Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

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The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

respondent was unaware, given the taken-for-granted nature of particular practices. This study aimed to improve our understanding of how tacit knowledge is used to inform program initia- tives in public health. There were several reasons for this focus. First, explicit knowledge is not always avail- able in public health to guide program planning. Second, in some areas explicit knowledge is available but is not used. Third, explicit knowledge may not take into con- sideration the local context in which public health units are situated. Fourth, the practitioners who carry out public health program planning and implementation are experts in their fields. They described tapping into the tacit knowledge and expertise they had accumulated through years of practice. This included their own tacit knowledge, as well as that of their team members and community partners. While this tacit knowledge may be important for the success of program planning and implementation, these expert resources are currently under-represented in traditional evidence-based dis- course. Thus, this study supports the assumption that tacit knowledge is an essential feature in public health that requires further exploration.
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The value of knowledge sharing: impact of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing on team performance of scientists

The value of knowledge sharing: impact of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing on team performance of scientists

Externalization, on the other hand is a process of making tacit knowledge explicit. For example, organizations will try to capture what the employees know through creating platforms where they can interact and share knowledge, usually internal forums for communities of practice where they can exchange knowledge. Through synthesizing the body of knowledge, to some extent, but not fully will the process of externalization be successful. Early knowledge management practice and research have been mostly focused on managing explicit knowledge in forms of documents, forms, procedures and etc. creating huge repositories of knowledge and relying on IT to facilitate knowledge sharing processes, and enhance the collective memory of an organization However the assumption that when technology for knowledge sharing is implemented that employees will share knowledge is showed to be false, and often failed to make tacit knowledge explicit due to the cognitive nature of tacit knowledge (Pawlowski and Robey, 2004). Sharing of knowledge does not only depend on the technology factor but on many others. Furthermore, technology itself often fails to capture the most important component of knowledge, the tacit one. Our efforts are aimed at examining both sharing of tacit and explicit knowledge. We posit that sharing of information and codified knowledge facilitated by information technology, especially on the projects which are to some extent virtual, as well as tacit knowledge, ingrained in daily routines and embedded in people through the process of socialization are relevant for team performance. Based on this proposition we build our research model.
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Expertise dissimilarity and creativity : the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing

Expertise dissimilarity and creativity : the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing

suggested that people are more likely to engage in information sharing when they interact with dissimilar individuals, because they expect to obtain more new information from dissimilar, than from similar, others (Thomas-Hunt, Ogden, & Neale, 2003). Such information-sharing activities may help to enhance individuals’ creativity (Gong et al., 2012; Gong et al., 2013). We thus performed additional analyses to examine the potential mediating role of tacit/explicit knowledge sharing in the link between expertise dissimilarity and creativity. However, we found no evidence of the mediating effects of knowledge sharing in either study. A possible explanation for the divergence of our results from those of previous studies is that Thomas-Hunt et al. (2003) operationalized dissimilarity in terms of social connection versus social isolation, whereas we focused on knowledge-based expertise dissimilarity. It is possible that compared to differences in social connection/isolation, diverse knowledge bases are more likely to deter some, if not all, team members from engaging in knowledge-sharing activities. In R&D teams, expertise dissimilarity may not affect the extent to which one individual shares knowledge with another. Rather, the team’s knowledge- sharing norms or climate may matter more. We would advise future researchers to explore the reasons why and when expertise-dissimilar individuals decide to overcome expertise barriers to share knowledge with others.
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An ITIL-based Solution to Record and Retrieve Tacit and Explicit Knowledge based on Giga Knowledge Management Framework in the SME Companies

An ITIL-based Solution to Record and Retrieve Tacit and Explicit Knowledge based on Giga Knowledge Management Framework in the SME Companies

ITIL is a set of best practices that can be applied to all parts of SME companies and extend its capabilities to record tacit and explicit knowledge in CMDB and use them what and when ever staff need them. This database manages by configuration management process and it is responsible to manage, update and apply its content in the SME company.

