Study of diagnostic accuracy

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A study of diagnostic accuracy of the Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory – Thai Version (FOCI T)

A study of diagnostic accuracy of the Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory – Thai Version (FOCI T)

measures for OCD symptoms and severity [6, 7]. Although there are many well-developed self-reported measures of OCD, none of them is able to rapidly assess both symptom enumeration and severity in a simple format just like the FOCI does [6, 7]. The English version of the FOCI [6] was originally developed from the most acceptable measurement tool for symptom severity of OCD—the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)—and showed excellent psychometric properties in assessing the presence and severity of obsessive- compulsive symptoms. While very good psychometric properties of the FOCI have been shown in earlier studies [6–9], the data on a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to determine optimal diagnostic cut-off scores to use it as a screening tool for OCD have never been reported although they are needed [10]. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Thai version of the FOCI by analyzing the ROC curve and cut-off scores, with the hope that the findings would yield support for subsequent uses of this instru- ment as a measure to identify the OCD patients in the Thai community.
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Comparative study of diagnostic accuracy of modified alvarado score, ultrasonography and operative findings in relation to histopathological reports in acute appendicitis

Comparative study of diagnostic accuracy of modified alvarado score, ultrasonography and operative findings in relation to histopathological reports in acute appendicitis

confirmatory (Moberg et al., 1998). Graded compression ultrasonography is an fast, inexpensive and noninvasive method with an accuracy rate of 71% - 90% for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Horzic et al., 2005). But ultrasonography is an operator- dependent modality, and the diagnostic values are different in various studies (Stoker et al., 2009). Also there is no certainty about the effect of ultrasonography on the clinical outcome of patients (Kanumba et al., 2011). Therefore, clinical judgment should not be abandoned because of the lack of ultrasound findings in patients with a high probability of acute appendicitis (Lee et al., 2001). Scoring system for early diagnosis of acute appendicitis was developed by Alvarado in 1986, based on clinical signs, symptoms and differential leucocyte count, with a left shift of neutrophil maturation yielding a total score of 10, known as Alvarado score (Alvarado et al., 1986). Kalan et al omitted the left of shift to neutrophil maturation parameter and produced a Modified Alvarado Score, it is 9 point scoring system that helps in increasing the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis and thus reducing negative appendicectomy rate. Score of 7 or more were recommended for surgery (Kalan et al., 1994). The aim of this study was To assess the diagnostic accuracy of modified Alvarado scoring system, abdominal ultrasonography, operative findings in comparative to histopathological study in patients suffering from acute appendicitis.
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Diagnostic accuracy of capnovolumetry for the identification of airway obstruction – results of a diagnostic study in ambulatory care

Diagnostic accuracy of capnovolumetry for the identification of airway obstruction – results of a diagnostic study in ambulatory care

A strength of the study was that we included a large group of patients consecutively within a large private practice of pneumologists. By reason of free access to health care, also regarding specialists, we think that this enabled us to determine the diagnostic accuracy with minor selection of patients under ´real world´ condi- tions. However, not all patients were included into the analysis, due to interventions performed prior to capno- volumetry. As this occurred in only few patients, it ren- ders this selection secondary. As a major strength we consider the requirement that lung function was assessed via both spirometry and bodyplethysmography at about the same time as capnographic measurements.
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Diagnosing serious infections in acutely ill children in ambulatory care (ERNIE 2 study protocol, part A): diagnostic accuracy of a clinical decision tree and added value of a point-of-care C-reactive protein test and oxygen saturation

Diagnosing serious infections in acutely ill children in ambulatory care (ERNIE 2 study protocol, part A): diagnostic accuracy of a clinical decision tree and added value of a point-of-care C-reactive protein test and oxygen saturation

Methods: This is a diagnostic accuracy study of signs, symptoms and point-of-care tests for serious infections. Acutely ill children presenting to a family physician or paediatrician will be included consecutively in Flanders, Belgium. Children testing positive on the decision tree will get a point-of-care C-reactive protein test. Children testing negative will randomly either receive a point-of-care C-reactive protein test or usual care. The outcome of interest is hospital admission more than 24 hours with a serious infection within 10 days. Aiming to include over 6500 children, we will report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree (+/ − the point-of-care C-reactive protein test or pulse oximetry) in sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. New diagnostic algorithms will be constructed through classification and regression tree and multiple logistic regression analysis.
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Ultrasound mapping of pelvic endometriosis: does the location and number of lesions affect the diagnostic accuracy? a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study

