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Second successions to secure tenancies

Second successions to secure tenancies

This formulation has a modest effect. All that it adds to the existing understanding of the succession provisions is one inter-familial succession. It does not raise the spectre of a never-ending chain of successions through multiple generations of the same family. Indeed, multiple ‘successions’ are actually possible under the existing scheme: H1 and W1 are married couple joint tenants. They divorce. The court transfers the tenancy to W1 as tenant de novo. W1 marries H2. They divorce. The court transfers the tenancy to H2 as tenant de novo. H2 marries W3. They divorce… and so on. That might be thought a very peculiar result. There is nothing in the least peculiar about allowing the child of deceased council joint tenants to continue to live in her family home as a tenant following her remaining parent’s death.

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Palaeobiology of Indian Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Successions— Recent Developments

Palaeobiology of Indian Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Successions— Recent Developments

known for more than 100 years, yet affinities of many of them remained enigmatic. Sharma et al. (2009) resolved this conundrum and presented a model which is known as ‘hybrid model’. Morphological diversity of C. circularis and T. dalensis have been recorded from Late Palaeoproterozoic to Late Neoproterozoic successions (Fig. 7A-K). Helically coiled carbonaceous remains have been recorded from Late Palaeoproterozoic and Early Mesoproterozoic successions. These are variously described as Katnia singhii, Grypania spiralis and Spiroichnus beerii (Figs. 8A-E). Debate continued with regard to their nature whether these represent eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Sharma and Shukla (2009) firmly established them as prokaryotic remains. These are probably the earliest large size prokaryotes known in the earth’s history. Studies on these remains from India have led to a better understanding of the evolutionary pathways adopted by life forms during the Neoproterozoic Era (1000-541 Ma). All such remains have been investigated for their biogenicity, syngenecity and age because of possible errors in distinguishing the true fossils from pseudofossils. As number of such reports increased over the year and there is a need for comprehensive review from time to time. Sharma et al. (2012) reviewed carbonaceous compression fossils recorded from the various Precambrian basins of India. Sharma and Shukla (2012b) reported annulated compression/impression fossils from the Hulkal Formation of Bhima Basin of India (~750 Ma) and established the existence of Pre- Ediacaran epi-benthic organisms. Elsewhere, earliest multicellular megascopic benthic algal life has been documented from the Ediacara and slightly older periods (~635-541 Ma) and includes complex multicellular carbonaceous megascopic forms (seaweed) (Yuan et al., 2011, 2013). Significance of carbonaceous fossils from Bhima basin of India lies in their antiquity, which suggests that these forms survived the glaciation events and passed into the Ediacaran time. Babu and Singh (2013) reported diversified carbonaceous remains occurring on the Early Mesoproterozoic grey shales of the Saraipali Formation, Singhora Group of the Chhattisgarh Supergroup. Babu and Singh (2013) recovered some peculiar compression and impression fossils of multicellular benthic and planktic eukaryotic forms from the Latest Palaeoproterozoic to Early Mesoproterozoic age (Figs. 9A-B).

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Archean to Recent aeolian sand systems and their preserved successions: current understanding and future prospects

Archean to Recent aeolian sand systems and their preserved successions: current understanding and future prospects

How can geologists best account for the preserved expression of aeolian sedimentary successions and relate such deposits to the varied set of processes responsible for their generation? “The answer my friend is blowin' in the wind” (Dylan, 1963), and has been for at least 3.2 billion years. The aim of this study is to present an overview of the current state of the science relating to the sedimentology of aeolian sand systems and their preserved successions. Specific objectives are as follows: (i) to demonstrate the variability and complexity of the sedimentology of recent and ancient aeolian sand systems; (ii) to show how the spatial and temporal distribution of aeolian systems and preserved successions has varied throughout Earth history; (iii) to discuss the main mechanisms for the construction, accumulation and preservation of aeolian systems; and (iv) to present some future perspectives relating to issues that currently remain unresolved in aeolian sedimentology, thereby highlighting research targets and opportunities for the future. This study is supported by a suite of complementary material arranged in a series of tables that detail many of the best-known and most representative examples of siliciclastic as well as some carbonate aeolian sand seas and coastal dunefields from the Archean and Proterozoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras (see also Blakey et al., 1988; Tedford et al., 2005; Veiga et al., 2011a; Simpson et al., 2012). Although this work represents an attempt to compile an authoritative database of case-study examples for all periods in Earth history, many smaller and lesser-known aeolian systems have been omitted due to space limitations. The references contained in the supplementary tables of case studies (together with those references cited in the main manuscript) are contained in the supplementary file entitled ‘References text and tables’.

