For a long time, philosophy of ecology had been developing separately from applied research. At present there is a course towards their mutual convergence and enrichment. In the human mind, the idea of the inextricable integrity of social and natural existence, of their interrelationship and interdependence is formed. Therefore, it is necessary to use in practical social activity knowledge of theoretical beginnings of life and to take into account the specifics of living substance existence as a biogenic basis of biosphere formation, its development and probable degree of coevolution development of society and nature. The result of this process will be the formation of the worldview based on the idea of the significance and self-worth of life, human commonality and wildlife. Since the basis of such commonality is the genetic commonality of the living substance of biosphere of the planet, the bodily organization thanks to which the organic entry of the man into biosphere, into the universe as a whole takes place, one of the problems of the applied philosophy of ecology is the study of human body, the development of personal ideas about it, the disclosure of biological and social features of the world perception [7 -8].
Luhmann’s main argument is that modern society is functionally differentiated, i.e. it is organized in the form of autonomous subsystems where each fulfils a specific function that is based on a specific dual code and a specific programme. Such systems are operationally closed. He tries to show that none of these subsystems (he mentions economy, legal system, science, polity, religion, education, and ethics and devotes one chapter for each system) is responsible, appropriate, or competent for dealing with ecological problems or solving them because all of them would be concentrated on their own system- specific problems and operations that would leave no place for external problems. In case of the economy Luhmann argues that this system is only interested in prices and hence deals only with ecological problems if they can be expressed in the language of prices. Luhmann simply ignores that the economy is the system where the metabolism between society and nature is organized and that the industrial form of economic production has resulted in global ecological problems. There simply seems to be no solution for ecological problems for Luhmann and he seems to be willing to accept them as irrevocable reality. Luhmann tells us that ecological problems are simply too complex to be solved by society and that problem solution by specific subsystems would be determined to fail because these systems would be functionally differentiated and would by attempting solutions try to act as centres of society which would generate new problems. Luhmann’s systemic fatalism is ignorant and ideologically distorted. The Green movement and the New Social Movements earn only scorn and derision in Luhmann’s account of ecological problems, he argues that they protest against functional differentiation, are self-righteous, lack theory, have no real solutions, name only enemies, stir up and communicate fears. In the end Luhmann argues that he doesn’t want to explain how ecological communication could contribute to a solution of ecological problems and that there can be no privileged location in society that can formulate norms, rules, or guidelines for the solution of these problems (Luhmann 2004: 249). Luhmann’s dualistic systemic approach can’t explain how society and nature are related, how in modern society this relationship generates problems, and it doesn’t contribute any insight to possible solutions. The function of Luhmann’s theory for society is that it is completely useless. Luhmann’s insight is that nothing can be done because society functions as it functions, he is blind for the insight that social and ecological problems are due to the antagonistic dysfunctions of modern society and that more far-reaching social changes are needed.
The scientific concept of development demands that human development should be the center and final destination of the harmonious development of nature and society. Development is the aggregation of various values, such as so- cial progress, economic growth, and scientific innovation, as well as improve- ment of ability in acclimating environment and utilizing resources. But all these values will become nothing without the development of human. So the purpose of all the development is for the development of human. Aurelio Peccei, the chairman of Roman Club, said that “in broad sense, human development is the final destination of human, and it has priority status over all the other aspects” (Peccei, 2001). The famous France economist Francois Perroux pointed out that “market is set up for human, not the other way round; industry belongs to the world, world belonging to industry is not true. The legal base for the allocation of resources and products would be the strategy of centering on human, even in the aspect of economics” (Perroux, 1987). The 21 Century Agenda of China put forward that the principle of “sustainable development, human-orientated” should be kept on when it comes to the problem of development. The 16th National Congress of Communist Party of China wrote the pronouncement of “hu- man-oriented” into the documents of Communist Party of China, the scientific concept of development also pays much attention to the “human-orientated” concept (Chen, 2016).
