The issues of social-nature being in their various manifestations have been considered in the history of philosophy by many philosophers, notably K. Marx, E. Fromm, A. Schweitzer, M. Scheler. In the second half of the twentieth century, when serious industrial and environmental disasters occurred, specialized applied directions of research of interaction between society and nature began to be formed: environmental protection, social ecology, human ecology, medical ecology. Certain aspects of these problems are touched upon in the works of R. I. Girenok, A. M. Gilyarov, A. G. Gulyga, G. A. Novikov, Eu. P. Odum, N. F. Reimers, A. Peccei, V. I. Danilov-Danilyan, N. N. Moiseyev, A. D. Ursul. The researches of V. I. Arnold, I. Z. Kaganovich, N. V. Kartamyshev, A. K. Rychkov, E. N. Konstantinov, N. V. Mikhailovskaya, V. Lenshin, A. D. Ursul are devoted to methodological aspects of transformation of scientific, educational, technical, economic spheres in the context of ecological imperative. To study open, complex, self-organizing systems, to which most natural systems and society belong, A. I. Prigozhin proposes system approach, mathematical modeling, system analysis and probability theory, stochastic and statistical scientific methods . N. N. Moiseyev applies these methods and approaches in the development of "systemic ecology," in the introduction of the concept of "environmental imperative" and in the justification of "environmental feedback"; N. F. Reimers applies them to identify patterns and to create the classification of environmental and eco-social laws. Thanks to the research of O. N. Yanitski in the national science, the sociology of "green" movements was developed.
Luhmann’s main argument is that modern society is functionally differentiated, i.e. it is organized in the form of autonomous subsystems where each fulfils a specific function that is based on a specific dual code and a specific programme. Such systems are operationally closed. He tries to show that none of these subsystems (he mentions economy, legal system, science, polity, religion, education, and ethics and devotes one chapter for each system) is responsible, appropriate, or competent for dealing with ecological problems or solving them because all of them would be concentrated on their own system- specific problems and operations that would leave no place for external problems. In case of the economy Luhmann argues that this system is only interested in prices and hence deals only with ecological problems if they can be expressed in the language of prices. Luhmann simply ignores that the economy is the system where the metabolism between society and nature is organized and that the industrial form of economic production has resulted in global ecological problems. There simply seems to be no solution for ecological problems for Luhmann and he seems to be willing to accept them as irrevocable reality. Luhmann tells us that ecological problems are simply too complex to be solved by society and that problem solution by specific subsystems would be determined to fail because these systems would be functionally differentiated and would by attempting solutions try to act as centres of society which would generate new problems. Luhmann’s systemic fatalism is ignorant and ideologically distorted. The Green movement and the New Social Movements earn only scorn and derision in Luhmann’s account of ecological problems, he argues that they protest against functional differentiation, are self-righteous, lack theory, have no real solutions, name only enemies, stir up and communicate fears. In the end Luhmann argues that he doesn’t want to explain how ecological communication could contribute to a solution of ecological problems and that there can be no privileged location in society that can formulate norms, rules, or guidelines for the solution of these problems (Luhmann 2004: 249). Luhmann’s dualistic systemic approach can’t explain how society and nature are related, how in modern society this relationship generates problems, and it doesn’t contribute any insight to possible solutions. The function of Luhmann’s theory for society is that it is completely useless. Luhmann’s insight is that nothing can be done because society functions as it functions, he is blind for the insight that social and ecological problems are due to the antagonistic dysfunctions of modern society and that more far-reaching social changes are needed.
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Nature is not only the producer of human and society, but also the foundation for existence of human and society. Human and society can never get rid of the dependence on nature and the restriction by nature. If human and society want to exist, they must carry out productive activity to get enough material goods, to outward seeming, the material production is the foundation for the existence of human and society, but all the material goods come from nature, human civili- zation will be inviable without the precondition of nature. Marx said that “hu- man lives on nature; that is to say, nature is the human body that human must interact with continuously to avoid extinction” (Marx and Engels, 1844). As a matter of fact, the material production is the activitycarried out by human and society on objects of labor by using the means of labor; the production of ma- terial products is nothing but the change of material form. It can also be seen from the operation of productive force that both the means of labor and the ob- jects of labor are provided by nature directly or indirectly. Besides, the status of objects of labor directly determines the efficiency of productive force, and is one of the important symbols of productivity level. The productive activity of human and society will become “cooking a meal without rice” if there is no objects of labor. Marx had pointed out that “workers can create nothing without nature and the perceptional external world” (Marx and Engels, 1844). Hence, nature provides solid material foundation for the existence and development of human and society. With the development of science and technology, raw materials in the production is becoming less and less, but various materials still come from the nature, no matter how many times they are processed. Human and society will lose their foundation without nature.
