The Animal

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Generation of the germ layers along the animal vegetal axis in Xenopus laevis

Generation of the germ layers along the animal vegetal axis in Xenopus laevis

As discussed later, maternal information, which is distributed differentially along the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis during oogenesis, plays a critical role in formation of the embryonic germ layers. In this section, we summerise how this axis is established. In Xenopus, the animal-vegetal axis is established during oogenesis (reviewed in Gard, 1995). Several observations indicate that the A-V polarity is not dependent on external factors. First, the oocytes are oriented in the ovary at random with respect to gravity. In addition, the polarity of the A-V axis bears no relation to the ovarian walls or blood vessels. These observations suggest that the A-V axis is specified intrinsically. A primary oogonium goes through four incomplete mitotic divisions to form a nest of 16 oocytes, which remain connected at the centre of the nest by cytoplasmic bridges which result from incomplete cytokinesis. The postmitotic oocytes in the nest all exhibit a distinct polar arrangement of subcellular organelles, where Golgi structures locate closest to the centre of the nest and then mitochondria mass (which harbors the centriole) and nucleus are arranged progressively more distant from the centre. After completion of the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase, however, little evidence remains of this initial oocyte polarity. The mitochon- dria cloud, a mitochondria rich area also called the Balbiani body, is subsequently formed in mid-stage I oocytes. Some vegetally-

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(7- NITROINDAZOLE), A SPECIFIC NEURONAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITOR AND ECS-INDUCED RETEROGRADE AMNESIA

(7- NITROINDAZOLE), A SPECIFIC NEURONAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITOR AND ECS-INDUCED RETEROGRADE AMNESIA

6. After all animals have completed 12 trials; they will each perform one probe trial, in which the platform is removed from the pool. The probe trial is performed to verify the animal understands of the platform location, and observe the strategy that the animal follows when it the platform is not there. The handler will release the animal starting from the north. Record the number of times the animal crosses discovers the center of the pool during the 30 seconds.

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At first it seems that, in Bataille, negativity cannot be applied to ani- mality, since he is among those philosophers who distinguish between humans and animals, and unemployed negativity is precisely what re- mains of human being after the end of history and what prevents the end of history from finally being reached or completed. Laughter, play, eroti- cism, the arts, religion, and other forms of activity associated with trans- gression and unproductive expenditure outside the labor-production ma- chine are described by Bataille as intrinsically human moments of sover- eignty and autonomy. This approach clearly derives from Kojève and defi- nitely not from Hegel, for whom, as we have seen in the Philosophy of Nature, negativity, although very much employed, is clearly present not only in the animal kingdom, but in all of nature. (It is important to note here that Kojève in fact fully rejected the Philosophy of Nature, in which he saw only an “absolute idealism” and the spiritualizing of matter. Bataille here refers only to the Phenomenology of Spirit as read by Kojève.) Yet, there is a way to turn Bataille on his head—by appealing to his under- standing not of the end but the beginning of history.

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Improvement on Education of Animal Pharmacy Profession to Adapt the Transformation of Animal Pharmaceutical Industry in China

Improvement on Education of Animal Pharmacy Profession to Adapt the Transformation of Animal Pharmaceutical Industry in China

Dual­ability teachers should have abilities not only on teaching and research, but also on drug development, producing, marketing, and clinical application. They should perfectly combine the education, scientific research, and drug production. Many university teachers of animal pharmacy profession in China usually pay more attention to theory and basic research than practice and development of drugs, which obviously limit the training quality of animal pharmacy students, and lead to their lack of practice abilities in animal pharmacy companies. Therefore, dual­ability teachers are crucial for improving practice abilities of animal pharmacy professional. Our university sends more than 5 teachers a year to take part in the production process of some cooperative animal pharmacy companies for 3 months to enhance their practice abilities, after evalu­ ation, these teachers are named dual­ability teachers and become framework teachers of the animal pharmacy profession, and the quality of their pharmaceutical related courses is greatly improved.