Ultrasound mapping of pelvic endometriosis: does the location and number of lesions affect the diagnostic accuracy? a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study

Our study could be criticised for not more accurately differentiating between DIE of the rectum and sigmoid or between rectovaginal and vaginal disease. We could also be criticised for including subjective assessments such as ovarian and pouch of Douglas mobility which cannot be recorded with ease. However we diagnosed ovarian and pouch of Douglas disease with greater ac- curacy than other features of endometriosis which indi- cates that subjective assessment is accurate enough to be used in routine practice. Reproducibility of these find- ings however needs to be externally validated before we can reach a consensus about the value of subjective as- sessment for the diagnosis of ovarian and pouch of Douglas adhesions. Scanning for endometriosis is diffi- cult and we believe that the use of palpation is of critical importance to achieve good diagnostic accuracy. Gynae- cologists use palpation routinely as part of pelvic exam- ination and they can incorporate it more easily into ultrasound examination than sonographers or radiolo- gists. For this reason it remains to be seen whether these results can be extrapolated to units with different levels of experience and expertise.
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Diagnostic accuracy of non-mydriatic fundus camera for screening of diabetic retinopathy: A hospital based observational study in Pakistan

Diagnostic accuracy of non-mydriatic fundus camera for screening of diabetic retinopathy: A hospital based observational study in Pakistan

these studies varied markedly. These variations were attributed not only to the experience of health professional but also to the reference screening method. Hence external validity of these studies are limited and that calls for conducting similar studies in our own setting in order to explore the diagnostic accuracy of fundal images obtained by NMFC and graded by optometrist for the detection of presence of retinopathy. In view of the above, the current study was planned to determine the diagnostic accuracy of NMFC for DR detection.

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A Prospective study for the correlation of diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonogram with sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for the screening of intracavitary pathologies in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

A Prospective study for the correlation of diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonogram with sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for the screening of intracavitary pathologies in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

This is to certify that this dissertation entitled “ PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR THE CORRELATION OF DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASONOGRAM WITH SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY AND HYSTEROSCOPY FOR THE SCREENING OF INTRACAVITARY PATHOLOGIES IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING ” is the bonafide work done by Dr. V. SANGEETHA., Post Graduate in Obstetrics and Gynaecology under my over all supervision and guidance in the Institute of Social Obstetrics, Kasturba Gandhi Hospital, Madras Medical College Chennai, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of The Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R.Medical University for the award of M.D DEGREE in Obstetrics and Gynaecology BRANCH - II.
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A study of diagnostic accuracy in benign breast disease with special reference to recent diagnostic tools

A study of diagnostic accuracy in benign breast disease with special reference to recent diagnostic tools

In women younger than 40 years, the normal glandular nodularity may be mistaken for dominant masses (27). Women with negative mammograms and ultrasound scans are at low risk for cancer but should be followed up at short term intervals with clinical examination and imaging if biopsy is not elected by their surgeon / clinician (24). Breast thickening is a particularly vague descriptor of a physical finding at clinical breast examination that encompasses a wide range of descriptions including breast nodularity; diffuse cystic change fibrocystic change and breast fullness (24). In this study 78% of the cases with breast thickening were normal when breast ultrasound was normal.
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The Accuracy of GAP and MGAP Scoring Systems in Predicting Mortality in Trauma; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

The Accuracy of GAP and MGAP Scoring Systems in Predicting Mortality in Trauma; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

The produced results and respective data were analyzed via stata14 and MedCalc software. Descriptive indicators were expressed as mean± standard deviation (SD) or percentages using the obtained data. Univariate analysis and the Chi- square (or fisher’s exact test if needed) and independent t-test or its nonparametric equivalent were used to discover the individual relationships between each category and continues variables and status of patients after 24 hours. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be the significance level in all tests. Area under curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of different trauma scoring systems including ISS, GAP, MGAP, GCS and detect its sensitivity and specificity in order to predict the status of discharge “Death or Alive” after 24 hours. Younden’s index was applied to Maximize both, sensitivity and specificity, with the formula Maximum=Sensitivity + Specificity – 1. Hence, best cut-off point was determined based-on Younden’s index for different trauma scoring systems.
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Diagnostic accuracy of oral cancer cytology in a pilot study

