges the framework within which enquiries have taken place in the field of IR. This challenge presents a pathway to a new conceptualisation and understanding of ontological and epistemological issues that are so far mainly unexplored. A conception of language that situates the individual agents within a socially constructed and constantly mediated network of meanings and actions subsequently shifts our conception of the beings around us and our role in constituting them. To grasp the way beings are requires a deeper investigation into the meaning of being and the especially human being. Human beings are not just present among or beside other beings. Rather human being or Dasein is constitutive of the meaning of beings it encounters, or, in other words, Dasein let beings be what they are. We can see here already that a simple inclusion of linguistic determinants into the ontological conception we found in Wendt and Wight will not do as the role of language hinted at here overturns the whole ontology they present, or even more radically, it overturns the whole meaning of ontology they exhibit. An enquiry into the nature of beings must necessarily start with an account of the form of being that encounters the beings in question and draws them into its awareness. Out of this arises the necessity to conceptualise a path that overcomes the problems encountered in forms of epistemological or ontological foundationalism.
Show more

344 Read more

Anti foundationalism and social ontology : towards a realist sociology

Anti foundationalism and social ontology : towards a realist sociology

This avoids the sociological logic of immediacy, becausethe ontology of social structures does not claim to have immediate knowledge let knowledge an of specific social structures, alone[r]

311 Read more

Utilizing The Social Transaction Theory Of Social Ontology To Understand Organizational Culture Change

Utilizing The Social Transaction Theory Of Social Ontology To Understand Organizational Culture Change

If social structure is being continually negotiated and renegotiated in the present, then the same applies to organizational culture and other social and economic issues for that matter. Each time members of an organization socially transact, the underlying negotiation may implicitly or explicitly change the previously negotiated social order. Although culture may not noticeably change on an hourly or weekly basis, it can be argued that it is continually changing, although that change is most frequently very subtle or not even noticeable. Culture certainly changes as other changes are introduced to the organization. Changes can range from internal changes, such as new personnel, new assignments, new products and services, and new policies and procedures; to external changes, such as changing clientele, markets, competitors, or shifts in the business cycle. With each change, the individuals within the organization transact and negotiate what those changes mean to both themselves and the organization. The emergents from these transaction/negotiations may range from barely detectable to blatantly obvious. More importantly, leaders and managers take part in these negotiations whether they intend to or not. They are just as much a part of the social transaction from which culture emerges as any other member. The emphasis is intentional. Even though management expects that their organizational power and authority grants them significantly greater influence, most often that influence is limited in how well it can determine social outcomes within the organization. More often, the outcome can differ from the desired result through no fault of the change initiator.
Show more

6 Read more

The Social Ontology of Fear and Neoliberalism

The Social Ontology of Fear and Neoliberalism

accommodation for their condition. Working class or poor children who did not attend school regardless of reason were considered truant, and they and their parents lawfully prosecuted. The emotional experience attached to school was thus defined institutionally and varied according to economic status (Bourke 2005). The reaction to social anxieties is context specific and dependent upon other background anxieties already at work, as well as the power structures in place. For example, with the threat of the "swine flu" pandemic, Egypt responded by wiping out the swine stock owned by a religious minority in the area, Asian countries placed an embargo on pork products from North America, and in the US, the lobbying arm of the pork industry campaigned vociferously through the media and through Congress to message to the public that pork was still safe. Here we see three different reactions to the same social anxiety, each of which is the result of the present anxiety context and local institutionalized power structure (Jackson and Everts 2010).
Show more

24 Read more

The Powers of the Exploited and the Social Ontology of Praxis

The Powers of the Exploited and the Social Ontology of Praxis

Abstract: This contribution is the first part of a debate between Michael Hardt/Toni Negri and David Harvey on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. The discussion focuses on the question of what capitalism looks like today and how it can best be challenged. This contribution asks: In what type of capitalist society are we living today? And what is the Marxian praxis that we need to challenge it? First, this paper analyses capitalism in respect to the extraction of value from the common, immaterial labour, digitisation, automation, and finance capital. The great- est abstraction in the productive process of value, in its implementation of languages, codes, immaterial articulations of being together, cooperation, affective elements, and so forth pre- sents also in the multitude the virtuality of an extraordinary potential of resistance and auton- omy from capital. Second, the paper discusses what forms of praxis are needed today. Marx- ian ontology is constituted and always renewed by class struggle, by the material antagonism that distributes the elements of real being and by the continuous excess of value that living labour expresses. Today, we discuss Marxian praxis in a society where intelligence is put to work at the centre of the productive process. Here emerges with great force the theme of the liberation of humans from work, on the basis of the transformations of work. Marx demon- strates how much cognitive and intellectual activity is central to production, and how much fixed capital is mixed with cognitive labour. In this context, the notion of the appropriation of fixed capital is of key importance for class struggles.
Show more

