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South America & the Amazon

South America & the Amazon

Other highlights include 14-day small ship Amazon River voyages between Ft. Lauderdale and Manaus, that include an overnight stay in Manaus or our Andes & South America sailings with an optional overland tour to Machu Picchu. There are also in-depth land and sea holidays available to Iguazú Falls or Machu Picchu.

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Malaria vectors in South America: current and future scenarios

Malaria vectors in South America: current and future scenarios

The link between future scenarios under climate change effects and Amazonian savannization process has long been recognized [31, 32]. During a savannization process, Amazonian tropical evergreen forests would be replaced by drier and less productive biomes such as savanna, shrub land or even semi-desert [31]. Amazonian forest could be subject to a decreased precipitation, and a few models suggest the extensive possibility of retreat of the forest [32]. Potential interactions between climate changes and land-use changes may strongly influence Table 2 Spatial association of species distribution models of P. falciparum against each Anopheles vector according to present and future scenarios, South America
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Assessment of Geothermal Resources of South America - A New Look

Assessment of Geothermal Resources of South America - A New Look

Compilation of data sets on subsurface temperatures, heat flux, thermal spring discharges and geotectonic characteristics of subsurface strata constitute essential steps in assessments of geothermal resources. Evaluations of geothermal resources on global scale have been reported by Huttrer (2001), Lund and Freeston (2001) and Barbier (2002), among others. In the past few decades, several attempts have also been made in assessments of geothermal resources of South American continent (Battocletti,1999; Cardoso et al, 2010; Vieira and Hamza, 2014). Results of regional assessments have also been reported on local scales for specific sub-regions of South America. Most of such works have been carried out as parts of updates of geothermal projects in Argentina (Miranda and Pesce, 1997; Pesce, 1995; 2000; 2005; Sigismondi, 2012), Bolivia (Delgadillo, 1997), Brazil (Hamza et al, 1978; Hamza and Eston, 1983; Eston and Hamza (1984); Hamza et al, 1990;
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A mid-Holocene climate reconstruction for eastern South America

A mid-Holocene climate reconstruction for eastern South America

In their supplementary information, Braconnot et al. (2012) present a summary of the available global and regional datasets for the MH and the LGM, derived from different proxies and archives. These efforts (Prentice and Webb III, 1998; Kohfeld and Harrison, 2000, 2001; Harrison et al., 2003; Kucera et al., 2005; Power et al., 2008; MARGO Project Members, 2009; Leduc et al., 2010; Bartlein et al., 2011) have been motivated by PMIP and other modelling projects. Nevertheless, all of these efforts have included only a few records from the Southern Hemisphere. Records from the MH in South America are particularly sparse if compared to records from other locations in the North- ern Hemisphere and with those from the LGM (see, e.g. MARGO Project Members, 2009). Thus, the uncertainties in the palaeoclimate record for this continent are still large.
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The nature of the rainfall onset over central South America

The nature of the rainfall onset over central South America

The regional differences identified in the precipitation and OLR evolution over tropical South America were further analyzed by defining the following three regions: norwthwestern Amazon (NWA, 65° W-70° W, 4° S-7° S), central Brazil (CB, 50° W-60° W, 12° S-18° S), and southeastern Brazil (SEB 50° W-42° W, 25° S-20° S). The station data are plagued by missing observations, so for each of the regions, a group with more complete data was selected (6 for NWA, 7 for CB, and 6 for SEB). The time series of the precipitation averaged over the selected stations in each region and OLR departures (from the annual mean) are displayed in Figure 3. The series were normalized by their respective mean and standard deviations calculated over the whole period (Table I) in order to better compare the changes in both variables. Table I shows that although NWA exhibits the largest annual mean values of both precipitation and convection, CB is the region that displays the largest variability associated with the seasonal cycle, while as expected, SEB exhibits the smallest mean and standard deviation values.
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Systematics of the Oswaldoi Complex (Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus) in South America

Systematics of the Oswaldoi Complex (Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus) in South America

Plasmodium vivax infection was detected in one mo- lecularly confirmed An. oswaldoi B specimen (of 361 posi- tive mosquitoes) collected in Putumayo, Colombia [13]. However An. oswaldoi s.l. has also been incriminated in Amapá, Brazil [49], as a secondary vector in Venezuela [50] and has been experimentally infected with P. vivax in Trinidad and Tobago [51], where only An. oswaldoi B has been identified to date. Correlation of these studies with the known distribution of An. oswaldoi B suggest the po- tential involvement of this species on malaria transmission is over a much wider region of northern and northeastern South America than originally realised.
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Recent Crustal Deformation in West-Central South America