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The role of social trust in willingness to share tacit and explicit knowledge among faculty members of University of Sistan and Baluchestan

The role of social trust in willingness to share tacit and explicit knowledge among faculty members of University of Sistan and Baluchestan

The objective of the present research is to study the role of social trust on willingness to share tacit and explicit knowledge between faculty members of Sis- tan and Balouchestan University. Population of the current research is university faculty member of Sis- tan and Balouchestan in 2013. The sample of this research consists of 155 persons . In order to col- lect required data to test the research hypothesis, a questionnaire was applied that its validity has been studied using SPSS software and confirmatory functional analysis method in addition to the pro- fessors’ views and management experts. Reliability is gained respectively 924 and 836 by Cronbach Al- pha using SPSS software for a questionnaire mea- suring social trust and knowledge sharing. Correla- tion coefficient and multivariable regression were used to analyze and test research hypotheses. The results from this research indicates that the social trust and its components have positive and signif- icant effect on individual’s willingness in sharing explicit knowledge and have a few effect on sharing tacit knowledge
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Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

An even more fundamental challenge arises when an individual is capable of articulating his or her knowledge, but resists requests by the organization to do so. At the heart of such resistance is usually a belief that an individual’s job security or position of influence in an organization depends on the tacit knowledge that he or she has and that the organization needs. Such beliefs result in fear that full revelation of an individual’s important knowledge would be followed by dismissal or loss of influence in an organization, because -- presumably -- the individual would no longer be as necessary or important to the organization. Overcoming such fears is likely to require a profound rethinking of the employment relationship in many organizations, especially with regard to key knowledge workers. New employment norms may have to be defined and institutionalized that both seek and reward ongoing learning by individuals and their continuing contributions of explicit knowledge to the organization. 7
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When objects are talking: How tacit knowing becomes explicit knowledge

When objects are talking: How tacit knowing becomes explicit knowledge

The same holds true for verbal externalization; first we write for ourselves; then we need to communicate it in a community of practice, whether it is family, kinship, or close friends for everyday experiences, or a community of professional practice for a scientific article under con- struction. Finally, we need to communicate through a pre- scriptive text or speech for a broader audience. The talking sketches and their language equivalents are the mediation between tacit knowing and explicit knowledge. The essence of the dialogue in this mediation process is problematizing (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2011, 2013) or problem-probing.
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tacit and explicit knowledge circulating inside companies. Differential factors can be easily

tacit and explicit knowledge circulating inside companies. Differential factors can be easily

In the studied company, many important details in processes are known only by the operational workers, it means the person that works in daily operations. These details are not registered anywhere and, most of the time, are retained in people´s mind. This also happens with knowledge related to market and clients. Representatives and workers from sales department accumulate information and specific knowledge that are important and that not always are registered or expressed communicated to others. How to get useful knowledge to a company that helps it to define an adequate strategy and to be different from its competitors? How to make workers understand clients needs when they rarely have contact with the market?
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Teenaged internet tutors’ level of interactivity - by sharing tacit and explicit knowledge with older learners

Teenaged internet tutors’ level of interactivity - by sharing tacit and explicit knowledge with older learners

The goal of the present study was to find out what kind of problems occur in the naturalistic tutoring of older people by teenagers and to develop methodological suggestions to address these issues. We saw that teenagers as tutors use interactive techniques relatively rarely and tutoring tends to be authoritarian or prescriptive rather than collaborative, which affects negatively the effectiveness of the training (De Guerrero & Villamil, 2000). If the tutor has declarative knowledge about the subject, then this drives him/her to explain and describe rather than to scaffold and ask questions. We also observed that young tutors stand a risk to overuse demonstration.
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Collaborative Technologies for Knowledge Management: Making the Tacit Explicit?

Collaborative Technologies for Knowledge Management: Making the Tacit Explicit?

Keywords: knowledge management, tacit knowledge, hyperlinking, hypermedia, organisational culture. Introduction For some time now, the management of knowledge has been at the corporate centre stage. In consideration of its inherent and potential value, organisations continue to actively explore how to capitalise on its worth by investing widely in the implementation of enabling strategies and technology. With such en- deavours in mind, the theory of organisational knowledge creation suggests the distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge is extremely important, and the sharing of tacit knowledge is a critical component of successful organisational knowledge management programs. Tacit knowledge is therefore considered to be an essential target of many knowledge management initiatives, and according to Delphi (1997, p. 13) this is “because it is the repository of the organisation’s most strategically valuable knowledge.”
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THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TACIT-EXPLICIT AND KNOWLEDGE CREATION DEBATES

THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TACIT-EXPLICIT AND KNOWLEDGE CREATION DEBATES

Each interview was audio-recorded and transcribed so that the data could be analyzed and sorted using a structured approach to grounded theory (Locke, 1996; Strauss & Corbin, 1988). Due to the volume and complexity of the data collected a systematic objective coding process was used to maximize the reliability of the findings (Perrault & Leigh, 1989). Specifically, an initial coding table for knowledge types was developed from a review of the literature. In fact, not one but three different literature-driven frameworks were applied to the data until ultimately these were discarded and the categories were allowed to emerge. The final emergent approach involved analyzing each interview using a set of questions as a guidepost. These questions consisted of (a) what is organizational knowledge? (b) what is tacit and explicit knowledge at the level of the organization? (c) how is organizational knowledge created? (d) what variables or factors influenced the creation of this knowledge? Although these questions formed the basis of the analysis of all three sets of data, additional refining questions were added based on the answers that emerged. This included (e) how did the planned and unplanned use of power influence the creation of organizational knowledge? and (f) how did specific acquisition integration strategies affect organizational knowledge creation? The result was a framework that clearly identifies organizational knowledge and planned and unplanned power types linked causally by different modes of knowledge creation and exchange. The process of defining these causal relationships was difficult, as it required a multi-dimensional analysis, which we refer to as relationship mapping. Relationship mapping is consistent with the variation on pattern identification known as ‘explanation-building’, which Yin (1994: 111) describes as follows…
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Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: analyzing explicit and tacit contracting knowledge

Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: analyzing explicit and tacit contracting knowledge

The Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) establishes education and training standards for acquisition personnel. These standards culminate into ascending levels of certification for acquisition professionals based on education, training, and experience. While the intent of DAWIA certification is to ensure acquisition professionals possess the requisite knowledge and experience to perform their duties, currently no method exists to effectively measure an individual’s contracting knowledge. The Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment (OCKA-AF) attempts to accurately assess an individual’s tacit (experiential) and explicit (factual) operational contracting knowledge across the six phases of the contracting process. The assessment tool also identifies knowledge gaps between tacit and explicit knowledge. The OCKA-AF was deployed in the form of a web-based survey to two Air Force operational contracting squadrons and Air Force contracting students attending the Naval Postgraduate School. The survey results were analyzed, upon which recommendations were made to reduce existing tacit and explicit contracting knowledge gaps. Due to its knowledge assessment capability, the OCKA-AF may be beneficial to supervisors and senior contracting leadership in determining whether current training efforts are producing the desired results in knowledge capture or provide insight into areas requiring further training emphasis.
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Baby Boomers Retiring: Strategies for Small Businesses Retaining Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

Baby Boomers Retiring: Strategies for Small Businesses Retaining Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

little knowledge of the strategies to retain the tacit and explicit knowledge of retiring Baby Boomers. Purpose Statement The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore strategies that small consulting business leaders’ use to retain the tacit and explicit knowledge of retiring Baby Boomers. The specific population group for this study was leaders who have developed strategies to retain the knowledge of one or more, retiring Baby Boomer employees within two small consulting businesses located throughout the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The results of this research are expected to add value to small businesses seeking to understand knowledge management strategies necessary for organizational sustainment. This case study was designed influence positive change by providing knowledge accumulation strategies that incorporate shared dialogue and vision among diverse employees of small businesses to retain the tacit and explicit knowledge of their retiring colleagues. Accumulation of a predecessor’s knowledge is an intrinsically cooperative character to building social and human development of individuals to
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Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In  Higher Education

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In Higher Education

Since tacit knowledge cannot be captured, it can be shared between a knowledge owner . Nonaka proposed a model for knowledge creation called as SECI model which is a spiral process where tacit and explicit knowledge can be converted in a clockwise spiral form. The Nonaka‟s model describes both the processes of knowledge creation and knowledge haring where transformations are taking place within and between individuals, groups and organizations which are interconnected. Four modes of Knowledge creation have been identified like Socialization, Externalization, Communication and Internalization as shown in Fig 4.1. Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest that the essential question of knowledge creation is establishing an organization‟s „ba‟ as a common space for creating knowledge. Knowledge creation relies on the selection of both external and internal knowledge, tacit and explicit knowledge and by analyzing existing information. Fig.1 shows the SECI process for knowledge creation.
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CiteSeerX — Knowledge -Explicit, implicit and tacit: Philosophical aspects