9 Read more

Ontology Winnowing: A Case Study on the AKT Reference Ontology

Ontology Winnowing: A Case Study on the AKT Reference Ontology

Some ontology-trimming rules have already been pro- posed (e.g. [1, 13]). However, it was apparent that new winnowing rules are required when applications are in- volved in the process. For example, the authors of [2] pro- posed keeping all subclasses and superclasses of preserved classes (sec. 2). In our study, this would mean keeping the entire AKTRO class hierarchy, simply because the top class, Thing, is selected for preservation. Another rule pro- posed in [13] is to transfer properties of unrequested classes to other classes following certain guidelines. Such modifi- cation to the ontology might be required if a class is explic- itly selected for removal. However, this will certainly break many application queries to the ontology.
Show more

6 Read more

Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Process Ontology

Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Process Ontology

This paper discusses the reengineering of part of the Software Process Ontology (SPO) originally proposed in [Falbo and Bertollo 2009],based on the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) [Guizzardi 2005; Guizzardi et al. 2008]. This ontology was partially reengineered at the light of UFO in [Guiz- zardi et al. 2008]. This first reengineering initiative focused on distinguishing between process/activity and process/activity occurrence, among others. In this paper, we still follow the approach adopted in [Guizzardi et al. 2008],i.e., to align the SPO concepts and relations to the concepts and relations of UFO. However, we focus on improving these distinctions analyzing concepts such as standard soft- ware processes, project processes and activities, at the light of UFO concepts of events, commitments, appointments and normative descriptions. Our focus is directed towards concepts involved in man- agement activities that are related to process definition, scheduling and resource allocation, since we intend to use the reengineered version of this ontology as basis for integrating tools supporting these activities. Thus, other parts of the SPO were not analyzed and reengineered in this work.
Show more

16 Read more

An Approach to Cope with Ontology Changes for Ontology based Applications

An Approach to Cope with Ontology Changes for Ontology based Applications

However, not much has been done with respect to using change-tracks to eliminate or reduce any impact that ontology change can have on any dependent applications and services. It would be very costly and perhaps even unrealistic to expect all parties that could be affected by a change to coordinate any such changes [2]. Therefore, we believe that it would be very beneficial to have a system that could track such changes, relate changes to incoming queries, amend such queries accordingly, and inform the query source of those changes and actions taken.

8 Read more

The Neurona Ontology: A Data Protection Compliance Ontology

The Neurona Ontology: A Data Protection Compliance Ontology

Drawing in the experience obtained with previous research projects such as Iuriservice [20] or Ontomedia [21], we decided that the bottom up approach— starting from smaller parts and sub solutions to end up with global solution—was the most adequate strategy. As a first step in this project, we decided to tackle the issue by following different phases: the first one was to develop an ontology based on the most characterizable part of the Spanish Data Protection Act, the classification of the security measures. The proposed strategy consists of designing an ontology from two basic sub-ontologies: (i) the Data Protection Conceptual Ontology (DPCO) containing all the relevant concepts of the problem domain in a taxonomy-like structure, and (ii) the Data Protection Reasoning Ontology (DPRO) that includes both rules and constraints of the problem domain. This second ontology is therefore responsible for all the reasoning tasks and depends on the concepts modelled in DPCO. Thus, while DPCO is designed in a way that can be used either on its own or in conjunction with other ontologies, DPRO has least chances to be reused since it depends on the first. This neat separation allows keeping the information in a transparent way to the user, while at the same time facilitates an easy method to correct and update all the information related to concepts. DPRO is specifically tailored to the needs of the project, it is also the most functional and the one that needs a greater amount of work and validation from the experts.
Show more

10 Read more

Survey on Vigilance of Instant Messages in Social Networks Using Text Mining Techniques and Ontology

Survey on Vigilance of Instant Messages in Social Networks Using Text Mining Techniques and Ontology

ABSTRACT: Nowadays all illegal activities are happened using the communications in instant messages. Present framework for instant messenger have control over suspicious words but not in depth. It means present system could not find out all suspicious words. The proposed system is a framework, which predicts and highlights code words and short form of suspicious words with the help of association rule mining techniques and ontology concepts.Thus this proposed framework detects suspicious messages from instant messaging systems in early stage and helps to identify and predict the type of cyber threat activity and traces the offender details.
Show more