these conceptions of learning are not limited to individual self and students’ past experiences, social and educational demands engender their conceptions of learning (Pillay et al., 2000). Apart from societal factors, educational settings; formal education (educators, courses, school discipline and school climates) and informal education (parents, culture values in society) enculture students’ conceptions of learning (Choi, 2016). The nature of these conceptions of learning can be used to explain differences in students’ academic performance (Alamdarloo et al., 2013). Pivotal and central aspects of students’ learning and academic performance such as their regulation of learning, learning approaches, and learning orientations are meaningfully related to their conceptions of learning, (Vermunt, 1996, 2005; Vermunt & Vermetten, 2004). Thus, questions such as; how students understand subject matter? Why they use certain strategies to learn at school? Why students confine themselves to memorization of content? Alternatively, why students try to comprehend subject matter? All foresaid questions can be answered to a great extent by having an understanding of their conceptions of learning (Crawford et al., 1998; Minasian- Batmanian et al., 2006).
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A report prepared for the United Nations Rio+20 Conference described in detail what a new economy-in-society-in-nature might look like. A number of other groups—for example, the Great Transition initiative and the Future We Want—have performed similar exercises. All are meant to reflect the es- sential broad features of a better, more-sustainable world, but it is unlikely that any particular one of these will emerge wholly intact from efforts to reach that goal. For that reason, and because of space limitations, those vi- sions will not be described here. This chapter instead lays out the changes in policy, governance, and institutional design that are needed in order to achieve any of these sustainable and desirable futures. 10
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blage of heterogeneous entities to act together and break other unwanted links or associations. A poster advertising Spring Planting asks the local society to ‘Please bring plants and bulbs, forks and trowwels trowels.’ In this request we see that it is not sufficient to succeed in bringing the local residents together on the site, nor merely gain their willingness to do some gardening, but that there is also a need for society to provide the tools with which to carry out these activities. This also points to the need for more than purely societal influences on the site – they must come with tools and materials to perform the task (Graf 2014). For example: met- al spades were used (in alliance with a member of the human society) to remove certain actors – particularly the bracken and weeds. Secateurs were used on the ivy; as ivy depends structurally on another entity to survive (usually a nearby tree) along with a connection to the ground for water and nutrients; this cutting of links with secateurs works in two directions to not only cut ties with the ground but cuts the tie with the tree as support. Some gardeners whispered to the plants in the be- lief that the flowers respond well to this. A few gardeners resorted to invoking God to help with matters such as removing pests, encouraging blooming and aus- picious climactic forecasts. Even with all these materials, non-materials, supernat- ural beings and hope; it transpired that it was quite difficult to break links with existing nature 1 and build new connections with nature 2 . Society 2 adopted multi-
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Elsewhere (Costanza et al. 2014a; Costanza and Kubiszewski 2014) we have described in detail a vision of what a new economy-in-society-in-nature might look like. A number of other groups, for example, the Great Transition initiative (www.gtinitiative.org) and the Future We Want (www.futurewewant.org), have performed similar exercises. All are meant to refl ect the essential broad features of a better, more sustainable world, but it is unlikely that any particular one of them will emerge wholly intact from efforts to make human civilization sustainable. For that reason and because of space limitations, we will not describe those visions here. Instead we want to lay out what we believe are the changes in policy, governance and institutional design that will be required to achieve any of these sustainable and desirable futures.