CiteSeerX — Knowledge -Explicit, implicit and tacit: Philosophical aspects

knowledge. Now consider some theorem that is derivable from those axioms. The person who knows the axioms may well, with some suitable enquiry and prompting, be able to see that the theorem follows from the axioms and to state it verbally. For example, someone who explicitly knows some elementary arithmetical facts may be able to work out, and to state, that 68+57=125. On Dummett’s (1991) account, this latter piece of knowledge, even though the sum is computed when needed rather than being stored in memory, counts as no less explicit than the stored elementary facts from which it is derived. Indeed, it counts as explicit knowledge even before the knower works it out; for the personal-level notion of explicit knowledge is defined in terms of the possibility of eliciting a verbal statement by enquiry or prompting. Thus, once some propositions are classified as explicitly known, the category of explicit knowledge also includes at least some of the as-yet-undrawn consequences of those propositions.
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RISK MANAGEMENT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN IT PROJECTS: MAKING THE IMPLICIT EXPLICIT

RISK MANAGEMENT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN IT PROJECTS: MAKING THE IMPLICIT EXPLICIT

7.2.4. Research Question 4 In Research Question 4, I examined the explicit and tacit knowledge utilized by respondents when managing their IT projects. All of the respondents were familiar with the explicit knowledge of the IT project risk management discipline area, and clearly applied the recommended practices in their work. Managers referred to their university studies as one source of explicit knowledge, but also noted that they had gained further knowledge from in- house training courses or from external specialist training providers such as the Project Management Institute (PMI). In addition, most of the firms required the use of standard project management methodologies and templates, and the application of these templates assisted managers in the preparation of the bid during the pre-sales stage. The methodologies prescribed by the firms included a risk assessment template that gave guidelines on the various risks to consider and prompted managers to assess each risk on a yes/no or low/medium/high scale. The templates typically required mitigating actions to be specified for the high ranked risks, and the results of these assessments were used to determine the level of contingency time and budget to be added to the project bid. However, as noted in the section on risk management practices there was a noticeable gap in the hand-over from pre-sales team to implementation team in terms of the follow-up and execution of planned mitigating actions, and the respondents’ management of risk during the implementation of their projects reflected a high level of application of tacit knowledge, rather than of explicit knowledge prescriptions.
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Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

ABSTRACT This research develops a knowledge model for Software Process Improvement (SPI) project based on knowledge crea- tion theory and its twenty-four measurement items, and proposes two hypothesizes about the interaction of explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge in SPI. Eleven factors are extracted through statistical analysis. Three knowledge- creation practices for capturing tacit knowledge contribute greatly to SPI, which are communication among members, crossover collaboration in practical work and pair programming. Two knowledge-creation practices for capturing ex- plicit knowledge have significant positive impact on SPI, which are integrating project document and on-the-job train- ing. Ultimately, suggestions for improvement are put forward, that is, encouraging communication among staff and integrating documents in real time, and future research is also illustrated.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

Thus, effective utilisation of tacit knowledge techniques in the presence of an efficient leader paves way for competitive advantage and thereby enhances firm’s performance. The various other forms of creation of ideas are through Quick Think method, Meta-plan technique or card technique, Morphological analysis, Metaphor-figurative language, analogy, model. To convert tacit knowledge in to explicit knowledge means finding a way to express the inexpressible. The authors recommend additional research to further explore in depth the various attributes that would pave way for Leadership enriched culture for effective utilisation of Tacit Knowledge which in turn leads to sustained organizational performance.
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

4. TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING Tacit knowledge is more difficult to share rather than explicit knowledge, because explicit knowledge is theory-based and transmitted in formal, systematic language (Nonaka 1994). Nonaka and Konno (1998) stated that converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge using a process of externalization before sharing can take place. On the other hand, Polanyi (1966) suggest that to be able to share tacit knowledge the possessor of it must first become conscious of the knowledge he possesses and then finds a way to express the knowledge. Only after this occurs can a sharing of knowledge take place.
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The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

University Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok Malaysia Tel.:+6049284616, Email: kbariah@uum.edu.my 1 , mazida@uum.edu.my 2 , mawarny@uum.edu.my 3 Abstract— The process of teaching and learning suffers from poor conceptualizations of tacit knowledge to be explicit. This paper interprets and externalizes lecturer tacit knowledge based on knowledge visualization approach. Externalization process is a process of converting tacit knowledge such as ideas and experiences into written form so that it can be transferrred to the students. Thus knowledge visualization is used as an approach to externalize lecturer tacit knowledge through teaching material to be shared among the students. An exploratory research is adapted to discuss the issue of externalization process based on knowledge visualization approach. A conceptual framework is developed which provides an analytical perspective on externalizing tacit knowledge. The results of this study reveal that knowledge visualization is one of the approaches to convert lecturer tacit knowledge to student explicit knowledge in teaching and learning process.
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