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A Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Desmodium Triquetrum

A Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Desmodium Triquetrum

Abstract: The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, either naturally produced , or externally supplied through foods or supplements.These antioxidants act as free radical scavengers by preventing and repairing damages caused by the pro-oxidants such as Reactive Oxide Species (ROS) and therefore can enhance the immune defense and lower the risk of degenerative and other stress diseases.The present study ascertained whether the leaf extract of Desmodium triquterum could have the free radical scavenging properties.Ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium triquetrum shows more percentage of free radical inhibition than methanol extract. In DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays, the superoxide radical scavenging assay shows highest percentage of inhibition than others in the order of Superoxide> hydroxyl > DPPH respectively.Thus leaf extract of Desmodium triquetrum has significant free radical scavenging activity.
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT SCREENING OF BIO ACTIVE FRACTION OF SEEDS OF STRYCHNOS POTATORUM LINN

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT SCREENING OF BIO ACTIVE FRACTION OF SEEDS OF STRYCHNOS POTATORUM LINN

The bioactive fraction (aqueous fraction) was tested for the anti-oxidant activity. Different in vitro methods such as DPPH free radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and inhibition of peroxide formation method, was carried out. The percentage inhibition of free radicals produced was found by spectrophotometric method and the values are represented as mean±SD. The absorbance obtained for test and control are noted and the percentage inhibition of radical scavenging activity was calculated using the equation,
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In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of kyllinga nemoralis

In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of kyllinga nemoralis

The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Six different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and reducing power were carried out to ensure the scavenging effect of the plant on free radicals. In addition, total antioxidant capacity assay, total phenolic contents, tannins, flavonoids and flavonol contents of the plant were also analysed by the standard protocols. Kyllinga nemoralis exhibited high antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (IC 50 = 90 µg/ml), superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC 50 = 180 µg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NYMPHAEA RUBRA L  RHIZOME

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NYMPHAEA RUBRA L RHIZOME

The in vitro antioxidant capabilities of methanol extract of Nymphaea rubra rhizome was evaluated by studying 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power using standard procedure. Total phenolic content was estimated by folin-ciocalteau method. Flavonoid was determined by Aluminium chloride method. The total phenolics and flavonoids in methanol extract were found to be 0.36 g 100g -1 and 0.67 g 100g -1 respectively. The methanol extract of rhizome showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. Among different concentration tested, methanol extract of N. rubra rhizome at 1000 µg/mL showed potent scavenging activity in all models viz, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and ABTS. The result clearly Indicates that, methanol extract of N. rubra rhizome is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.
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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS  OF VITEX NEGUNDO LINN.

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF VITEX NEGUNDO LINN.

In the present study, the comparative antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanol extracts of Vitex negundo leaf, stem and root were studied. In-vitro anti-lipid peroxidation activity in rat liver homogenate, nitric oxide radical, superoxide radical, peroxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical scavenging activity were evaluated against standard antioxidants such as α-Tocopherol and Ascorbic acid. The total phenolic content and HPTLC studies were also carried out. The total phenolic content among various plant parts ranged from 283.0 to 461.0 mg gallic acid equivalent(GAE)/100 g dry sample with maximum content found in methanol extract of leaves 461.0 mg GAE/gm. The leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity with an IC 50 value of 0.221mg/ml for DPPH radical, 0.258 mg/ml for
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

The superoxide anion scavenging activity was measured as described by Srinivasan et al 26 . 1ml of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800μg/ml were prepared with methanol) of the test solutions and standard (ascorbic acid) were taken in different test tubes. To this 0.5ml of 16mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8, 0.5ml of 0.3mM nitroblue tetrazolium, 0.5ml of 0.936mM of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Reduced and 0.5ml of 0.12mM of phenazine methosulphate were added and incubated at dark for 5min. The absorbance was measured at 560nm. Distilled water was used as blank. The percentage inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance values of the test sample with those of the controls (not treated with extract). The inhibition percentage was calculated as superoxide radical scavenging activity as follows.
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Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Dillenia bracteata

Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Dillenia bracteata

Introduction: Oxidative stress may lead to a number of diseases such as atherosclerosis, nephrotoxicity, liver cirrhosis, cancers, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Medicinal plants are an important source of antioxidants. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of Dillenia bracteata was evaluated in the present study. Materials and Methods: The coarse powder of leaf of Dillenia bracteata (Dilleniaceae) was extracted in Soxhlet apparatus, with ethanol (90%) and ethanolic extract of D. bracteata (EEDB) was further processed for phytochemical screening, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and various in vitro antioxidant assays. Results and Discussion: The phytochemicals present in EEDB were glycosides, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins and amino acids, gums and mucilages, and flavonoids. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EEDB were found to be 168.67 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry extract and 61.67 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of dry extract, respectively. In 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, EEDB exerted an inhibition of 74% and ascorbic acid exerted 83% at 500 μg/ml. In the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the absorbance of EEDB increased with increasing concentration. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of EEDB was 67% and ascorbic acid reached 74% at 500 μg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity of EEDB was 87%, and ascorbic acid reached 89% at 1000 μg/ml. Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of EEDB reached 69.21% and ascorbic acid reached 84.01% at 500 μg/ml. Conclusion: The antioxidant effect of D. bracteata leaf may be due to the phenolics and flavonoids present in it. The present study suggests that this extract could be of great importance for the treatment of free radical-related diseases.
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Title:  EFFECTIVE FU LING (PORIACOCOS) FOR THE TREATMENT OF OBESITY? Author:  Dr. Luis Carlos Mendes Keyword:   Obesity, Orlistat, Poria-cocos, Anti obesity drugs, Coronary Artery DiseasePage No:  183-192Abstract:   Obesity is a chronic disease that curre

Title: EFFECTIVE FU LING (PORIACOCOS) FOR THE TREATMENT OF OBESITY? Author: Dr. Luis Carlos Mendes Keyword: Obesity, Orlistat, Poria-cocos, Anti obesity drugs, Coronary Artery DiseasePage No: 183-192Abstract: Obesity is a chronic disease that currently constitutes one of the major health problems of modern societies. In recent decades there has been an increase in the average weight of the population, as well as the prevalence of the number of obese individuals.(5-10) Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hyperuricaemia, and gallbladder lithiasis. Waist circumference is now considered one of the main factors for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. According to the latest classification proposed by the International Diabetes Federation in 2006 (12)are diagnostic criteria circumference of the upper waist 94cm for European and 80cm men for European women, triglycerides greater than 150mg / dl, HDL 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure> 85 mmHg and fasting plasma glucose> 100 mg / dl. Obese patients are often a dyslipidemia characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, lowering cholesterol and increased HDL LDL. This metabolic profile is present the most often in obese patients with accumulation of intra-abdominal fat, which has been associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). (1) It is estimated that, in Europe, the prevalence of obesity is 10-25% in most countries(1), in the US of 30.5% (2)and in Portugal have 38.6% of adults overweight and 13.8% are obese(3). In addition, also the alarming increase of overweight and obesity in the young in our country(4), seem to justify launching projects aimed at better understanding of these diseases and the promotion of measures aimed at combating it. The XENDOS (15)is the largest study to date with a drug for weight loss. Among the various studies which demonstrate a reduction in weight, the more effective is the Orlistat at a rate of 30% in the prevention of absorption of fat ingested at a dose of 120 mg three times a day.(13-14) Thus, this study will seek to verify whether it is really effective use of PoriaCocos in obesity compared with Orlistat. Keywords: Obesity, Orlistat, Poria-cocos, Anti obesity drugs, Coronary Artery Disease Download PDF