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Set partitions with successions and separations

Set partitions with successions and separations

Partitions of the set { 1, 2,...,n } are classified as having successions if a block contains con- secutive integers, and separated otherwise. This paper constructs enumeration formulas for such set partitions and some variations using Stirling numbers of the second kind. 1. Introduction

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Depositional Facies and Sequence Stratigraphic Study in Parts of Benin (Dahomey) Basin SW Nigeria: Implications on the Re Interpretation of Tertiary Sedimentary Successions

Depositional Facies and Sequence Stratigraphic Study in Parts of Benin (Dahomey) Basin SW Nigeria: Implications on the Re Interpretation of Tertiary Sedimentary Successions

The only existing geological map on the basin produced by [1] has recognised the exposed sedimentary suc- cessions in the area of study as Coastal Plain Sands/Benin Formation and Alluvium, which consist of littoral and lagoonal deposits. The present fieldwork carried out in the area has revealed that the outcrops of sedimentary successions contain lithofacies that can be regarded as part of Ilaro Formation. As previously described Ilaro Formation is a sequence of predominantly coarse sandy estuarine, deltaic continental beds which display lateral facies changes [28]. It consists of coarse, angular and poorly sorted sand with considerable amount of clay layers and rare occurrence of shale. The environment of deposition varies from marine to non-marine deposits exhibit- ing transition from marine in the basal part to continental in the upper beds. Over most of the outcrops, the for- mation is continental in character and shows lateral changes in thickness and lithology which are rapid and con- fusing. The sediments identified in the present study area have confirmed the continental character and lateral changes in facies of the Ilaro Formation.

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Fiamme textures in volcanic successions: Flaming issues of definition and interpretation

Fiamme textures in volcanic successions: Flaming issues of definition and interpretation

Fiamme texture occurs in both volcaniclastic facies and coherent parts of lavas, and in both subaerial and subaqueous volcanic successions. This texture is not uniquely diagnostic of any particular origin. Hence, the interpretation of fiamme-bearing facies requires addition- al information on the context, especially the contact relationships, geometry and internal organisation, and the style and intensity of any alteration. Given that fiamme textures are generated by a wide range of processes, we recommend a purely descriptive definition. We suggest that ‘ fiamme texture ’ be used to refer to multiple, aligned lenses that define a pre-tectonic foliation. The lenses, or fiamme, have the same mineralogy, texture and compo- sition, and are separated by domains of different mineralogy, texture or composition. This definition allows ‘fiamme’ and ‘fiamme texture’ to be used for fresh

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Volcanic Successions of the Jebal Remah Volcano, Northeast Jordan

Volcanic Successions of the Jebal Remah Volcano, Northeast Jordan

The scoria of the lower two horizons are commonly loose and friable compared to younger horizon of the same eruptive phase. This may reflect a low deposi- tion temperature indicating that they were solidified in the air after expansion of the plume (fire fountain) and deposited cool on the earth under the influence of gravity. On the other hand, the occurrence of ag- glutinated zones in the upper horizon reflects the de- crease in gas content of the magma near the end of the eruption, resulting in ejection from a lower erup- tion column of pastely spatter fragments, which re- tain enough heat to agglutinate together on landing. Frequently, the basalt effusion, particularly in the ter- minal stages, may reflect the complete degassing of the magma at the end of eruptions and gives an indi- cation of waning explosivity with time. This dissimi- larity within the volcanic successions of Jebal Remah volcano supports that the magma increased in fluid- ity and temperature and decrease in volatile content with time. Thus, the volcano shows thermal facies in- dicating overall up-section increase in temperature and reflects downward decrease in the volatile con- tent of the magma chamber.