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Review essays

Review essays

Given that the text is presented as exploring ethical questions, it comes as a surprise that Spira’s methods are not questioned. He displayed an uncanny ability to negotiate with large corporations in order to effect change, but a potential criticism of this approach is that Spira was success-driven and not principle-driven. Thus he would attempt to work in conjunction with those corporations he was accusing of animal exploitation, in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory outcome. The approach has the merit of being realistic, but Singer does not adequately weigh up its merits and defects, leaving it vulnerable to the criticism that he potentially jeopardised the animal rights movement in its embryonic stages by not taking a strong enough position. Singer could have provided more philosophical discussion regarding this issue. Instead, his ‘Advice to Activists’ is entirely derived from Spira’s methodology, as if this is ethically unproblematic.

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Animal geographies, anarchist praxis and critical animal studies

Animal geographies, anarchist praxis and critical animal studies

These investigations have generated significant negative publicity and lost earnings. In response, powerful organisations involved in the animal abuse industry are making increasingly desperate attempts to further criminalise these forms of direct action. In addition to branding animal and environmentalist activists as terrorists, or eco-terrorists, a raft of punitive laws to prevent these accusing truths have been forthcoming. In the USA -, for example, this included the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA) in 2006, and more recently the so-called "Ag-gag" laws (for a detailed critique of the ag-gag law, see Rasmussen, 2015). Essentially these laws are "designed to penalise investigative reporters who explore conditions on industrial agriculture operation s…. It should come as no surprise to learn that the source of the pressure behind ag gag laws is, of course, industrial agriculture" (Smith, 2012). With support for these laws being found in other countries, including Australia, the reality is, that animal activists and the use of non-violent acts of direct action are truly under siege (see Potter, 2012). Against this background, it is imperative that more (animal) geographers engage with these matters seriously, and offer their voice and work in support and solidity where possible.

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Movement Monitoring of Pet Animal Using Internet of Things

Movement Monitoring of Pet Animal Using Internet of Things

Internet of Things (IoT) provides efficient technical support for the biology and zoology researches, in the past 15 years. In the past years, the native environment is spoiled in large amount, and the monitoring and protection of animal is become very important. In past years an animal tracking system has used to analyze behavior of animals for many reasons, such as to observe a shifting of animal around different region and interaction about ecosystem. Every living animal on this earth has same importance in the surrounding. But now a day life of animals is in danger. If any accident happens to animal in the forest, due to physical injury or any disease death of animals is fix. In such condition we cannot find out particular location of animal in such a wide area. To bypass such problems for finding specific geographical location of animal in the jungle, animal tracking system is used. Talking about current technologies in some countries, belts are placed on the animals neck. This belt has a wireless transmitter. A officer has receiver in his/her hand and by using receiver location of animal will found. After all main drawback of this technique is wireless transmitter range is small. Thus the animal tracking system is used to track the animals in zoo and forest.

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Comparison of Three Techniques to Identify and Count Individual Animals in Aerial Imagery

Comparison of Three Techniques to Identify and Count Individual Animals in Aerial Imagery

Counts of animals from remotely sensed imagery or aerial photographs have been used to estimate population abundances for a diverse array of wildlife species, from birds [12]-[15] to terrestrial species [16] [17] to oceanic mammals [18] [19]. Unfortunately, manual counts from aerial photographs are labor intensive, subject to human interpretation and error, and can result in inconsistent counts [12] [14] [20]-[22]. While manual counting of canvasbacks ducks (Aythya valisineria) on water in aerial photographs resulted in high variation among inter- preters [12], manual counting of caribou (Rangifer tarandus, [23]) in open tundra habitatresulted in little varia- tion in numbers of animals reported by independent interpreters. Although these studies found conflicting results, the types of errors indicate a link between body size and background conditions. A predominate trend across all studies enumerating animals in remotely sensed imagery was the importance of providing high contrast between animals and their background [10] [20] [24]-[28]. For example, snow geese (Chen caerulescens) are uniformly white-colored which facilitated separation of the birds from a darker background [20]. Snow provided a homo- genous background and facilitated identification of deer (Odocoileus spp.) in remotely sensed images in the near infrared portion (NIR, 0.7 to 1.4 μm and 1.5 to 4.0 μm) of the electromagnetic spectrum (EM) but not in the visible region (0.5 to 0.7 μm [25]). In the same study area in summer complex, non-homogenous backgrounds reduced the detection and identification of deer by 50% - 80% with higher detections achieved with less non-photosynthetic tissue (i.e., dry, brushy vegetation) surrounding the animal [24]. Large aggregations of birds have also been successfully counted in remotely sensed imagery, both as individual birds and as colonies. Greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) colonies were identified as overlapping ellipses that were unique in shape and spectrally distinct from the surrounding background [27]. The process was automated and resulted <5% difference when compared to manual counts. A supervised classification process with a combination of medium (10 m) and high resolution (61 cm and 2.44 m) imagery successfully identified and enumerated colonies of emperor pen- guins (Aptenodytes fosteri) across the continental coastline of Antarctica (approximately 18,000 km).