6 Read more

Enhancing Social Personalized Search Based on Semantic Search Log using Ontology

Enhancing Social Personalized Search Based on Semantic Search Log using Ontology

individuals. Each VCx inVCis represented as VCx =< VCxname; VCxprop>, where VCxname is the name of the class and VCxprop is the set of relations and properties of class VCx: VISCOM has a number of classes representing semantically meaningful components of video, where VCxname = { fComponent; Object; Event; Concept; Similarity; . . .}. The linguistic part of VISCOM contains classes and relations between these classes. Some of the classes represent semantic content types such as Object and Event while others are used in the automatic semantic content extraction process. Relations defined in VISCOM give ability to model events and concepts related with other objects and events. VISCOM is developed on an ontology-based structure where semantic content types and relations between these types are collected under VISCOM Classes, VISCOM Data Properties which associate classes with constants and VISCOM Object Properties which are used to define relations between classes. In addition, there are some domain independent class individuals [13].
Show more

5 Read more

Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Process Ontology

Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Process Ontology

Figure 2 depicts a fragment of UFO-B. The main category on this ontology is Event. Events can be Atomic or Complex. Atomic events have no improper parts, while complex events are aggregations of at least two events (that can themselves be atomic or complex). Events are possible transformations from a portion of reality to another, i.e., they may change reality by changing the state of affairs from one (pre-state) situation to a (post-state) situation. Events are ontologically dependent entities in the sense that they existentially depend on their participants in order to exist. Moreover, since events happen in time, they are framed by a time interval. The model of Figure 2 depicts these two aspects on which events can be analyzed, namely, as time extended entities with certain (atomic or complex) mereological structures, and as ontologically dependent entities which can comprise of a number of individual participations.
Show more

16 Read more

The epidemiology ontology: an ontology for the semantic annotation of epidemiological resources

The epidemiology ontology: an ontology for the semantic annotation of epidemiological resources

The only currently available ontology specifically intended for epidemiology is integrated into the BioCaster Global Health Monitor [7], a news filter created with the aim of providing “an early warning monitoring station for epi- demic and environmental diseases”. However, the 2,000 classes of the BioCaster ontology are insufficient to provide enough coverage and granularity for a full se- mantic annotation of epidemiological resources. For instance, there is no class for vaccine, and diseases are direct instances of Human Disease or Avian Disease, which are direct subclasses of Disease, highlighting the complexity of modeling these domains [8]. However, in such a multidisciplinary domain as epidemiology, several key areas have already been described in existing ontol- ogies, including, among others, the Disease Ontology [9], Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO) [10], Symptom Ontology [11], Vaccine Ontology [12] and the Pathogen Transmission Ontology (TRANS) [11]. In previous work, we have outlined a Network of Relevant Ontologies for Epidemiology (NERO) [13]. We found that while some concepts are fully covered by these ontologies, others are not, in particular the specific epidemiological concepts that are seldom used outside this domain, such as, for in- stance, parameters like ‘exposure ratio’ or ‘attack rate’. Consequently, a new ontology that covers these specific epidemiology concepts, while reusing and complementing relevant existing ontologies in related domains is needed. Bearing this in mind, we have created the Epidemiology Ontology (EPO), which aims at covering the areas of epi- demiology not well described by other quality ontologies, particularly those related with metrics, parameters and models. EPO currently covers epidemiological and demo- graphical parameters, for which there was very little cover- age in surveyed ontologies, as well as transmission of
Show more

7 Read more

The possibility of ontology

The possibility of ontology

The preceding section has shown a historical progression of metaphysical concepts and conceptions of metaphysics that led to Wolff’s philosophy adopting the form presented in the previous chapter. What I have primarily focused on are terminological developments that enabled Wolff’s conception of ontology as a science of predicates of any possible entity to develop, as well as on the way in which the idea of ontological primacy in nature and knowledge developed. This is one aspect of what I have called the double primacy of metaphysics. Another aspect of this double primacy is the primacy in order. It is the idea that the kinds of predicates that ontology discusses can be discovered through, what Kant would call, pure reason alone. One thinker that can be associated with this particular idea of primacy is Spinoza. In fact, Spinoza’s idea of a metaphysical system at moments comes very close to Wolff’s conception of such a system. In this section I will provide a short comparison of the two and argue that Spinoza should not be seen as belonging to the ‘ontological’ tradition. This, historically speaking, should not be too surprising. What I call the ontological tradition, or maybe I should call it the historical trajectory of ontology, is closely connected to German school- philosophy of the Jesuit and Protestant kind, of which Spinoza, as a resident of Amsterdam, was not a part. Spinoza is, besides other sources, influenced by Descartes, who is himself, although trained by the Suarezian Jesuits, an opponent of the Scholastic way of philosophizing. From this perspective, Spinoza’s refusal to take a university position, with universities being predominantly Scholastic in some way, was a prudent one. 142
Show more

264 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...