Abstract: The aims of this study was to observe the variation in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in patients with highly myopic macular complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to compare choroidal thickness in these eyes with highly myopic eyes without CNV, matched with the others group by ages, genders, eye axial length and diopter. 72 cases with 72 eyes, confirmed with high myopia in the ophthalmology clinic outpatient of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou Univesity from September 2013 to August 2014, were collected in this study. 36 cases with 36 eyes in the group without CNV and similarly, 36 cases with 36 eyes in the group with CNV. Eye axial length, diopter, eye ground and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on the two groups. Subfoveal choroidal thickness observed in high myopia without CNV group was (102.38 ± 39.05) μm, while that in high myopia with CNV group was (61.72 ± 22.28) μm. The difference of choroidal thickness (CT) between the each two groups was statistically significant (t=5.16, P<0.05). A statistically significant negative corre- lation was found between CT and eye axial length. In high myopia group, r=-4.13 and P=0.012, while in high myopia with CNV group, r=-5.52 and P=0.000. The development of high myopia may be associated with the choroid blood perfusion. The thinning of choroidal thickness leaded by reduced choroid blood perfusion may play a role in the oc- currence of choroidal neovascularization.
Subfoveal choroidal thickness was evaluated in the patients with acute ICSCR at baseline and 3 days, one week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after photodynamic therapy. The choroid was observed by EDI-OCT (Spectralis HRA + OCT, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The device was posi- tioned close to the eye to obtain inverted images of the fundus, but the images were reinverted for display. Eye tracking was used during measurement. Seven sections, each containing 25 averaged raw scans, were obtained within a 5–30 degree
There are conflicting reports on the effect of PRP on choroidal thickness in eyes with PDR. It has been reported that there is an initial increase in the SFCT after PRP  followed by choroidal thinning at 12 weeks . However Sudhalkar et al. found no difference in the SFCT between treated (PRP done) and treatment naïve PDR. Since all cases of PDR in our study had undergone PRP more than 6 months prior to our assessment, we cannot analyse whether the choroidal thinning noted in Fig. 2 Comparison of average subfoveal choroidal thickness (with 95% confidence intervals) in eyes of non-diabetic controls (group N) versus diabetic subjects without diabetic retinopathy (group D) versus diabetic subjects with diabetic retinopathy (group R)
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) changes following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy and to identify SFCT and clinical parameters associated with functional anatomical prognoses in eyes with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). Meth- ods: Forty-five pathologic myopia patients with unilateral mCNV (45 eyes) were enrolled in the study. All patients were treated with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or ranibizumab by Pro Re Nata regimen. All subjects were evaluated by Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at baseline, one month, three months, and final visit after treatment. Results: Anti-VEGF therapeutics revealed significantly improved best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), significantly decreased central foveal thickness (CFT), and greatest linear dimension (GLD) (all P < 0.05). SFCT revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) after anti-VEGF treatment. In multivariate regression analy- sis, baseline BCVA and recurrence associated significantly with final BCVA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Baseline GLD and recurrence were associated significantly with final GLD (P = 0.001, respectively). In generalized linear model (GLM) analyses, number of injections was associated with recurrence (P = 0.001). However, SFCT was not associated with final BCVA, GLD, and number of injections. Conclusion: Anti-VEGF regimen was proven to be effective on mCNV, probably arousing significant changes in choroidal thickness. However, SFCT was not associated with functional and anatomical prognoses.
Age is associated with SFCT in both high myopic and healthy eyes. In eyes without high myopia, age was found critical for evaluation of SFCT in two healthy Chinese co- horts, one from Guangzhou in southern China, and an- other from Beijing in northern China [28, 32]. SFCT in subjects older than 60 years of age was much thinner than that in younger subjects, and the SFCT after 60 years of age seemed to keep relatively stable in healthy cohorts [28, 29, 32]. The age of the patients in our cohort was from 18 to 88, but most of the cases were older than 30 years. The speed of SFCT decrease after 50 years of age looked much slower than that from 18 to 49 years of age (Fig. 1, right). Our study did not focus on young myopes. Choroidal thickness in young population [33, 34] might be quite different compared with in older ones.