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Animal health, animal welfare and zootechnics. Activity report 2004

Animal health, animal welfare and zootechnics. Activity report 2004

CD 2004/882/EC: according to the recent amendment to Regulation (EC) 999/2001, laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain TSEs, the current restrictions on imports of ‘other ruminants’ from Canada have been reviewed by this Decision, in order to allow import of live ruminants with the exception of Cervidae. In consequence, the animal health certificates models “RUW” and “RUF” (for fresh meat of wild and farmed non-domestic animals other than Equidae and Suidae) have been updated, Chile has been listed for importation into the EC of meat of farmed non- domestic suidae, the definition of the territory of Serbia and Montenegro has been reviewed, in order to fully reflect the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 of 10 June 1999.

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Title: A Systematic Literature Review of Animal Assisted Interventions in Oncology (Part II):

Title: A Systematic Literature Review of Animal Assisted Interventions in Oncology (Part II):

Humans and other species with advanced social systems evolved, among other things, “attention-need behaviors.” This fact leads Odendaal 26 to put forth attentionis egens as a mechanism for understanding the human-animal interaction and its effects. Attentionis egens simply denotes the “need for attention on a normal, basic emotional level as the prerequisite for successful social interaction.” Odendaal holds that the success of HAI is largely based on bi-directional attention-seeking behaviors where the therapy animal effectively assumes a role normally held by another human. A strong need for attention from the human leads to increased social behaviors by the animal, which in turn leads to a stronger human-animal bond overall. 26 Effective handling of the attention-needs leads directly to physiological changes (i.e. increases in typically affiliative neurochemicals) that mutually benefit humans and animals involved. This concept helps explain the successful inclusion of dogs into therapy environments such as cancer care. Dogs are highly social animals and can serve as an interspecies provider of attention and support for socially isolated or otherwise suffering individuals. 2 Attentionis egens may also explain why “friendly human” controls often appear to supply the same benefits to oncology patients as AAI sessions. 77,79 Attentionis egens is an interesting concept when juxtaposed with the increased human interaction mechanism. The latter holds that the therapy animal is a route to get more human attention, but attentionis egens says that the interaction with the therapy animal can, in itself, be a source of attention.

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REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle

REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle

REACH is at odds with the precautionary principle, in large part because of the inherent flaws in its risk assess- ment paradigm, which ignores empirical evidence as well as fundamental principles of evolutionary biology and complex systems that invalidate the animal model. Although REACH does put the burden of proof on manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of their products, it then “scores an own goal” by obliging manufacturers to conform to invalid test methods to predict human health outcomes.