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Pumiceous rhyolitic peperite in ancient submarine volcanic
successions

Pumiceous rhyolitic peperite in ancient submarine volcanic successions

Pumiceous peperite is associated with a rhyolitic sill that intruded wet, unconsolidated, submarine stratified pumice breccia in the Cambrian Mount Read Volcanics, Australia. Other examples of pumiceous peperite described in this paper occur at the pumiceous base of a rhyolitic lava and the margins of a rhyolitic cryptodome complex in the Miocene Green Tuff Belt, Japan. Intervals of pumiceous peperite are thin ( 6 15 m), laterally discontinuous, massive, poorly sorted and the clast-to-matrix ratio varies significantly over short distances. They are composed of feldspar- phyric tube pumice clasts and domains of clastic sediment that include stratified pumice breccia, pumiceous siltstone and bioturbated mudstone. The sediment domains may be massive or may display relic depositional structures. Sediment adjacent to pumice clasts is silicified, possibly reflecting induration on contact with hot pumice. Pumiceous peperite has gradational contacts with in situ and clast-rotated pumiceous hyaloclastite and coherent pumiceous rhyolite. Gradational relationships between pumiceous peperite and coherent pumiceous rhyolite, pumice clasts with chilled margins and curviplanar surfaces, and abundant jigsaw-fit texture imply that quench fragmentation and autobrecciation were the dominant mechanisms of clast formation. The formation of pumiceous peperite is favoured by a combination of low confining pressure and delayed quenching allowing vesiculation. Pumiceous peperite may easily be misinterpreted or overlooked as it resembles other pumice-rich facies that are common in submarine volcanic successions. The correct identification of pumiceous peperite can provide evidence to constrain the timing of intrusive episodes in volcanic successions. 3 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Permeability of rock discontinuities and faults in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group (UK), insights for management of fluvio-aeolian aquifers worldwide

Permeability of rock discontinuities and faults in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group (UK), insights for management of fluvio-aeolian aquifers worldwide

intergranular flow even at relatively shallow depths (<~150 mBGL) because they are less prone to fracture development. Results from this review find practical applicability in man- agement of deep aquifers. Indeed, faults in fluvial deposits represent an optimum target, at least in comparison to those displacing aeolian successions, for enhancing recovery of fluids in geothermal reservoirs. Despite this, flowing bedding plane fractures can partially take over from this conduit be- haviour in fluvial deposits. Bedding planes may favour fluid flow parallel to the beds discouraging the rise of contaminants from nuclear waste repositories and hydrofracturing of shale gas reservoirs near faults. The contribution of mechanical dis- continuities to flow in fluvial-aeolian successions decreases with depth to a level where intergranular flow becomes dom- inant. In matrix flow aquifers, the effective flowing (kinematic) porosity, which represents a key parameter for modelling of solute contaminant transport, is larger than that in fracture flow systems. Thus, with increasing depth in fluvial-aeolian successions, there tends to be a decrease in the migration velocities of contaminants. In this article, the hydraulic properties of fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succes- sions have been reviewed to develop better-informed concep- tual models over a wide depth interval (~0–4 km), which is of particular interest across multiple branches of the energy in- dustry sector.

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Facies Architecture of the Volcanic Sedimentary Complex of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal and Spain

Facies Architecture of the Volcanic Sedimentary Complex of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal and Spain

Volcanic facies analysis of the volcanic successions that host the major massive sulfide deposits (other than Neves Corvo) in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is urgent. Identifying similar features among the volcanic successions that host the massive sulfide ore deposits, and any contrast with apparently barren successions, may have exploration implications, and help to define new or more restricted areas for exploration. Further compositional data on the felsic volcanic rocks may also have exploration significance. The rhyolitic lavas at Neves Corvo have slightly different compositions from other texturally similar felsic lavas and domes at Serra Branca or Albernoa.

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Vegetation and soil recovery on shallow landslide scars in tertiary hill country, east Cape region, New Zealand

Vegetation and soil recovery on shallow landslide scars in tertiary hill country, east Cape region, New Zealand