Recent Crustal Deformation in West-Central South America

Multiple satellite passes with different observation geometries can be used to recover more than one component of deformation (Chapters 2 and 3), and if enough data is available, the 3-D deformation field can be reconstructed (e.g., Fialko et al., 2001b). In some regions, the procedure for creating an interferogram fails – the phase is not coherent during the time interval because the radar scattering properties of the ground changed. A map of the coherence is shown in Figure 5 ( lower left) where purple colors indicate low coherence and red colors correspond to areas of high coherence. Lake Crowley is uncorrelated because the scattering properties of water surfaces at the scale of the radar wavelength change completely between observations. I use the InSAR processing software called ROI PAC (Repeat Orbit Interfer- ometry PACkage), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Caltech. This package allows both experienced and new users to processes raw SAR data into a final product that is unwrapped and geolocated and ready for geophysical model- ing. Using this software, I have processed about 400 scenes of SAR data from South America for this thesis. The software source code is freely available at the website http://www.openchannelfoundation.org/projects/ROI PAC/. During the course of this thesis, I have assisted in the development of ROI PAC by writing new programs, modifying existing programs and scripts, and discussing problems and suggestions with the other developers. I discuss some of the specific technical issues that had to be corrected in order to complete this thesis in Chapters 1-3. Details of the software implementation have been published by Buckley (2000), and practical suggestions by Schmidt (2002).
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Predictive Map of Geoelectric Sections of North and South America

Predictive Map of Geoelectric Sections of North and South America

Abstract Predictive maps of geoelectric sections (GES) of North and South America are constructed. The GES maps are capable of increasing the accuracy of electromagnetic field calculations in the VLF − LF − MF ranges of radio waves by 1.5-3 times as compared to the Morgan-Maxwell map. The studies of electrical properties of layered media by combined radio and geophysical methods in a variety of natural and geological conditions, and the proposed method of GES mapping have resulted in the construction of a new generation of maps showing the electrical properties of the underlying medium that account for the layered structure of the crust and have no analogues in the world. Predictive geoelectric mapping of all the continents of the globe is completed.
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Toward continental hydrologic–hydrodynamic  modeling in South America

Toward continental hydrologic–hydrodynamic modeling in South America

country-specific datasets that may be difficult to reach glob- ally. At the same time, it is possible to focus on regionally relevant processes that are usually not included or not well resolved in global models. In South America, for example, several previous studies suggested that lateral water fluxes in large lowland rivers should be resolved using hydrody- namic routing (e.g., Paiva et al., 2011, 2013; Paz et al., 2011, 2014; Yamazaki et al., 2011; Pontes et al., 2017; Zhao et al, 2017), while GHMs generally apply methods based on con- stant/variable velocity or a kinematic simplification of the St. Venant equations (see the overview by Kauffeldt et al., 2016 and Bierkens, 2015). Even if LSMs can be coupled of- fline to more physically based global river routing models (e.g., Yamazaki et al., 2011; Getirana et al., 2017b), calibra- tion in the latter is likely to compensate for errors in runoff generation (Pappenberger et al., 2010; Getirana et al., 2013; Hodges, 2013) and lack of relevant vertical hydrological pro- cesses linked to river–floodplain dynamics (e.g., Pedinotti et al., 2012; Paz et al., 2014; Fleischmann et al., 2018). In turn, fully coupled large-scale hydrologic–hydrodynamic models (e.g., Paiva et al., 2013) can handle the above inter- actions while using one single modeling framework, and are now feasible for using in continental domains because re- cent routing schemes (e.g., Bates et al., 2010) have proved to be computationally efficient for both regional (Getirana et al., 2017b; Pontes et al., 2017; Fleischmann et al., 2018) and global simulations (Yamazaki et al., 2013).
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On the Role of Contagion Effects in Total Reserves in South America

On the Role of Contagion Effects in Total Reserves in South America

several periods of volatility, the orders of magnitude of which are greater than those in the other countries, by the order of magnitude of the Brazilian reserves. This volatility in part depends on the aid that this potential economy offers to the other economies of South America and on the contagion of external crises in emerging partners of this economy. The volatility of the Argentine reserves shows a “softer” behavior in relation to Brazil, mostly oscillating close to 1, with a strong variation in February 2006, leaving the level of 1.1 and reaching 5.1. The Colombian reserves have the lowest oscillations in their volatility around zero; this small oscillation is due to the policy adopted by the Colombian Bank of the Republic, which, according to Gómez (2006), has a type of intervention that is called accumulation or disaccumulation of reserves following a volatility control rule. According to the same author, the bank buys international reserves when the exchange rate is below the moving average of the last twenty days minus 4% and sells reserves when the exchange rate is above the moving average of the last twenty days beyond 4%.
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The Marouini River Tract and Its Colonial Legacy in South America