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On Abemama, together with Kuria and Aranuka where the people were also ruled by the uea, society was divided into several classes: a t the top, the Uea and Banuea (royalty); then the Inaomata\ the Aomata\ the Rang; and finally the Toro at the base of the ladder. The Inaomata and the Aomata were a class of freemen and, together with royalty (Uea and Banuea) were landowners. The Rang were landless, and at will could work on the lands of any member of the three classes of landowners and so live on those lands. Sometimes, for good service, a rang could be rewarded with land. A Toro, however, as a slave, was not only landless but theoretically was owned and considered the wealth of the landowners. Although a toro would be fortunate to obtain land of his own from his sister who married a freeman, unlike a rang, who could be a landowner and to some degree a ‘freeman’, he could not; his position as a slave was irremediable.13 The rang and the toro, because they had little or no land, and were dependent on their masters, could not involve themselves in decision making or any other m atter in the village. In many ways their lives were prescribed by their m asters, who, as a m atter of courtesy, would care for and tre a t them fairly well.
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With years of technological advance and diminished “needs,” society is now able to provide a satisfactory living wage to all who work and to meet the basic needs of those who do not. Participation in the various types of work is expected and supported, but not forced. Because work is now more a fulfilling experience than an onerous necessity, there is little resentment of those who do not work but rather a feeling of concern that these people are not developing their potential as humans. Living in more tightly knit communities where social goals are actively discussed, people now better understand the importance of their work and feel greater obli- gation to contribute to the common good. Remuneration for work has been restructured to provide the greatest awards to those who provide the greatest amount of service to the community, such as teachers, childcare providers, and so on.
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In Africa, people on each side fight with each other in order to attain equality. But Whites consider Blacks as mere objects and not as human beings. In order to enslave them the whites have to keep them away from education so that they would not get better in life. Saul says that this inequality and discrimination which existed during the times of colonization should not prevail. The Whites should start considering the Blacks as their equals. In the present society, Blacks‟ culture, tradition, and custom should not be discriminated by the name of race. Their children should be taught to maintain equality; the children of the blacks, right from their birth should be taught about equality and show them their own talents so that they get some kind of motivation. Economy plays a major role in the
Abstract. The structural-functional analysis of the socio-cultural peculiarities of implementing inclusive policy in educational process in Russia is carried out. The issues of the inclusive approach introduction in higher education are touched upon. The main indicators of the living standard in the country including the level and accessibility of education are listed, interrelation of the living standard and quality of education are emphasized. The history of development and the difficulties of implementing inclusive education in Russia are considered. In particular, the historical, organizational, content and socio-economic peculiarities of inclusive education development in Russia are conceptualized. The importance of the inclusion being one of the main principles of the modern society is underlined. The main reasons for the difficulties in implementing inclusive education in Russia are indicated. Some of them are the lack of the necessary theoretical and methodological research as well as material and technical support. One of the main objectives in the implementation of inclusive education is a special organization of educational process including social integration and psychological adaptation of students with disabilities. A special role is given to the teacher who should be able to organize the educational process effectively providing equal opportunities for all its participants. In conclusion, possible solutions of the problems connecting with implementing an inclusive approach in higher education in Russia are outlined taking into account the peculiarities of its development.
The second fundamental cause of extremism is a social factor. Every society is organized in the hierarchic order; therefore constraint, violence and exploitation of man by man are normal natural forms of social development. They are modifications of human aggressiveness. It can be said about some typical social groups who usually can have extreme consciousness. Firstly there are new influential groups who haven't a state power yet and strive to posses it. There are also oppressed classes who struggle against dominant groups in diverse ways right up to revolt. Secondly there are diverse outsiders and marginal groups who hate a dominant culture and strive to establish their antagonistic culture. There are, for example, some criminal subcultures and new religious movements. Both types of nonconformist groups demonstrate high degree of self-isolation and hostility. Thirdly there are often critical altruistic intellectuals who feel their indignation at social unfairness and create nonconformist ideas.