Summary: Primary successions involving teatree (Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides with some Leptospermum scoparium) were studied on shallow landslide scars on soft sedimentary (mudstone) hill country under extensive pastoral use in the East Cape (Tairawhiti) region, using a 5-72 yr chronosequence established from sequential aerial photography and the age of the oldest teatrees on scars. Dynamics of primary even-aged teatree stands are similar to those in secondary successions on reverting pasture described previously from the region. Height growth rates and basal area indicate that the productivity of teatree stands on landslide scars is similar to that on intact regolith. Although seventy five vascular species were recorded, one-third of them adventive, only five species - all native - were consistently present. Classification and ordination revealed four distinct stages in the evolution of ground layer communities, the first three with <50% plant cover (establishment and persistence of adventive grasses and herbs for 15 years; exclusion by shading of species other than Hypochoeris radicata and mosses from 15-30 years; establishment of Microlaena stipoides, Uncinia spp., and ferns from 30-50 years) and the fourth with >50% plant cover (principally M. stipoides, from 50 years), reflecting the dynamics - dominated by intraspecific competition - of the teatree stands. Apart from Leucopogon fasciculatus, other early successional canopy species were rare and later successional canopy species typical of primary forest in the region were absent. Despite the presence of seed sources of later successional canopy species in nearby remnants of primary forest and the persistence of their dispersers, continued removal of mostly palatable potential successors by grazing will stall their progression to tall forest. Mean soil depth increased logarithmically with age, from an average of 20 cm at age 10 yr to 58 cm at age 70 yr, a rate substantially faster than on sandstone elsewhere in the country.

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Oxygen minimum zones in the early Cambrian ocean

Oxygen minimum zones in the early Cambrian ocean

The relationship between the evolution of early animal communities and oceanic oxygen levels remains unclear. In particular, uncertainty persists in reconstruc- tions of redox conditions during the pivotal early Cambrian (541-510 million years ago, Ma), where conflicting datasets from deeper marine settings suggest either ocean anoxia or fully oxygenated conditions. By coupling geochemical palaeo- redox proxies with a record of organic-walled fossils from exceptionally well-de- fined successions of the early Cambrian Baltic Basin, we provide evidence for the early establishment of modern-type oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Both inner- and outer-shelf environments were pervasively oxygenated, whereas mid-depth settings were characterised by spatially oscillating anoxia. As such, conflicting redox signatures recovered from individual sites most likely derive from sampling bias, whereby anoxic conditions represent mid-shelf environments with higher productivity. This picture of a spatially restricted anoxic wedge contrasts with prevailing models of globally stratified oceans, offering a more nuanced and realistic account of the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic ocean transition.

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Controls on the evolution of Ediacaran metazoan ecosystems: A redox perspective

Controls on the evolution of Ediacaran metazoan ecosystems: A redox perspective

The distinctive fossils in 580–540 Ma stratigraphy have classi- cally been grouped into the Avalon, White Sea and Nama taxanomic assemblages, based on biogeographic and biostratigraphic subdi- vision (Waggoner, 2003). The Avalon assemblage is the oldest, with fossils noted from a number of marine siliciclastic successions, includ- ing sections from Newfoundland (Liu et al., 2015; Narbonne, 2005), Charnwood Forest in England (Wilby, Carney, & Howe, 2011) and the Mackenzie Mountains, Canada (Narbonne, Laflamme, Trusler, Dalrymple, & Greentree, 2014). Examples of Avalon assemblage biota include soft- bodied rangeomorphs and frond- like arboreomorphs with isolated occurrences of sponges and triradialomorphs (Laflamme, Darroch, Tweedt, Peterson, & Erwin, 2013). In addition to these forms, the subsequent White Sea assemblage contains the earliest examples of dickinsoniomorphs, erniettamorphs, tetraradialomorphs, pentara- dialomorphs, bilateralomorphs, kimberellomorphs and Eoandromeda within sections of Siberia (Grazhdankin, 2014), western Russia (Fedonkin, Simonetta, & Ivantsov, 2007), Australia (Gehling & Droser, 2009) and the Yangtze Block, South China (Yuan et al., 2011; Zhu, Gehling, Xiao, Zhao, & Droser, 2008). Examples of the Nama assem- blage are represented in successions of the Nama Group, Namibia (Narbonne, Saylor, & Grotzinger, 1997), Dengying Formation, China (Chen et al., 2014), Erga and Chernokamen Formations, Russia, Khatyspyt Formation, Siberia (Grazhdankin, 2014), Miette Group, British Columbia (Hofmann & Mountjoy, 2001) and Wood Canyon, California (Corsetti & Hagadorn, 2000). It has been statistically shown that the Nama assemblage constitutes the assemblage of lowest diver- sity and contains examples of rangeomorphs, erniettamorphs, arbo- reomorphs and sponges (Darroch et al., 2015). Recent reconsideration of the assemblage hypothesis supports classic partitioning based on taxonomically distinct groups. However, significant proportions of the palaeogeographically disparate Avalon and White Sea assemblages are seen to have occupied time- equivalent environments (Boag, Darroch, & Laflamme, 2016).