The Marouini River Tract and Its Colonial Legacy in South America

The Marouini River was not formally surveyed until 1888 when Henri Condreau, a noted French explorer in South America, published an account of his journey. He indicated nothing that could resolve the controversy of whether the Itany or Marouini River systems were larger. Following publication of this work, Dutch boundary commissioners reverted to their earlier argument that it didn’t matter about the rivers as long as Dutch subjects (the runaway slaves) now were the only significant inhabitants of the area. They pointed out the fact, which Condreau acknowledged, that the colonies of Maroons, the ‘Boninegers,’ 47
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Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America

Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America

Malting barley breeding started in 1920 (A���� 1995) based on the selection of introduced barley cultivars best adapted to Brazilian conditions. Crossing began in the 1950’s. Brahma and Antartica brewing industries began to work in barley breed- ing in the 1940’s and 1950’s, respectively (M������ 200?). In 1976, EMBRAPA (National Agricultural Research Institution) initiated a barley breeding program in Passo Fundo, RS. An agreement with the private sector (Antartica, Brahma and Coop- erativa Agraria Entre Rios Ltda.) began to operate in 1994, coordinating private and official research efforts and increasing breeding. AmBev, a new company resulting from the fusion of Antartica and Brahma in 2000, is now the biggest malting company in South America with malting plants also in Uruguay, Argentina, and Venezuela (Z��������� & S������� 2001).
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Fishtail Projectile Points from South America: The Brazilian Record

Fishtail Projectile Points from South America: The Brazilian Record

The projectile points known as Fishtail or Fell represent a specific design associated with the ear- liest hunter-gatherers of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in South America. Brazil was tradi- tionally considered as a marginal area of their distribution because in the past there were only a small number of findings known, often inadequately documented. In this paper we present a gen- eral and unified overview of the Brazilian record, including previously unpublished metric, tech- nological and stylistic features. Also, we report on new findings of fishtail points in order to ex- pand the amount of information currently available. Some issues related to these records are also evaluated by comparing them with data from the Uruguayan plains and the Argentinean pampas. The general picture that emerges after this analysis shows a growing record of fishtail projectile points in southern Brazil, demonstrating a significant presence of these early paleo-South Ameri- can populations.
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Educational Technology and Teacher  Education: Barriers and Gates in South  America

Educational Technology and Teacher Education: Barriers and Gates in South America

ditions in the United States, Europe, and South America. If in the Anglo-Saxon tradition the connection between the reality of “instruction” and the scientific knowledge that comes from its study can be readily apparent, in the Latin American tradition the concept of “teaching” has occupied a prominent position, with “Didáctica” (Didac- tics, Instructional Science) as its academic knowledge correlation. The distinction here is not just a matter of terminology; rather, it defines an entire epistemological system that delineates what is to be considered and re- searched. On the other hand, it is important to point out that, in LA, EdTech is viewed as an equivalent to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. It is for this reason that the use of this label persists, as does the fact of EdTech being reduced to ICTs.
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Characteristics of the equatorial electrojet current in the central region of South America

Characteristics of the equatorial electrojet current in the central region of South America

Rigoti et al. (1999) described the characteristics of the EEJ from an array of 29 vector magnetometers in N-NE Brazil from November 1990 to March 1991. Arora et al. (1993) and Doumouya et al. (1998) described similar re- sults for the Indian and West African region during the In- ternational Equatorial Electrojet Year 1993–1994. How- ever, no information is currently available on the EEJ in the central region of South America. It is of great importance to study the features of the EEJ in this anomaly region to determine whether the properties of EEJ there, which have been taken to be true without any empirical evidence, are consistent with those shown for other regions.
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Tour Leading in South America: Factors Associated with Job Outcomes.

Tour Leading in South America: Factors Associated with Job Outcomes.