these conceptions of learning are not limited to individual self and students’ past experiences, social and educational demands engender their conceptions of learning (Pillay et al., 2000). Apart from societal factors, educational settings; formal education (educators, courses, school discipline and school climates) and informal education (parents, culture values in society) enculture students’ conceptions of learning (Choi, 2016). The nature of these conceptions of learning can be used to explain differences in students’ academic performance (Alamdarloo et al., 2013). Pivotal and central aspects of students’ learning and academic performance such as their regulation of learning, learning approaches, and learning orientations are meaningfully related to their conceptions of learning, (Vermunt, 1996, 2005; Vermunt & Vermetten, 2004). Thus, questions such as; how students understand subject matter? Why they use certain strategies to learn at school? Why students confine themselves to memorization of content? Alternatively, why students try to comprehend subject matter? All foresaid questions can be answered to a great extent by having an understanding of their conceptions of learning (Crawford et al., 1998; Minasian- Batmanian et al., 2006).
A report prepared for the United Nations Rio+20 Conference described in detail what a new economy-in-society-in-nature might look like. A number of other groups—for example, the Great Transition initiative and the Future We Want—have performed similar exercises. All are meant to reflect the es- sential broad features of a better, more-sustainable world, but it is unlikely that any particular one of these will emerge wholly intact from efforts to reach that goal. For that reason, and because of space limitations, those vi- sions will not be described here. This chapter instead lays out the changes in policy, governance, and institutional design that are needed in order to achieve any of these sustainable and desirable futures. 10
Elsewhere (Costanza et al. 2014a; Costanza and Kubiszewski 2014) we have described in detail a vision of what a new economy-in-society-in-nature might look like. A number of other groups, for example, the Great Transition initiative (www.gtinitiative.org) and the Future We Want (www.futurewewant.org), have performed similar exercises. All are meant to refl ect the essential broad features of a better, more sustainable world, but it is unlikely that any particular one of them will emerge wholly intact from efforts to make human civilization sustainable. For that reason and because of space limitations, we will not describe those visions here. Instead we want to lay out what we believe are the changes in policy, governance and institutional design that will be required to achieve any of these sustainable and desirable futures.
blage of heterogeneous entities to act together and break other unwanted links or associations. A poster advertising Spring Planting asks the local society to ‘Please bring plants and bulbs, forks and trowwels trowels.’ In this request we see that it is not sufficient to succeed in bringing the local residents together on the site, nor merely gain their willingness to do some gardening, but that there is also a need for society to provide the tools with which to carry out these activities. This also points to the need for more than purely societal influences on the site – they must come with tools and materials to perform the task (Graf 2014). For example: met- al spades were used (in alliance with a member of the human society) to remove certain actors – particularly the bracken and weeds. Secateurs were used on the ivy; as ivy depends structurally on another entity to survive (usually a nearby tree) along with a connection to the ground for water and nutrients; this cutting of links with secateurs works in two directions to not only cut ties with the ground but cuts the tie with the tree as support. Some gardeners whispered to the plants in the be- lief that the flowers respond well to this. A few gardeners resorted to invoking God to help with matters such as removing pests, encouraging blooming and aus- picious climactic forecasts. Even with all these materials, non-materials, supernat- ural beings and hope; it transpired that it was quite difficult to break links with existing nature 1 and build new connections with nature 2 . Society 2 adopted multi-
A few philosophers share similar opinions with Albert and Hahnel in terms of today’s world. Sennett (2012) pointed out that the world was full of physical things. Meriç (1981) declared that people in our era scramble for wealth and they are far from their sacred values. Öztürk (2013) claimed that the reality that we lived in post-nihilist age characterized social life. Ellul (2003) indicates in his book called Technological Society that the more economic technic improves, the more it turns the abstract economic human perception into reality. According to him, in the second half of 19th century people have been formulated by binary structure. Firstly people were directed with economy; secondly all the tendencies and activities of people fell out of favor except economy. In other words, all human activities were ignored except production and consumption and people gave in to economy. The problem is that people began to fall short of their nature when they gave in to economy inevitably. As a consequence, people destroy the world not only in ecological respect but also morally.