Diagnostic accuracy of oral cancer cytology in a pilot study

As borderline lesions diagnosed as LSIL and HSIL are then indicated for surgical resection in our hospital [5, 21], we strongly recommend that cases with cyto- logical diagnoses of LSIL, HSIL SCC and Other malig- nancy should belong to the category of cytological positive. In our study, the number of false-positive and false-negative diagnosis affected cases with LSIL and HSIL may indicate the difficulty in the cytological diagnosis of borderline lesions (Table 4, Fig. 1). While the negative predictive value was relatively high (89.8%, Table 5) when cytological Negative was assumed to be NILM only.
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Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic features for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a single center retrospective study

Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic features for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a single center retrospective study

Ahuja et al. suggested that loss of fatty hilum is not a specific ultrasound feature for malignancy [11]. However, in the present study, loss of echogenic fatty hilum was found to be an independent factor to pre- dict cervical lymph node involvement. Furthermore, compared to other US features, loss of fatty hilum had the highest sensitivity and NPV, but lower speci- ficity. This result is consistent with previous reports [12, 13].

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Presepsin as a diagnostic marker for sepsis: evidence from a bivariate meta-analysis

Presepsin as a diagnostic marker for sepsis: evidence from a bivariate meta-analysis

made the final decision. A data extraction form was cre- ated and the data retrieved from the articles included first author, publication year, the country of origin, samples, presepsin assay methods, cutoff value, and true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative numbers for each study. For studies containing several groups or dif- ferent backgrounds, each one was treated as a single study. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUA- DAS) list, an evidence-based approach for quality assess- ment in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies, which includes 14 items assessing risk of bias, sources of variation (applicability), and reporting quality; each item is rated “yes”, “no”, or “unclear”. The maximum value for each study is 14. 13
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Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Core Needle Biopsy under Ultrasonographic Guidance for Detecting Malignancy and for the Tissue Specific Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Tumors

Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Core Needle Biopsy under Ultrasonographic Guidance for Detecting Malignancy and for the Tissue Specific Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Tumors

Our current study findings confirm the superiority of USCNB over USFNA in terms of diagnostic accuracy and inconclusive rates for detecting malignant salivary gland tumors. The incon- clusive rates of USFNA and USCNB in our study were 19% and 4%, respectively. The cytologic results were considered inconclu- sive when the specimen was deemed inadequate for making a diagnosis or as indeterminate for the presence of malignant tumor or neoplasm when the USFNA or USCNB results were insufficient to make a clinical decision and management plan, both of which are crucial for proper patient management. It is quite disappoint- ing that nearly one-fifth of USFNA examination findings were inconclusive from a practical point of view.
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Clinical significance of additional lateral imaging in diagnosis of prosthesis infection by combined Tc-99m labeled leukocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy

Clinical significance of additional lateral imaging in diagnosis of prosthesis infection by combined Tc-99m labeled leukocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy

The aim of this study was to analyze the additional diagnostic information provided by additional lateral spot images to the diagnostic accuracy of combined Tc-99m labeled leukocyte/bo[r]

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Diagnostic accuracy systematic review of rectal bleeding in combination with other symptoms, signs and tests in relation to colorectal cancer

Diagnostic accuracy systematic review of rectal bleeding in combination with other symptoms, signs and tests in relation to colorectal cancer

survival (Gondos et al, 2008). Current UK guidelines recommend urgent referral of patients aged 40 years and older who report rectal bleeding with a change of bowel habit towards looser stools and/or increased stool frequency persisting for 6 weeks or more. Patients aged above 60 years should be urgently referred if they have rectal bleeding alone or changed bowel habit without anal symptoms for 6 weeks or more (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2005). Referring patients at low risk of colorectal cancer may lead to unnecessary harm (patient anxiety and iatrogenic harm from further diagnostic investigations) and longer waiting time for high-risk patients. An observational study in the United Kingdom reported an average time interval of 47 days between symptom presentation and diagnosis (Barrett et al, 2006).
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Role of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrotest for the assessment of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic liver disease

Role of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrotest for the assessment of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic liver disease

Ultrasonography elastography and serum biomarkers are novel tools among non-invasive modalities to rule out significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Both elastography and fibrotest have a high negative predictive value (NPV>90%) to rule out cirrhosis and significant fibrosis. They can distinguish the patients with minimal/no fibrosis from advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis with great accuracy. Thus, unnecessary biopsies can be avoided in patients with extreme values. Combined check with ARFI with APRI and ARFI with Fibrotest showed a significant enhancement of diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI or fibrotest alone. This study provides an ideal and convenient non-invasive diagnostic method for the detection of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease patients in clinical practice.
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Diagnostic accuracy of the postoperative ratio of C reactive protein to albumin for complications after colorectal surgery