Patients were eligible for the study if they had an isolated dermatological diagnosis of cutaneous vitiligo. The exclusion criteria were variables that might confound with choroidal thickness measurements. Patients were excluded if they had a systemic condition reported or presumed to affect the choroid such as hypertension, dia- betes, and atherosclerosis, or an ocular condition reported or presumed to affect the choroid such as previous ocular trauma or surgery, or high refractive error (+6 and −6 diopters as cycloplegic spherical equivalent). Patients with history of inflammatory eye conditions that could have been an attack of uveitis (e.g. Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada (VKH), sympathetic ophthalmitis, or viral uveitis)
In the retrospective case series, we collected and evalu- ated the data of 36 patients with unilateral ME second- ary to RVO. Nineteen patients had CRVO, and 17 patients had BRVO. The diagnosis was determined ac- cording to the fundus examination and fluorescein angi- ography. Inclusion criteria were as the follows: (1) the age ranged from 50 to 70 years; (2) recent-onset (less than 1.5 months) and treatment-naïve when presented to the hospital; (3) was ischemic subtype and had received at least one intravitreal ranibizumab injection after newly diagnosed; (4) had follow-up of at least 2 weeks; (5) had comprehensive ophthalmic examinations before and after treatment. Patients were excluded if their fel- low eyes had any macular disorder such as age-related degeneration (AMD), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) or central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Pa- tients were also excluded if the affected eyes or fellow eyes had any of the following criteria: (1) axial length > 26.00 mm or < 22.00 mm; (2) a history of pars plana vi- trectomy or other intraocular surgeries within half year. The present study followed the tenets of the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the ethics committee in hospital. The subjects had been informed written con- sent on the study.
Several studies demonstrated the possibility of imaging of the choroid using spectral-domain OCT. 2–6 Many studies investigated variation in the choroidal thickness (CT) occurring with changes in age 3,4 and axial length, 5 or in different ocular diseases. 6 Diabetic macular edema (DME)is a major cause of visual loss in diabetic patients. 6 There are large differences in the results of papers studying choroidal thickness in patients having DME. Some studies showed that the mean
Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefrac- tometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 µm, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r 2 =0.33,
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, swept source optical coherence tomography scans of eyes with steroid- associated CSC (group A) were compared with the same in idiopathic CSC (group B). The key features included central subfield retinal thickness, subfoveal choroidal thickness, subfoveal large choroidal vessel diameter, subretinal deposits, retinal pigment epithelial irregularities, double layer sign, hyperreflective dots, intraretinal fluid, and choroidal vascu- larity index (ratio of choroidal luminal area and total choroidal area, measured on a high definition horizontal 9 mm OCT B-scan.
received ranibizumab 0.5 mg at baseline, and then again at months 1 and 2. They did not receive additional treatments unless certain pre-speciﬁ ed criteria were met. These criteria included a loss of ⱖ 5 ETDRS letters, and/or an increase in macular thickness of at least 100 microns, continued subretinal ﬂ uid detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after one month, new hemorrhage, and new neovascularization. An analysis of 37 patients produced encouraging data in terms of reduced retinal thickening, and improved VA, but for a number of reasons, these results cannot be generalized to clinical practice. First, this was a single center trial, involving only 40 patients. Also, patients in this study had all types
practice, these anti-inflammatory agents were used in all our patients, blunting the inflammatory insult caused by the surgery. At this moment, we are not able to study the effect of phacoemulsification on retinal and choroidal morphology in patients who are not treated with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids because this would unacceptably increase their risk of developing Irvine-Gass syndrome. Therefore, the true effect of phacoemulsifica- tion on choroidal thickness cannot be evaluated. However, studying choroidal morphology in patients who do develop this syndrome, despite postoperative anti-inflammatory prophylaxis, may help to understand the possible choroidal changes induced by phacoemulsification.
Subjects were Chinese aged 6 and 10 years (inclusive), with low myopia (0.50–4.00 D) and low astigmatism (≤1.25 D) in both eyes, and low anisometropia (≤1.50 D). Their eyes were symmetrical in corneal topography (<2.00 D difference). They had no prior myopia control experience nor any systemic or ocular conditions that could affect refractive development. A total of 40 healthy subjects were randomly selected, 20 wearing SV specta- cles and 20 undergoing ortho-k treatment for 1–4 weeks. The Spectralis OCT was used for capturing chorioret- inal images. For each subject, three series of EDI-OCT images were taken, using the high-speed star scanning protocol, consisting of six 30° long line scans, each sepa- rated by 30°, radially centred at the fovea. All the images were captured under EDI mode for enhanced visualisa- tion of choroidal tissues. The automatic real-time mean was set to allow using the average of 30 B-scans. The first image taken was treated as the reference image and served as the registration link for the following images. The ‘Auto Rescan’ function was applied in order to achieve sequential images of the same retinal location tracked by the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The first two images captured for either eye (randomly selected) were used for data analysis.
