According to the Swedish Chemicals Agency Product Register, the use of dibutyltin dilaurate, BHT, 2-butanonoxime and naphthalene was higher than the corresponding use in flooring and panel material. In the case of the other substances, their use in flooring and carpets and panel materials, according to the Product Register, exceeded the other figures by a factor of 4 – 1,300,000. This could be interpreted as the larger share of the hazardous substances used in construction articles originating from elsewhere than the EU or as the content specified in the SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen databases being overestimated, especially taking into account that, in this summary, the consultant has assumed that all “less than” values represent the actual contents. It may also relate to a combination of these factors, which is confirmed by making a comparison between imported products and the net supply (see Table 8), which shows that approx. 13% of flooring and carpets and 30% of wooden panels are imported. To obtain a better estimate, construction companies need to report the actual contents in the article instead of “less than” values.
See also waste-derived fuels (6.6.4) and biofuels (6.6.5).
220.127.116.11 Onsite generation or renewable electricity
If a manufacturer has invested in the generation of renewable electricity on site, then the appropriate renewable electricity model will be used for that supply which is used by the manufacturer based on ecoinvent data or actual data if available. The environmental impact associated with the manufacture of the equipment and its anticipated lifespan is accounted for in the model. The manufacturer will need to provide evidence that LECs and ROCs for the onsite supply have not been sold on to any other parties, in which case the standard national electricity mix will be used.
The UK construction industry is, however, extremely complex and embraces civil engineering, building engineering,
manufacture, waste management, maintenance of roads and the process sector. 15 Even though the modes of execution are comparable, the scale, complexity and intricacy within the multitude of supply chains for constructionproducts and services differ considerably. 16 Furthermore, the implementation of sustainability and SCM is still confined within the remit of a few proactive large construction companies (notably those with government as major clients). The complexity of the UK industry, the novelty of SSCM and the need for an in-depth study of exemplar organisations justify a focus on a specific sector. An example is road maintenance, where governmental bodies such as local authorities and the Highways Agency are the main clients with clearly identifiable supply chains.
• any loss or damage, including personal injury, howsoever caused by the product/system, including its manufacture, supply, installation, use, maintenance and removal
• any claims by the manufacturer relating to CE marking.
20.6 Any information relating to the manufacture, supply, installation, use, maintenance and removal of this product/system which is contained or referred to in this Certificate is the minimum required to be met when the product/system is manufactured, supplied, installed, used, maintained and removed. It does not purport in any way to restate the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, or of any other statutory, common law or other duty which may exist at the date of issue or reissue of this Certificate; nor is conformity with such information to be taken as satisfying the requirements of the 1974 Act or of any statutory, common law or other duty of care.
Supply chain specify challenges – it has been established that different organisations in the supply chain have different drivers, barriers and practices and these can influence how reactive or proactive organisations can respond to waste management strategies.
It should be noted that optimizing of all the listed challenges should not always be the key, trade- offs and compromises may be necessary. Indeed, some of the issues cannot be considered immediate priorities, but this does not mean that they should be ignored. The choice of which issues to apply to a particular strategy, and the decision on the extent to which each chosen principles should be applied, reflects value judgments. Thus, the emphasis should be on implementing a waste minimisation strategy which seeks to achieve consensus among interested parties on the issues which are more relevant (Hill and Bowen, 1997). The UK construction industry aims to contribute to waste reduction or elimination by adopting new policies and practices, which have a more positive impact on economic, social and environment systems. Improvements are sought in all stages of the construction process, such as the land use, replenish of natural resources, transport networks, construction processes, embodied energy of building whilst in use, social interaction and economic benefits for the whole supply chain.
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What this means is that businesses that supplyproducts are further What this means is that businesses that supplyproducts are further constrained by the ability to hire good staff. Even if we can achieve a constrained by the ability to hire good staff. Even if we can achieve a smoother flow of imports, we still need capacity in NZ to be able to smoother flow of imports, we still need capacity in NZ to be able to manufacture and dispatch domestically. Suppliers have expressed a manufacture and dispatch domestically. Suppliers have expressed a desire for assistance from the government in freeing up immigration desire for assistance from the government in freeing up immigration barriers and easing the cost burden. Recent increases in the minimum barriers and easing the cost burden. Recent increases in the minimum wage and sick pay have impacted costs, further adding to increases in wage and sick pay have impacted costs, further adding to increases in the cost to supply to the market.