A Sport of Nature opens with a girl called Kim discarding her name. On a train coming home from Rhodesia to South Africa, ''she threw Kim up to the rack with her school panama and took on Hillela.'' This is the first stir within the chrysalis of the seemingly ordinary child who will become an African legend, a mythic figure of Nadine Gordimer's Promised Land. The names are carefully chosen. Kim is Ms. Gordimer's witty reference to Kipling's famous tale of colonial life. Her family has also called the child Hillela, a name she has never used, a name meant to honor her great grandfather, a Zionist, who came steerage to Cape Town fleeing the Cossacks in a forgotten pogrom, but the girl Hillela, with no mind for history, simply wants to be different. The change of name is a beautifully observed adolescent gesture, but it is also the first move in a powerful novel of awakening, emergence, and, in so far as fiction can make it possible, a call for a new order.
required by the katei (custom), as entertainm ent in the maneaba during inter district or inter-island gatherings, satires to convey a message, allegories with didactic purposes - they could be placed at a time when the people were flourishing with a distinctive way of life coming into being, a time, perhaps, when Gilbertese culture and society were becoming so complex th at a review of long held principles and ideas was necessary, a time when the techniques of the chroniclers (recording, selection and transmission) were fully developed. This time could conceivably have been in the Samoan Peace, when the influential clans from Samoa had settled and dominated the island scene both politically and culturally, establishing themselves and their karaki in the islands. This would be about the latter half of the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth when Tanentoa n Nonouti was ruling most of the southern islands of the Gilberts and other members of Karongoa ruling the northern and central islands.3 As reflections of communities karaki aika Iango are more im portant than simply controls and tales for entertainm ent: they provide avenues to key ideas and concepts of the people; the inner complexities of the period; and the culture peculiar to the generations after the coming of the people of Karongoa and their allies from Samoa which began from about
A recognition and high level of awareness of the importance of natural capital have led to dramatic changes in the way it is treated. The negative environmental impacts of nonrenewable resource use, even more than such materials’ growing scarcity, have forced us to substitute renewable resources for nonrenewables, reversing the trend that began with the Industrial Revolution and making renewables more valuable than ever. Passive invest- ment in natural capital stocks — that is, simply letting systems grow through their own reproductive capacity — is insufficient to meet our needs. Active investment is required. We are actively engaged in restoring and rebuilding our natural capital stocks by planting forests, restoring wet- lands, and increasing soil fertility. The former philosophy of natural capital as free goods provided by nature has disappeared. This change has required and inspired significant institutional changes. For example, notions of prop- erty rights to natural capital have changed. Most forms of natural capital are now recognized as intergenerational assets. For example, legislation in many countries now explicitly prohibits the extraction of renewable resources beyond the rate at which they can replenish themselves, which would leave future populations dependent for survival on nonrenewable resources in danger of exhaustion and for which no substitutes exist.
Abstract. The structural-functional analysis of the socio-cultural peculiarities of implementing inclusive policy in educational process in Russia is carried out. The issues of the inclusive approach introduction in higher education are touched upon. The main indicators of the living standard in the country including the level and accessibility of education are listed, interrelation of the living standard and quality of education are emphasized. The history of development and the difficulties of implementing inclusive education in Russia are considered. In particular, the historical, organizational, content and socio-economic peculiarities of inclusive education development in Russia are conceptualized. The importance of the inclusion being one of the main principles of the modern society is underlined. The main reasons for the difficulties in implementing inclusive education in Russia are indicated. Some of them are the lack of the necessary theoretical and methodological research as well as material and technical support. One of the main objectives in the implementation of inclusive education is a special organization of educational process including social integration and psychological adaptation of students with disabilities. A special role is given to the teacher who should be able to organize the educational process effectively providing equal opportunities for all its participants. In conclusion, possible solutions of the problems connecting with implementing an inclusive approach in higher education in Russia are outlined taking into account the peculiarities of its development.