Study results also bring policy insights. Of especial concern is the high levels of stress that TLs experience at border crossings given that most TLs were operating in the Mercosur region, which alliance is supposed to guarantee the free movement of citizens across their countries. Therefore, government agents of South American countries should address this issue by facilitating the flow of tourists that benefit their economies. Additionally, the low level of satisfaction that TLs reported with their job insurance reveals the overall lack of legal protection they have in their jobs. This calls for developing policies to create/enhance TLs’ compensation for accidental injury or death, which is critical taking into consideration that the incidence of accidents is frequent in this job because of the large proportion of time that TLs are on the road. All managerial and policy actions suggested in this study should be addressed to enhance the quality of life of TLs, whose work contributes to the growth of the international tourism industry in South America.
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Oroya fever and verruga peruana: Bartonelloses unique to South America

Oroya fever and verruga peruana: Bartonelloses unique to South America

In many respects, Carrio´n’s disease is a ‘‘poster-child’’ for neglected tropical diseases. The illness is endemic to remote, rural areas of South America, and afflicted populations are typically indigent and lack ready access to transportation, modern means of communication, and healthcare. Not surprisingly, few people outside the Andes region are even aware of the disease and the potential public health crisis posed by its spread. Climatic change and vectoring of Carrio´n’s disease by alternate sand fly vectors have undoubtedly contributed to the spread and re-emergence of B. bacilliformis. While immediate remediation of climate change is not realistic, improved sand fly control measures in and around homes, especially during the rainy season, and enhanced surveillance and formation of a multinational database to follow the epidemiology of Carrio´n’s disease in endemic and proximal, nonendemic areas of South America is achievable and clearly warranted. Once identified, an adequate response to the outbreak will require more effective-yet-inexpensive diagnostics that can be done rapidly in rural settings with minimal training and modest laboratory equipment. Solid-phase immunodiagnostics (e.g., ELISA, fluorescence microscopy) seem especially well suited for development in the near-term and could be used in tandem with blood smears to rapidly diagnose Carrio´n’s disease. Patient samples (e.g., dried blood spots as in [187]) could then be submitted to regional reference labs for confirmation of presump- tive identification using blood culture and/or PCR-based tech-
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Tropospheric Circulation Variability over Central and Southern South America

Tropospheric Circulation Variability over Central and Southern South America

Combined Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of low-level atmospheric circulation after fil- tering the synoptic scale was performed for the period 1981-2006 over Central and Southern South America. Modes with 40 and near 70 days frequency associated with swings in longitude of the South Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean heights were identified. Their extreme values were re- lated to drought and to high anomalous precipitation associated to floods in South East South America (SESA). These modes were independent of other sources of variability of the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere, namely MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation), ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscil- lation) and AAO (Antarctic Oscillation). Mode one, which in its positive phase has a circulation similar to the mean winter, has a trend that explains part of the winter warming observed since 1980’s in Central and Eastern Argentina. Variance was calculated for the intra-annual variability, the one associated to the inter-annual variability including trends and jumps, and that of the an- nual cycle. The partition of the total variance was roughly 70%, 10% and 20% respectively. This partition implies that predictability of the regional climate is more critically dependent on the predictability of the intra-annual variability than of the inter-annual variability.
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Energy Integration in South America Region and the Energy Sustainability of the Nations

Energy Integration in South America Region and the Energy Sustainability of the Nations

The political and economic changes on the continent, in the 21th century turned, once again, the landscape of energy integration in the region. First, the election of heads of state of the Left parties made to gather strength in the region’s anti-neoliberal and anti-imperialist discourse, changing the logic of financing projects in the region and strengthening the participation of States in the economies of the countries again. Meanwhile, economic growth achieved by regional countries, especially Brazil, resulted in increased energy demand of us. With this, the first decade of this century, there was a tendency to turn that vision bilaterally in order to give a more regio- nalist and multilateral integration projects to character. It was in this context that was created in 2000, the Initia- tive for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA), in order to promote the intercon- nection of transport, telecommunications , energy, oil and gas pipelines.
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The ecological value of long-term studies of birds and mammals in Central America, South America and Antarctica

The ecological value of long-term studies of birds and mammals in Central America, South America and Antarctica

Recent syntheses of long-term studies of animals have fo- cused largely on studies conducted in Africa, Australia, North America, and Europe [2, 21]. Long-term studies have also been an integral part of ecological research in central and South America and Antarctica ([1]; Figs. 1 and 2; Tables 1 and 2). Perhaps, the most well-known long-term study in the region is Rosemary and Peter Grant’ s study of evolutionary change in Galapagos finches [22, 23]. The Grants’ study, 40 years in the making, has shed important insights into factors shaping phenotypic change and served as a model for long-term ecological research. Other long- term studies, including decades of research conducted at three Long-Term Socio-ecological Research (LTSER) sites in Chile – Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge [24], Senda Darwin Biological Station [25] and Omora Ethnobotanical Park [26] – have contributed to theory and motivated ef- forts to integrate scientific and social science approaches to tackle large-scale environmental challenges [1, 27, 28]. There have also been numerous ‘lower profile’ , but valuable long-term studies in the region (see Table 1
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