(a) Defi ne Product List
A key decision in the materials management strategy is to clearly defi ne which items are non-task-specifi c materials. Due to a fast-track project d elivery approach (design being completed while construction is underway), it was dif- fi cult for production teams to provide product types and demand estimates for non-task-specifi c materials. Based on this situation, the marketplace implemen- tation team took advantage of usage records and demand patterns from previ- ous projects that had similar construction phases. Th rough the analysis of the data, the team identifi ed opportunities to minimize product variety through a product rationalization process based on product function. Figure 7.5 shows an example of the product rationalization process based on data from only one supplier with a total of 2555 diff erent non-task-specifi c products. From the total number of products, approximately 10% represented a value of more than £250 per year per product. Th e remaining 90% of products had an average demand of less than 20 items per month. It was clear that the tendency was to order a large variety of products but in small quantities. Th is was mainly caused by a product selection process from suppliers’ catalogs with no rules or any control—that is, people ordered what they wanted based on their own preferences rather than
7 C ONCLUSION
SCM provides the construction industry with opportunities to have more control on projects, increase profits, and reduce time, cost and waste. The CSC consists of many groups, although the material and the construction chains are the largest. Integrating the construction and material chains helps in establishing more collaboration, smoother information flow and more efficient information sharing through the construction chain which assists the decision making process. SCM in the construction industry encounters many challenges linked to poor logistics planning, lack of partnerships and strategic alliances with suppliers, resistance to change and communication problems. In order to establish an efficient integrated supply chain, clients, suppliers, contractors and other parties in the supply chain need to establish long term partnerships, form transparent communication channels and benefit from each other‘s experience for the greater good. The Jordanian industry should make corrective actions to allow the efficient supply chain integration to take place such as: early involvement of all parties, education of project staff, fair payment, have knowledge of the benefits of integration, be familiar with and have an understanding of new contractual documents. Should all parties within the supply chain be targeted, including the main contractor, subcontractor and suppliers, overall costs of construction would reduce. In addition, early involvement of the subcontractor and supplier is as necessary as early contractor involvement. This early involvement of all parties would allow the exchange of expertise which may help to reduce costs furthermore, early involvement integration would enable suppliers to be service providers as oppose to providers of products
Current materials management practices in the construction industry are performed on fragmented basis with unstructured communication and no clearly responsibilities between the parties involved. The fragmentation leads to low productivity, cost and time overruns, conflicts and disputes. Efficient material management plays an important role in the successful completion of project since the cost of material forms large portion of the project total cost. The material supply chain process comprises five phases which are: bidding phase, sourcing phase, procurement phase, construction phase and post- construction phase. Each phase consists of a set of activities. Traditionally, the management of these activities follow an activity-centered approach that concentrates on monitoring project participants' activities against construction schedule. Also, the exchange of information within the five phases often fails to be transferred on timely manner among the project participants. Such disturbance in information flow leads to turbulences in material flow which cause delay to the project completion. Furthermore, the contractor/ supplier relationship is usually project-focused with a short-term perspective, emphasizing competitive bidding as the main tool in contractors, subcontractors and supplier evaluation. Consequently, customer-supplier relationships in construction are generally of the arms length type rather than being partnerships. The constructionsupply chain management seeks to integrate the project phases starting with the client demands and ending up with the construction and the key members of the constructionsupply chain, including client, designer, contractor, subcontractor and supplier. Such integration aims at enabling contractors to have the right products in the right quantities (at the right place) at the right moment at minimal cost. Partnering is one of the fundamental concepts of the constructionsupply chain process. Project partnering is an approach used to enable the different parties involved in a project to work cooperatively in order to complete project in the most efficient, cost-effective method possible, by setting common goals, keeping lines of communication open and solving problems tighter as they arise. Also, the coordination of information is a key components in achieving tight integration. Web-Based information system is utilized for distribution, collecting and reporting different types of data among the project participants.
The hose clips with worm gear drive according to DIN 3017 are especially suitable for high mechanical load applications. Thanks to continuous further development, this hose clips sets the benchmark for modern clip construction. They are characterised by high clamping forces. Safe assembly is guaranteed by high breaking torques. The clip fits the hose perfectly, ensuring an optimised seal.
• h ENs harmonise assessment methods e.g. tests etc.
• h ENs do not set the levels of performance required for certain uses.
National guidance on performance in use
• For some products additional guidance has been produced in the form of national annexes or Standard recommendations.
Not all products are available in all markets. Under our policy of continuous improvement, we reserve the right to change specifications and design without prior notice. The illustrations do not necessarily show the standard version of the machine.
Volvo Construction Equipment is different. It’s designed, built and supported in a different way. That difference comes from an engineering heritage of over 1 years. A heritage of thinking first about the people who actually use the machines. About how to help them be safer, more comfortable, more productive. About the environment we all share. The result of that thinking is a growing range of machines and a global support network dedicated to helping you do more. People around the world are proud to use Volvo. And we’re proud of what makes Volvo different – More care. Built in.
Policy initiatives and infrastructure investment also have the opportunity to contribute to manufacturing’s recovery. However, workforce shortages and supply chain instability are reducing operational efficiency and margins, along with cost pressure and inflation risk. The industry can expect elevated uncertainty from a range of potential disruptors globally.
c) determine if the process nonconformity is limited to a specific case or whether it could have affected other processes or products
d) identify and control any nonconforming product. (see 8.3)
All results of measuring and monitoring of processes will be discussed in the Management Review meetings. Quality Goal benchmarks will be determined for each process monitored in an effort for continuous improvement. If a process shows the potential for a quality problem, a preventive action shall be issued for that
Certification represents genuine added value, for both the applicant and the consumer. It puts consumers in a position where they can appreciate the performance of a product, a service or a process, and enables them to gain confidence. For the applicant, it is an opportunity to highlight the quality of what it is marketing, and to assess both its own organisation and the product in question. Certification also enables equitable compe- tition between the various market agents (national, European and international), because it leads to an assessment of products according to shared rules and criteria. Finally, it is a significant commercial argument.
3.1. Formulation of Random Blood Demand
Hospitals usually face two types of uncertainties associated with the use of blood products. The first relates to the uncertainty of emergency cases which are difficult to anticipate. Unlike scheduled procedures, emergency cases are unexpected and ran- dom. Thus, the amount of blood units needed is unknown in advance. The second uncertainty relates to the C/T ratio. Prior to a procedure, blood is requested by the physician for a specific patient and the number of blood units cross-matched is typically overestimated for safety issues. Thus, some blood may be returned back to inventory after the crossmatch release period is over. To address these challenges, we use stochastic programming to handle demand uncertainty and build integer pro- gramming models that explicitly consider age of blood on inventory.
Supply Chain Management and Value Chain Management
4.Supply Chain Management focuses on the management of the relationships between firms in order to facilitate the movement of inventory and the components of inventory. As such the focus is still on the reduction of costs, but it focuses more on how to facilitate information flows to reduce costs of physical inventories and the processes associated order processing, inventory management, and forecasting end demand.