Superoxide Radical Scavenging Activity (SOD): Figure 1 (b) shows dose superoxide radical scavenging assay revealed that all the extracts of P. amarus possess potent antioxidant activity. The activity was found to be concentration dependent with linear increased in the concentration of 10-100 µ g/ml. All the extracts produced comparable results at all concentrations used with about 20 % inhibition at 1 µg/ml which increased in concentration dependent manner and reached maxima at 250 µg/ml. This was found to be comparable to that of Ascorbic acid that was employed as reference standard. In conclusion, in this assay all the extracts exhibit potent concentration dependent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of ascorbic acid.
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

The superoxide anion scavenging activity was measured as described by Srinivasan et al 26 . 1ml of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800μg/ml were prepared with methanol) of the test solutions and standard (ascorbic acid) were taken in different test tubes. To this 0.5ml of 16mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8, 0.5ml of 0.3mM nitroblue tetrazolium, 0.5ml of 0.936mM of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Reduced and 0.5ml of 0.12mM of phenazine methosulphate were added and incubated at dark for 5min. The absorbance was measured at 560nm. Distilled water was used as blank. The percentage inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance values of the test sample with those of the controls (not treated with extract). The inhibition percentage was calculated as superoxide radical scavenging activity as follows.
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Investigation of an Interaction of Flavonoids on the Antioxidant Activity of Alpha Tocopherol

Investigation of an Interaction of Flavonoids on the Antioxidant Activity of Alpha Tocopherol

Figure 1 Step-wise Generation of Hydroxyl Radical from Oxygen…….7 Figure 2 Generation of Superoxide from Electron Transport Chain….9 Figure 3 Targets and Fates of Superoxide Radical……[r]

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Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens

Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens

Capsicum frutescens has been known to contain a high level of antioxidant components. We investigated antioxidant activities in various solvent extracts from C. frutescens. The aim of this study is to evaluate invitro antioxidant activity of acetone, carbinol, hot water and hexane extracts of Capsicum frutescens. Preliminary analysis revealed that all the four extracts responded positively for all the phytoconstituents. Acetone extract showed the strongest phenolic and tannin content; showed highest activity for FRAP, ABTS, Superoxide Radical and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity. The present study explored that Capsicum frutescens has efficient antioxidant activity and could act as safe and cost- effective with potential biological applications.
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PHYTOCHEMICALS OF CALAMUS TRAVANCORICUS AGAINST THE FREE RADICAL INDUCED DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

PHYTOCHEMICALS OF CALAMUS TRAVANCORICUS AGAINST THE FREE RADICAL INDUCED DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

Superoxide radical scavenging assay Superoxide anions were generated using PMS- NADH system. The superoxide anions are subsequently made to reduce nitro blue tetrazolium chloride and the absorbance was measured at 560nm. [11] Briefly the reaction mixture contains 1mL of nitro blue tetrazolium,1mL NADH in 100mM phosphate buffer ( pH 7.8) and 0.1mL of sample solution at different concentrations (20-100µg/ml). The reaction was started by adding 100μl of PMS and incubated at 25 C for 5 minutes. The absorbance of the mixture was measured at 560nm against blank. Ascorbic acid was used as reference standard. The percentage inhibition was determined by comparing the results of control and test samples using the following formula.
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In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana Coronaria (L.)

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana Coronaria (L.)

The results of the study clearly indicate that ethanolic extract of T.coronaria possess powerful in vitro antioxidant activity. The encouraging results of T.coronaria with the various in vitro antioxidant tests proved the plant has DPPH, FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, reducing power assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Hence, it is worthwhile to isolate and elucidate the bioactive principles that are responsible for the antioxidant activity that is underway.