Local knowledge is formed as the advantage of local culture and geographical conditions in a broad sense. Local knowledge is a product of past cultures that should constantly hold onto life. The value contained in it is considered very universal. Many tribes and communities that have local knowledge, especially regard to the preservation of nature and environment, especially traditional communities whose lives are highly dependent on natural resources and environmental conditions in the vicinity. They are trying to identify, understand and master to be able to use it optimally to meet their needs. Hamzah (2013) states that local community knowledge accumulated and formed in human history has a major role as a basis for the human to interact with environment. According to anthropologist term, local knowledge is local wisdom. Local wisdom is a term first introduced by Quaritch Wales. Anthropologists discussed at length the notion of local wisdom (Ayatrohaedi, 1986). Soebadio (1986) states that local knowledge is cultural identity or personality that caused the nation. A nation is able to absorb and process the appropriate disposition of foreign culture and his own abilities. While Moendardjito (1986) states that the potential region as the cultural element of local knowledge as it has proven its ability to survive until now. In
The second fundamental cause of extremism is a social factor. Every society is organized in the hierarchic order; therefore constraint, violence and exploitation of man by man are normal natural forms of social development. They are modifications of human aggressiveness. It can be said about some typical social groups who usually can have extreme consciousness. Firstly there are new influential groups who haven't a state power yet and strive to posses it. There are also oppressed classes who struggle against dominant groups in diverse ways right up to revolt. Secondly there are diverse outsiders and marginal groups who hate a dominant culture and strive to establish their antagonistic culture. There are, for example, some criminal subcultures and new religious movements. Both types of nonconformist groups demonstrate high degree of self-isolation and hostility. Thirdly there are often critical altruistic intellectuals who feel their indignation at social unfairness and create nonconformist ideas.
the five different scenario archetypes (See Box 5.2, Section 5.3, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2 for more information). The colour of the cell indicates a synthesis of the overall trends found in the assessment under different scenario options where green indicates an overall increase in the likelihood of achieving the desired policies (Agenda 2063 Aspirations, Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals), purple indicates contradictory trends found (i.e., some reports in the assessment mentioned an increase in the likelihood of achieving certain outcomes, while others reported a decrease), and orange indicates an overall decrease in the likelihood of achieving the policy outcomes. No colour in the cells represents a lack of robust information on these issues in the reports/ studies. This table highlights that while there are many trade-offs to consider under each possible future scenario, there are multiple synergies and policy alignments where more desirable options for sustainable and equitable development are feasible. It also highlights that conditions and policies under a ‘Fortress World’ (see Box 5.2 for underlying assumptions) are the least likely to achieve multiple goals and targets and will ultimately result in the inability to deliver on the aspirations of Agenda 2063 for a future we want in Africa. ‘Business-as-usual’ approaches through reliance on the market forces (MF) and policy reform (PR) offer some options for achieving multiple policy goals, but fail adequately to conserve biodiversity, and resulting contributions of nature to human well-being. Conditions under a more ‘managed transformation’ type of future, through policies and practices aligned with regional sustainability and, to a lesser extent, local sustainability, are shown here to offer a greater likelihood of achieving multiple sustainable and equitable development goals, targets and aspirations. An important message from this table is that while there are more desirable pathways for decision-makers, there is no one scenario option that will achieve all the goals, targets and aspirations. Efforts to co-develop a combination of proactive policies, inclusive and responsible economic tools with a focus on a well-being economy rooted in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, ecosystems and their contributions to people, are key.
As is known, an eukaryotic gene consists of exons and introns. Exons code protein parts, and introns are "service" inserts (sequences) between them. Exon often but not always corresponds to a domain (module, as the BB is called in this branch). These blocks may be cut out of different genes and shuffled as desired. As a result, chimeric proteins that do not exist in nature are obtained. Some of them have new properties. The said approaches use ferments and the peculiarities of gene structure. May be it is the way of evolution of proteins and RNA in living nature.