General Baumatanes put a table in front yard of the house and put the result of excess food to be sold to people who pass through the area. Plants commonly referred to as a plant for traditional rituals are bananas, commonly used as a common fruit brought and consumed when no traditional party like woo, marry and thanksgiving. In addition as well as the Indonesian and Timorese society in general, people cannot escape Baumata tradition “betel nut " at every opportunity either daily or for certain ceremonies such as "Natoni" (welcoming guests), traditional ceremony and celebration. Betel nut is put on the spot webbing made from dried wild pandanus baskets rectangular form commonly called “aluk” containing betel (manus), areca (“Puah”) and lime powder. Unlike the Indonesian society in general, the Timorese society do not use but his betel leaf shaped amentum (panicles), betel nuts fresh or dried and mixed with the powder of sea shells that make mixing red color to the blood . Also in Timorese society tradition betel nut and probably the entire eastern Indonesia does not recognize sap “gambier” (Uncaria gambir)
the five different scenario archetypes (See Box 5.2, Section 5.3, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2 for more information). The colour of the cell indicates a synthesis of the overall trends found in the assessment under different scenario options where green indicates an overall increase in the likelihood of achieving the desired policies (Agenda 2063 Aspirations, Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals), purple indicates contradictory trends found (i.e., some reports in the assessment mentioned an increase in the likelihood of achieving certain outcomes, while others reported a decrease), and orange indicates an overall decrease in the likelihood of achieving the policy outcomes. No colour in the cells represents a lack of robust information on these issues in the reports/ studies. This table highlights that while there are many trade-offs to consider under each possible future scenario, there are multiple synergies and policy alignments where more desirable options for sustainable and equitable development are feasible. It also highlights that conditions and policies under a ‘Fortress World’ (see Box 5.2 for underlying assumptions) are the least likely to achieve multiple goals and targets and will ultimately result in the inability to deliver on the aspirations of Agenda 2063 for a future we want in Africa. ‘Business-as-usual’ approaches through reliance on the market forces (MF) and policy reform (PR) offer some options for achieving multiple policy goals, but fail adequately to conserve biodiversity, and resulting contributions of nature to human well-being. Conditions under a more ‘managed transformation’ type of future, through policies and practices aligned with regional sustainability and, to a lesser extent, local sustainability, are shown here to offer a greater likelihood of achieving multiple sustainable and equitable development goals, targets and aspirations. An important message from this table is that while there are more desirable pathways for decision-makers, there is no one scenario option that will achieve all the goals, targets and aspirations. Efforts to co-develop a combination of proactive policies, inclusive and responsible economic tools with a focus on a well-being economy rooted in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, ecosystems and their contributions to people, are key.
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As is known, an eukaryotic gene consists of exons and introns. Exons code protein parts, and introns are "service" inserts (sequences) between them. Exon often but not always corresponds to a domain (module, as the BB is called in this branch). These blocks may be cut out of different genes and shuffled as desired. As a result, chimeric proteins that do not exist in nature are obtained. Some of them have new properties. The said approaches use ferments and the peculiarities of gene structure. May be it is the way of evolution of proteins and RNA in living nature.
The relationships between Gender and Culture have played a significant role in the evolution of human civilization. Culture defined the gender relations in society. Gender provides meaning to what we represent. In every society, certain beliefs and practices that are stereotypes gender and patriarchal in nature, that embedded in culture are gets naturalized when it passed from one generation to another generation. The paper also explores the question of identity and how certain cultural practices reinforce the stereotypes gender and patriarchal practices, to continued domination of men over women. Two case studies are examined to reinforce the finding: female genital mutilation and foot- binding culture in China.