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Early Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic intraplate tectonic and magmatic events in the Cathaysia Block, South China

Early Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic intraplate tectonic and magmatic events in the Cathaysia Block, South China

Paleozoic rocks in Cathaysia deviate from those typical of global subduction-accretion belts. These differences include: (1) lack of ophiolite, arc-type volcanic rocks and syntectonic high-pressure metamorphic rocks; (2) thick sedimentary successions that lack turbidite sequences; (3) Hf isotopic data showing that both the Silurian and the Triassic plutons were derived from partial melting of ancient crustal rocks with minor input of mantle-derived components; and (4) the > 1000 km wide continuity of Early Paleozoic sedimentary sequences across Cathaysia and into the Yangtze with progressive changes in facies and no evidence for intervening continental margin assemblages [Chen et al., 1995, 2010, 2012; Shu et al., 2008a, 2014; Wang et al., 2010]. In addition, the Cathaysia Block in the Paleozoic was located inboard, far away from an active margin [Zhou et al., 2006; Li et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2013]. Therefore, both the late Ordovician-Silurian and the Middle to Late Triassic fold-thrust zones in South China do not form part of subduction-accretion-type or subduction-collision-type orogens but likely represent an intracontinental orogen due to remote effects of plate convergence [Li and Li, 2007; Li et al., 2010; Faure et al., 2009; Charvet et al., 2010], like those in central Australia [Raimondo et al., 2010], the Damara Orogen of SW Africa [Nex et al., 2001], and the Tianshan [Zhao et al., 2003].

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Examining The Effect Of Change In CEO Gender, Functional And Educational Background On Firm Performance And Risk

Examining The Effect Of Change In CEO Gender, Functional And Educational Background On Firm Performance And Risk

The purpose of this paper is to examine, within a succession framework, the impact of the change in CEO gender from female to male on firm performance and probability of bankruptcy. We also examine the impact of change in CEO functional and educational background on firm performance and probability of bankruptcy. We use paired sample t-tests and ordinary least squares regression analysis on 46 CEO successions where the outgoing CEO is a female and the incoming CEO is a male. The results show that a change in CEO gender from female to male is associated with an increase in firm performance and a decrease in the firm probability of bankruptcy. Furthermore, the percentage change in firm performance is negatively related to the change in CEO functional and educational background. The percentage change in firm probability of bankruptcy is positively related to the change in CEO functional and educational background. Firm management and board of directors should be aware that there is such a thing as too much change around a succession event and that it has an adverse effect on firm performance and probability of bankruptcy

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Integrated tephrostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy in the Japan Sea and East China Sea using IODP Sites U1426, U1427, and U1429, Expedition 346 Asian Monsoon

Integrated tephrostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy in the Japan Sea and East China Sea using IODP Sites U1426, U1427, and U1429, Expedition 346 Asian Monsoon

The Pliocene and Pleistocene tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of the Japanese islands were summa- rized by Machida (1999), Tamura and Yamazaki (2010), and Satoguchi and Nagahashi (2012). Major- and trace- element compositions of volcanic glass shards of the more regionally widespread tephra layers were investi- gated by Nagahashi et al. (2004, 2007, 2015). These element compositions of tephra layers have been used to identify and correlate the layers (e.g., Nagahashi et al. 2004). Tephra layers in JS sediments were originally de- scribed by Pouclet and Scott (1992), who summarized their temporal distribution in the sediments of ODP Leg 127/128. These tephra layers were subsequently investi- gated to understand the nature of volcanic activity (Nakagawa et al. 1994) in order to identify the sources and to establish relationships with oxygen isotope stra- tigraphy for the past 400 kyr (Shirai et al. 1997). The stratigraphy and petrography of Upper Pleistocene mar- ine tephras from the JS and the North Pacific Ocean were summarized by Ikehara (2015) and Aoki (2008), respectively. However, the long-term tephrostratigraphy of JS sediments, its correlation with known widespread tephra layers, and the tephrochronology for the past several million years have not been established to date. If the tephrostratigraphy of JS sediments is known, comparison of environmental changes between the Japa- nese islands and the Japan Sea will be possible. Here, we provide correlations between tephra layers that are inter- bedded in sediment successions at Sites U1426, U1427, and U1429 with regionally occurring tephras in order to deter- mine isochronous horizons for these sites.