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Antioxidant Activities of Extracts Obtained by Different Fractionation from Tricholoma Giganteum Basidiocarps

Antioxidant Activities of Extracts Obtained by Different Fractionation from Tricholoma Giganteum Basidiocarps

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Tricholoma giganteum. Three fractions from the mushroom were evaluated for antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, DPPH radical, ferrous ion chelating ability and reducing power. Among three different fraction (Fa, Fb and Fc), the fraction Fa had a strong antioxidant activity and Fc also presented a relatively strong antioxidant effect. Whereas, the polysaccharide fraction Fb was found to be a weak scavenger of free radicals when compared to Fa and Fc. Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases and hence antioxidants have significant importance in human health. Our result thus indicates that Fa fraction of T. giganteum has maximum antioxidant property and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.
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Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Valerian Officinalis Linn. Root Extract

Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Valerian Officinalis Linn. Root Extract

Methanolic root extract of Valerian officinalis was screened for analgesic effect using hot plate and tail immersion at various doses (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg). The results were also compared with standard drug diclofenac sodium. It showed significant activity at 500 mg/kg. The extract was also screened to evaluate its reducing power and free radical scavenging effect on DPPH free radical, superoxide radical and nitric oxide production at different concentrations (100–500 µg/ml). All these antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHA and ascorbic acid. The highest antioxidant activity of V. officinalis root extract was observed at a concentration of 500 µg/ml.
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Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb )

Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb )

Results: In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract revealed the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 2.65 and 155.62 μg/ ml, respectively as compared to standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value of 5.8 and 99.66 μg/ml). Ethyl acetate fraction also possessed highest reducing power activity with an EC50 value of 15.27 μg/ml compared to ascorbic acid (EC 50 0.91 μg/ml). On the other hand, the carbon tetrachloride fraction exhibited most significant NO scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 277.8 μg/ml that was even higher than that of standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value 356.04 μg/ml). In addition, the total phenolic contents of these extract and fractions were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and varied from 7.93 to 50.21 mg/g dry weight expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE).
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In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract of Aerva Lanata Linn.

In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract of Aerva Lanata Linn.

Ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata leaves showed moderate effect on hydroxyl and DPPH radical; low activity on superoxide radical as compared to standard ascorbic acid. The results of the present study suggest that the tested ethanolic extracts and its fraction chloroform and hexane have antioxidant activity and/or free radical scavenging

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Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Nothapodytes Nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Nothapodytes Nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

The objective of the present study was to establish comparative baseline data on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of different parts of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly (Family Icacinaceae). Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were determined using various in vitro models like Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide radical and peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, anti-lipid peroxidation potential and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening of drug indicates the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroid, terpenoids, phenolics, coumarins and fixed oil. Among the various plant parts phenolic content ranged from 281.0 to 454.0 mg gallic acid equivalent
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Antioxidant Potential of Indigofera Linnaei Ali.  an In Vitro Study.

Antioxidant Potential of Indigofera Linnaei Ali. an In Vitro Study.

In the present study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Indigofera linnaei (MEIL) was evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assay models. The total phenol and flavonoid content was also determined in the extract. MEIL exhibited strong antioxidant and scavenging activity on ABTS radical cation, DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. The extract showed strong activity in Iron reducing power assay. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the extract were comparable to standard antioxidants used such as ascorbic acid and rutin. The extract had good phenol and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activity may be due to the rich amount of phenols and flavonoids present in the extract. Therefore, the plant could be considered as a very good antioxidant source with therapeutic potential.
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ANTI HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ACTIVE EXTRACTS OF FRAGARIA NUBICOLA IN HIGH FAT DIET FED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

ANTI HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ACTIVE EXTRACTS OF FRAGARIA NUBICOLA IN HIGH FAT DIET FED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Property: The superoxide radical generated from the photo reduction of riboflavin was detected by NBT reduction. The estimation of superoxide anion radical scavenging property was carried out as described earlier with some modifications 10 . The reaction mixture contained 100µl riboflavin solution (0.12mM), 200µl EDTA solution (12mM), 200µl methanol and 100µl NBT (Nitro-blue tetrazolium) solution (1.5mM) and reaction mixture was diluted up to 3ml with phosphate buffer (50mM, pH 7.6). Different concentrations of extracts were added to reaction mixture in test tubes, and further diluted up to 3 ml with phosphate buffer. Ascorbic acid was taken as control. Absorbance was measured after 5 min. at 530nm. Percentage inhibition activity was calculated by
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