Even with the apparent simplicity in describing the multi-functionality of agriculture, this concept generates some controversy. Authors like Dobbs and Pretty (2004) question the transposition of multi-functional attributes without references to the nature of the irrigated system; while others restrict the multi-functionality of agriculture to a transition from productivist agriculture to the more sustainable dimension of how to use natural resources like land and water. According to this, some authors insists on highlighting how irrigated agriculture is responsible for activities and/or attitudes that are not always favourable to the protection of land and aquatic ecosystems: the use (or abuse) of fertilizers and chemicals, overexploitation of aquifers, soil salinisation or loss of soil fertility are some of the effects of incorrect agricultural practices. Likewise, authors such as Cocklin et al. (2006) question wether it is appropriate to design multi-functionality purely in relation to trade liberalisation and the market valorisation of the commons. They emphasize the neoliberal philosophy that contributes to economic considerations of nature and the minimisation of socio-environmental sustainability. Following this argument, other authors believe that the focus on multi-functionality goes beyond the political spectrum and that it requires a balance between the three aspects of sustainability (social, economic and environmental), with an emphasis on sustainable agricultural practices at the farm and territory level. Some authors also recognise the failure to address economic aspects without focusing on the availability and management of natural resources. They also acknowledge that participation is a tool for knowing more about the social demands on agriculture and irrigation, that is, a way to interact with society. This forms the foundations of the criticism against the multi-functionality of agriculture, both at the tangible level –the quantity and quality of water resources, its contribution to food production, promoted environmental services, and mitigating the effects of climate change– and at the intangible level –structuring the landscape, protecting rural heritage, and promoting recreational activities (Khan and Mustaq, 2009).
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Brands and advertisements seemingly emerge from an imagined nature as the postmodern inversion entails the logic of the consumer society. Ostergaard et al., explain that “Signs imitate something, which is perceived as being real. Here the origins of simulacra, that is, the individual’s essence, the Social and Nature only exist as imaginations that can be regarded as an effect of a culture disconnecting the ‘natural’ order of signs and their referents” (342). In addition, this inversion transforms the traditional conception of the pastoral ideal wherein the consumer ethos subsumes the pastoral ideal, and a postmodern model emerges. Scott Hess specifically argues that in the postmodern condition, advertising incorporates the pastoral ideal to manipulate nature in favour of consumer capitalism. Hess asserts that, “…the entire advertising industry is structured in a pastoral mode, promising a life of perfect leisure and secular happiness without effort, simply by buying the correct product” (78). Instead, Hess explains that the postmodern pastoral ideal fundamentally emphasizes that it is the product, “rather than nature, that guarantees pastoral fulfilment” (79). DeLillo clearly demonstrates this transformation. The Gladneys pass five signs on their journey to Farmingotn, which advertises ‘The Most Photographed Barn in America.’ However, upon arrival they encounter photographers and a tour bus. Gladney’s colleague, Murray, comments on the postmodern pastoral ideal by explaining that “No one sees the barn… Once you’ve seen the signs about the barn it becomes impossible to see the barn” (WN 12). Elise Martucci explains that this reconfigures the traditional pastoral ideal, and that “the peace and simplicity of nature are subverted by the billboards, tour busses, a souvenir booth and a multitude of cameras that comprise the characters’ surroundings” (80). Accordingly, the traditional pastoral ideal of nature is substituted by the dominance of the sign. Realizing the supremacy of signs over nature and the pastoral ideal, Murray explains to Gladney that “We’re not here to capture an image, we’re here to maintain one. Every photograph reinforces the aura…An accumulation of nameless energies” (WN 12). Therefore, according to Ostergaard et al., the postmodern dominance of the sign ultimately becomes cyclical as “There is no longer any reference to a reality external to the exchange of signs” (342) and nature itself becomes
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Background and objectives: The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) Task Force acknowledged the multi-faceted nature of asthma in its recent definition of asthma control as a summary term capturing symptoms, reliever use, frequency/severity of exacerbations, lung function, and future risk and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) defines the clinical manifestations (well established markers of asthma severity) of asthma to include symptoms, sleep disturbances, limitations of daily activity, impairment of lung function, and use of rescue medications. The objectives of this qualitative work were to identify symptoms and markers of symptom severity relevant to patients with moderate to severe asthma and to evaluate the content validity of the asthma symptom diary (ASD).
Abstract: The advancement of a new scientific perspective, information science, devoted to the study of the vast field of informational phenomena in nature and society, implies putting together a number of cognizing domains which are presently scattered away in many other disciplines. Comparable to previous scientific revolutions spurred by thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, it would be time to go beyond the classical discussions on the concept of information, and associated formal theories, and advance a “new way of thinking”. Cells, Brains, Societies, and Quantum information would be crucial arenas for this discussion. Rather than hierarchy, reduction, or unification, the catchword is unending recombination... A mature information science should offer a new panoramic view on the sciences themselves and contribute to achieve social adaptability & sustainability.