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“Volcanism in the Chugoku region: a review for the first UNESCO field school on Geoenvironmental disaster reduction”

“Volcanism in the Chugoku region: a review for the first UNESCO field school on Geoenvironmental disaster reduction”

Field studies related to natural hazards are an integral part of any disaster mitigation effort, because geological samples and field records must initially be obtained from the context in which they occur. A sound fieldwork and careful observation and documentation of field relations is crucial for meaningful subsequent laboratory work, further data analysis and modelling. Teaching the necessary practical skills that enable students to recognize natural disaster events in the geological records and to understand circumstances under which they occur is not a trivial task. Some barriers to fieldwork usually exist, especially when the teaching subject focusses on natural disasters. Beside cost and logistics it is often the lack of suitable sites, that serve as instructive examples, displaying the deposits, structures and preserved evidence of natural hazards in the geological record. To students of volcanology, southwest Japan offers an almost unparalleled variety of interesting volcanic successions, including a broad range of different volcanic landforms and deposits that illustrate the various hazards associated with volcanic eruptions. This review will provide a brief overview of the geology of southwest Japan with special emphasis on the igneous and volcanic evolution. It will give participants of the field school a minimum of required background and anybody beyond a quick introduction into one of the most diverse and interesting volcanic field areas in the world.

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Consonant Co Occurrence in Stems across Languages: Automatic Analysis and Visualization of a Phonotactic Constraint

Consonant Co Occurrence in Stems across Languages: Automatic Analysis and Visualization of a Phonotactic Constraint

Next, we examined the distribution of φ values for self-successions of places of articulation in about 3,200 languages. Self-successions correspond to the diagonal values of the φ matrices from the up- per left to the lower right. As can be seen in the histogram in Figure 6, the peak of the distribution is clearly located in the area of negative associa- tion values. In the box-plots of Figure 5, which show the distributions for all three places of ar- ticulation separately, it is clearly visible that for each of the three places of articulation at least 75% of the languages included show negative associa- tions. Furthermore, it can be seen that most out- liers disappear when taking only the languages for which most data is available and thus statistics are more reliable. The same can be seen in the scat- ter plot in Figure 6, where the average φ value is always negative if the number of successions ex- ceeds a certain threshold. For all three categories, the figures demonstrate that the same place of ar- ticulation is generally less frequently maintained than expected if there were no interdependencies between consonant co-occurrences.

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Synsedimentary fault control on the deposition of the Duitschland Formation (South Africa) : implications for depositional settings, Paleoproterozoic stratigraphic correlations, and the GOE

Synsedimentary fault control on the deposition of the Duitschland Formation (South Africa) : implications for depositional settings, Paleoproterozoic stratigraphic correlations, and the GOE

shown for the first time that in parts of the basin the MDU possesses an angular geometry and is associated with significant thicknesses of different conglomerate facies. The lower Duitschland Formation at the locality Langbaken 340KS records interaction of a carbonate ramp with a , wave-influenced, Gilbert-type fan-delta. Deposition was controlled by synsedimentary normal faulting, producing: (i) an isolated deposcentre and accommodation space in which the conglomerates accommodated, (ii) localized tilting of the lower succession, and (iii) synsedimentary slumping in outer ramp limestones. Faulting may have constituted the early stages of extension, and the establishment of the rift setting in which the Pretoria Group was deposited. There is no evidence that the MDU was produced by glacial processes, but it remains possible that the relative sea-level fall associated with its formation may have been glacio-eustatic. The fan-deltas in the Duitschland Formation are analogous to temporal and lateral equivalents in the Rooihoogte Formation, strengthening the lithostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic correlation of the two successions.

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Metamorphism of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian Schists in Southwest of Zanjan from the Soltanieh 
Belt in Northwest of Iran

Metamorphism of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian Schists in Southwest of Zanjan from the Soltanieh Belt in Northwest of Iran

Also, the possible correlatives for the Kahar Formation are successions including Morad 35] and upper Taknar These imply that Kahar type facies is widely distributed throughout the Iranian plateau is likely underlie Phanerozic platform strata in many Although, these rocks are important to elucidate the geodynamic evolution of the Iranian plateau, but their metamorphic history have not hitherto The studied metamorphic rocks , 4] and provides the n the existent knowledge of Thus, the aims of this paper are: to present metamorphic data of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian schsits and also to clarify the geodynamic evolution of the region and to investigate the possible metamorphic evolution of Kahar type

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