treatment of small choroidal melanoma that failed to respond to the plaque radio- therapy alone by Oosterhuis and coworkers  in 1995. It probably affects the choroidal vessels by hyperthermia. Hyper- thermia damages the endothelium of CNV or tumor vessels and results in platelet ag- gregation, blood cell adhesion, thrombosis and obstruction of vessels, release of va- soactive molecules, and increased vascular permeability . Yet more has to be done to reveal the exact overlying mechanisms. The concept of minimizing collateral dam- age to adjacent or overlying retina is the ra- tionale behind PDT and indocyanine
Methods: Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with choroidal neovasularizations (CNVs) secondary to AMD were studied. The pretreatment values of the central retinal sensitivity determined by Micro Perimeter 1 (MP1; Nidek Technologies), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-determined FT were compared to the postoperative values at three and six months after PDT.
Abbreviations: AMD, age-related macular degeneration; CR, coefficient of regression; Beta, standardized partial regression coefficient; PED, pigment epithelium detachment; glD, greatest linear dimension; PDT, photodynamic therapy; CrT, central retinal thickness; BCVa, best-corrected visual acuity; CnV, choroidal neovascularization; PCV, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; CFH, complement factor h; HTRA1, high temperature requirement a-1; PEDF, pigment epithelium- derived factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
PDT has reduced the risk of vision loss for AMD patients with subfoveal CNV. PDT is considered to be effective, especially for PCV. Data from the EVEREST study showed that PDT combined with intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) or alone was superior to IVR monotherapy in achieving complete regression of polyps in patients with symptom- atic PCV. 7 However, several studies have reported that
1,208 participants with neovascular AMD were random- ized to ranibizumab or bevacizumab on either a monthly or as-needed schedule. Both bevacizumab and ranibizumab had similar efficacies on VA over 24 months, and there were no differences between the two drugs in the frequency of death or arteriothrombotic events. The remaining issue was the unresolved debate of higher rates of serious adverse events with bevacizumab because of a lack of specificity to condi- tions associated with inhibition of VEGF. The Inhibition of VEGF in Age-related Choroidal Neovascularization (IVAN) study was a second head-to-head trial with an analogous protocol, enrolling 610 patients, and its primary outcome of best VA at 2 years again supported the fact that bevaci- zumab was not inferior to ranibizumab. 134 A meta-analysis
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Choroidal blood flow is the highest in the body to satisfy the metabolic demands of the outer retina . A very thin choroid as found in highly myopic eyes may deliver decreased amounts of oxygen and nutrients to the outer retina. This may affect signal generation by the photo- receptors or loss of overlying photoreceptors leading to decreased vision. OCT has emerged as an important imaging method in the evaluation and management of choroidal conditions. Ultrasonography (B-scan), though sometimes used to evaluate choroid, has limited clini- cal applicability due to poor resolution . On the other hand, indocyanine green (ICG) angiography reveals use- ful clinical information about its vascularity but is inva- sive and does not provide cross-sectional images . Spaide et al.  had proposed enhanced depth imaging (EDI) technique of imaging the RPE-Bruch’s choriocapil- laris complex using Spectralis OCT which allows consist- ent choroidal visualization in most eyes. However, EDI system cannot create 3-dimensional choroid maps as the choroidoscleral boundary is not well delineated because of lack of deep penetration [11, 18].
Although the primary regulatory role of the choroid is well known, the in vivo clinical association of CT with MOPP has yet to be determined in HM pregnancy. Pre- vious studies have reported that ocular blood flow in- creases throughout gestation . In our study, we found that MOPP increased during the third trimester compared with postpartum groups (p < 0.05) (Fig. 2). However, no significant associations between CT and MOPP during pregnancy (p > 0.05) (Table 2) were found. These findings are in accordance with those of Kim et al., who found no significant correlation between subfo- veal CT and MOPP (p > 0.05) in healthy subjects . In contrast, Sayin et al. found subfoveal CT to be positively correlated with MOPP in pregnant women with no pre- eclampsia, while no correlation existed in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia . The reasons for there