Diagnostic accuracy of the postoperative ratio of C reactive protein to albumin for complications after colorectal surgery

innate immune response, will be influenced by hypoal- buminemia; therefore, wound healing is delayed, and the systemic immune status is predisposing to infection [25]. Although many studies have focused on serum al- bumin before surgery, Hubner et al. [9] showed an early postoperative albumin drop to be related to adverse clin- ical outcomes. Lee et al. [26] found that after oral cancer surgery, patients with postoperative hypoalbuminemia were at risk of surgical site infection. Hypoalbuminemia is thought to be associated with inflammation or previ- ous malnutrition [27]. Some studies have already merged albumin and CRP into a single index to predict outcomes [12, 28]. In our study, we found that an increased CRP/al- bumin ratio could reflect higher diagnostic accuracy for postoperative complications than CRP alone. As a result, it is better to put albumin and CRP together to predict postoperative complications.
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Electronic Nose Technology for Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Prolonged Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia: a Proof of Principle Study

Electronic Nose Technology for Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Prolonged Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia: a Proof of Principle Study

Although the high mortality rate of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (PCIN) can be reduced by timely diagnosis, a diagnostic test that reliably detects IA at an early stage is lacking. We hypothesized that an electronic nose (eNose) could fulfill this need. An eNose can discriminate various lung diseases through the analysis of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An eNose is cheap and noninvasive and yields results within minutes. In a single-center prospective cohort study, we included patients who were treated with chemotherapy expected to result in PCIN. Based on standardized indications, a full diagnostic workup was performed to confirm invasive aspergillosis or to rule it out. Patients with no aspergillosis were considered controls, and patients with probable or proven aspergillosis were considered in- dex cases. Exhaled breath was examined with a Cyranose 320 (Smith Detections, Pasadena, CA). The resulting data were ana- lyzed using principal component reduction. The primary endpoint was cross-validated diagnostic accuracy, defined as the per- centage of patients correctly classified using the leave-one-out method. Accuracy was validated by 100,000 random
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Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children with acute bronchiolitis

Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children with acute bronchiolitis

Background: Guidelines currently do not recommend the routine use of chest x-ray (CXR) in bronchiolitis. However, CXR is still performed in a high percentage of cases, mainly to diagnose or rule out pneumonia. The inappropriate use of CXR results in children exposure to ionizing radiations and increased medical costs. Lung Ultrasound (LUS) has become an emerging diagnostic tool for diagnosing pneumonia in the last decades. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of LUS for the detection of pneumonia in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and to evaluate the agreement between LUS and CXR in diagnosing pneumonia in these patients. Methods: We enrolled children admitted to our hospital in 2016 – 2017 with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis and undergone CXR because of clinical suspicion of concomitant pneumonia. LUS was performed in each child by a pediatrician blinded to the patient ’ s clinical, laboratory and CXR findings. An exploratory analysis was done in the first 30 patients to evaluate the inter-observer agreement between a pediatrician and a radiologist who independently performed LUS. The diagnosis of pneumonia was established by an expert clinician based on the recommendations of the British Thoracic Society guidelines.
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Gene expression based computer aided diagnostic system for breast cancer: a novel biological filter for biomarker detection

Gene expression based computer aided diagnostic system for breast cancer: a novel biological filter for biomarker detection

From the literature review we found that there was only one blood based mRNA CAD for early detection of breast cancer (Aaroe, et al., 2010). This CAD system extracted 738 mRNA probes as breast cancer biomarkers using a filtering method. These biomarkers were used to classify the samples into healthy and cancer cases. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity value for Aaroe et al. (2010) CAD system were 79.5%, 80.6%, 78.3%, respectively. By comparing our CAD system results with their system we found that the accuracies of all classifiers in our CAD systems are better. Specifically, the diagnostic accuracy of LDA classifier was enhanced by 2% and the SVM improved the diagnostic accuracy by 5.5%. The significant improvement of our BC-CAD over Aaroe et al. (2010) system was in the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of MFFNN where our system obtained 93.4%, 94.02% and 92.6%, respectively, which means that about 14% of cancer cases misdiagnosed in Aaroe et al. (2010) system are diagnosed correctly by our system and hence more lives could be saved. Furthermore, using 738 probes for classification reduces the performance of classifiers due to high dimensionality of data compared with 13 genes in our study, 56 times less than in their study.
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