Conceived in the mid-nineteenth century and designed in the mid-1990s, its construction would not start until 2002. At 85 km in length from the Rialb reservoir to the L’Albagés Dam, this irrigated canal brings together a total of 70,150 hectares, affecting 73 municipalities across six counties: La Noguera, La Segarra, L’Urgell, Pla d’Urgell, Garrigues and Segrià. Its legitimacy was influenced by the debate on water availability and the priority of use, the economic viability of the infrastructure, an existing conflict of interests between irrigators and environmentalists –which motivated a significant reduction in the irrigated potential surface– and the social mobilisation around the water uses of the canal. The factor that differentiates this irrigated system from the other two irrigated systems is, precisely, the social mobilization it has generated since its launch, which is remarkable in two respects. On the one hand, there is the environmental nature of the mobilisation, which was driven by conservational organisations and endorsed by the declaration of Special Protection Areas (for births). On the other hand, there is the social nature of the mobilisation, which is reflected in the signing of the Manifest de Vallbona, an agreement to defend the irrigated infraestructure as a tool for integrating the diversity of interests –productive, environmental and cultural– recognized by the Lleida society.
Acknowledgements: We are indebted to the Zoological Society of London who provided funding for the project. We thank Mr Fanindra Raj Kharel, Director General of Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal for his support to the project. At the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) we thank Member Secretary, Mr Govinda Gajurel, Excecutive Officer, Mr Ganga Jung Thapa and Senior Programme Officer, Dr Naresh Subedi for their support. We thank NTNC for hosting and organising two vital workshops that were held to discuss bird status, threats and categories and especially Dr Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Project Coordinator and Senior Programme Office for his strong support throughout. At Himalayan Nature (HN) we thank Chairman, Professor Karan Bahadur Shah and Director, Sharad Singh for their support. We are especially grateful to HN for posting draft species accounts on their website for comment after the two workshops. At the Zoological Society of London, we thank Conservation Programme Director, Professor Jonathon Baillie for initiating the Red List programme for Nepal and his continuous support for the project, and South and Central Asia Programme Manager, Dr Gitanjali Bhattacharya for helping to fund-raise and for gearing up all the support needed to complete the work. The work would not have been possible without the help of a very large number of people who generously provided their bird records. We warmly thank all of them including all those who attended the two workshops for their enormous contributions. A very large thank goes to Mark Turin who generously gave much of his time to organise the scanning of a huge number of unpublished Nepal bird reports held by Tim and Carol Inskipp and posting these online for free download on his Digital Himalaya website. This gave invaluable access to the Nepal ZSL team in writing species accounts. We thank the following additional organisations for their support: Bird Education Society, Bird Conservation Nepal, Friends of Nature, Pokhara Bird Society, Koshi Bird Society, Friends of Bird, Tiger Mountain Pokhara Lodge, Tiger Tops Tharu Lodge, Bardia Nature Conservation Club, Bird Conservation Network Kailali, Koshi Camp, Lumbini Buddha Garden, Chitwan Gaida Lodge, Nature Safari Tours, Nepalese Ornithological Union, Biodiversity Conservation Society of Nepal, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Species Survival Commission, Small Mammals Conservation and Research Foundation and Sukla Phanta Wildlife Camp.
Background and objectives: The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) Task Force acknowledged the multi-faceted nature of asthma in its recent definition of asthma control as a summary term capturing symptoms, reliever use, frequency/severity of exacerbations, lung function, and future risk and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) defines the clinical manifestations (well established markers of asthma severity) of asthma to include symptoms, sleep disturbances, limitations of daily activity, impairment of lung function, and use of rescue medications. The objectives of this qualitative work were to identify symptoms and markers of symptom severity relevant to patients with moderate to severe asthma and to evaluate the content validity of the asthma symptom diary (ASD).