highlighting the differences between the control run and the experimental runs. The model domain, used for all of the model runs, covered the entire eastern half of the continental United States including the Great Lakes, the western portion of the Atlantic Ocean, and much of the Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 2.6). The model grid was 150x150 in size with 24 km grid spacing and was centered at 36.96 °N, -81.09 °W placing the center of the model domain over the southernAppalachianMountains. Half-degree latitude/longitude SST data were used with the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset (Mesinger et al. 2006) designated as the initial and boundary conditions, respectively. Boundary conditions were updated every 3 hours. Each model run was a 141 hour simulation initialized at 0000 UTC 6 February 2005, 0000 UTC 15 December 2003, and 0000 UTC 2 March 2001, respectively, for each NWFS event investigated. The model runs were initialized well before the actual NWFS event occurred in an attempt to avoid any preconditioning of the atmosphere by the Great Lakes, primarily for the various experimental runs.
Stream capture is a major driver of the retreat of the Blue Ridge Escarpment, but timescales of capture are not well understood. This study examines stream sediment geochemistry to establish a set of sediment source fingerprints which can be used to identify and date the capture of the Tallulah River. Statistical analyses show significant differences in U, Th, and certain REE enrichment. These differences result from variations in bedrock along the lengths of each river and a shift in relative stream powers after capture to favor mobilization or deposition of heavy elements. The observed differences should be sufficient to identify where Tallulah sediment appears in floodplains of the capturing Tugaloo River, facilitating future dating of the capture event. Understanding the timing of river capture will provide insight into the ongoing reshaping and redistribution of river systems and interactions of geomorphic processes in the continuing evolution of the southernAppalachianMountains.
Runoff generation is a complex process even in relatively homogeneous, undisturbed landscapes. In more diverse landscapes the problem increases in complexity. These points highlight the continued need for efforts within the field of watershed hydrology to better understand how landscape heterogeneity impacts runoff generation. Here we have provided empirical evidence suggesting a link between land use and variation in processes related to runoff generation at the hillslope scale within the Little Tennessee River Basin of the southernAppalachianMountains. Additionally, the tendency for land use to occupy significantly different landscape positions, as described by hydrologically important variables, suggests that at the river basin scale, runoff generation from areas of different types of land use can be expected to vary substantially. However, the relationship between land use and runoff generation remains complex. Additional research is needed in order to better understand variation in the hydrology of areas subject to different forms of land use. In particular, work focused on disparities between land use types in specific hydrologic
Fisheries managers suspect that the quality of salmonid sport fisheries in the southernAppalachianMountains has declined over time, resulting in the gradual reduction of self- sustaining populations of native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta. Native and naturalized salmonids are vital economic, cultural, and recreational resources in western North Carolina as well as ecological indicators of stream quality. There is currently a deficiency of management tools that allow for informed distribution assessments and resource management decisions to be made. Fish occurrence data for brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout exist for only a small portion of the total number of stream reaches that likely support these species. A landscape-level tool to integrate information on stream salmonid distribution would serve a vital need for ecological understanding and fisheries management.
Watersheds without urbanization or impacts from logging are rare in the southernAppalachianmountains. The Joyce Kilmer/Slickrock Wilderness of North Carolina and Tennessee contains 24 km 2 of old-growth forest, with the balance of the Wilderness in a mature second-growth forest. The watersheds of Little Santeetlah Creek and Slickrock Creek are located within the Wilderness. Morphological information, including channel dimensions and longitudinal profiles, was gathered from fourteen alluvial stream reaches in these watersheds. The study sites had drainage areas from 0.25 to 41.6 km 2 and stream slopes from 0.014 m/m to 0.104 m/m. Bankfull cross-section dimensions of the study stream reaches were strongly correlated to drainage area across the observed range of slopes and bed morphology. Cross-section area and width relationships for the streams in this study did not differ significantly from regional curves for the mountain physiographic region of North Carolina. Observations of these reaches did not suggest a definitive rule regarding the proportion of steps and riffles in streams. Pools occupied greater than 50% of the length in all stream reaches with slopes less than 0.07 m/m. Significant correlation existed between step height ratio and slope, suggesting that step height can be approximated as the product of channel width and slope. Riffle length and riffle slope ratios were also significantly correlated with slope, though pool spacing was not.
Clara was quite proud when she saw a group of “handsome officers of Butler’s staff” and was able to insult them in every way by walking on “the extremity of the pavement.” However, Clara did not support the women in New Orleans wearing black because of Yankee occupation. She believe it to be “silly” because their “is not dead, it is only sick. The Yankees are here on a visit.” She also disapproved of women wearing the Confederate flags on their dresses because she was sure the Union soldiers needed no other reminder of whose side the women were truly on. 95 After Yankees captured New Orleans, the women stepped up their assaults by spitting in the soldiers faces and throwing the contents of their chamber pots on them. The outspoken and unladylike behavior was a great example of the women stepping up and not only supporting their men, but making it obvious which side they supported. These practices were not something that would have been seen in antebellum woman. The behavior of the New Orleans elite women was so bad, Major General Benjamin Butler announced his famous General Order No. 28. Butler order that if any woman insulted a soldier of the United States either by “word, gesture, or movement” they would be “regarded and held liable to be treated as a woman of the town playing her vocation.” Butler was not alone in thinking this proclamation would change the behavior of the Southern Women. Harper’s Weekly, posted a sketch of Southern women before and after the proclamation, which illustrated the Southern women transforming from angry bitter ‘prostitutes’ into lovely genteel ladies. 96 However, from Southern newspaper accounts and