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The History of Animal Welfare Law and the Future of Animal Rights

The History of Animal Welfare Law and the Future of Animal Rights

relationship with other members of the animal kingdom in an historical context. 1 The idea that the human-animal relationship raises moral concerns is ancient. But how have these moral standards been translated in law? And how have ethical concerns about animals changed the law over time? These questions are of more than historical interest. The best way to understand contemporary Canadian law about animals is to appreciate its origins. Animal protection law in Canada has remained remarkably stagnant, although some might describe it as stable, for two hundred years. The statutory offence of cruelty to animals has changed very little since it was first enacted in England in response to the great humane movements of the nineteenth century. But the creation of the offence itself was a groundbreaking change. The establishment of criminal liability for mistreating an animal conceded the crucial point that animals deserve legal protection. The problem is that this approach is at its best in situations where a person treats an animal in a way that is socially unacceptable. The process of imposing individual criminal liability is far less effective against institutional cruelties and the systematic mistreatment of animals. It is mostly for this reason that how animals are treated continues to raise serious issues of law and public policy.

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The role of anatomical and ecological analogies in animal architectural design method (where animal architecture stands)

The role of anatomical and ecological analogies in animal architectural design method (where animal architecture stands)

In addition to categorizing the routine, innovative and creative design, Mike Hansell takes architecture inspired by nature and animals into account (1984). Alejandro Bahamon and Patricia Perez regard the relationship between the building construction and biology as the theme of animal architecture (2009). They have studied the anatomical structure of animals (armor shell, hair, skin, snail, shell, scales), animal constructive structure (underground cavity, spider’s web, beaver’s dam, bird's nest), social animal constructive structure (anthills, beehive, coral reefs), and temporary animal structures (marsupial, pupae) on the belief that nature has taught them the patterns and techniques of construction while providing them with the construction material. Well-known architects such as Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, Frank Gehry, and Santiago Calatrava have used the anatomical structure of animals in their most recent works. In spite of the fact that animal architecture is significant and widely-used as a uniquemethod, some other design methods haveyet had similarities with animal architecture. In other words, animal architecture and some of the other methods significantly overlap. They overlap in some cases to the extent that animal architecture can be labeled as a subdivision of some methods.

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Proposal for a Council Decision amending Decision 97/132/EC on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Community and New Zealand on sanitary measures applicable to trade in live animals and animal products (presented by the Commission). COM (

Proposal for a Council Decision amending Decision 97/132/EC on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Community and New Zealand on sanitary measures applicable to trade in live animals and animal products (presented by the Commission). COM (99) 129 final, 31 March 1999

Whereas Decision 97/132/EC does not provide for a procedure for amendment of the Annexes; whereas, however, the Council has adopted Decision 98/258/EC of 16 March 1998 on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Community and the United States of America on sanitary measures to protect public health and animal health in trade in live animals and animal products 2 , which includes such a procedure;

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Information Guide: Food Safety

Information Guide: Food Safety

Actions set out in Commission Decision 2009/375/EC of 8 May 2009 ‘on the financing of a working programme for 2009 on training tools in the field of food safety, animal health, animal welfare and plant health’ aimed to develop, organise and deliver training courses and workshops or seminars in the EU and beyond in order to ensure that personnel performing official controls are adequately trained.

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Learning and innovating together: a partnership between farmers, scientists, public and private organizations

Learning and innovating together: a partnership between farmers, scientists, public and private organizations

FiBl is one of the world’s leading institutions in the field of organic agriculture research and consultancy. FiBl’s strengths include closely linked interdisciplinary research and the rapid transfer of knowledge from research, to extension, to agricultural practice. committed to the international development of organic agriculture, FiBl works closely with the international Federation of organic agriculture movements (iFoam) and other international organizations. along with its expertise in farming practices, organic soil management, plant production, holistic animal health, animal ethology, animal breeding, socio-economics, comprehensive analysis of the organic market, organic food processing and production, FiBl places a high priority on knowledge transfer into agricultural practice. this is achieved through FiBl’s advisory work, training courses and expert reports, including dissemination through magazines, the monthly journal bioaktuell, technical leaflets, reference books, videos and internet material. as FiBl’s competence in organic agriculture is sought after globally, it is involved in numerous international projects, including research, consultancy, training and development cooperation.

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The Texas Agritourism Act: Why the Texas Legislature Put Farmer Liability Out to Pasture

The Texas Agritourism Act: Why the Texas Legislature Put Farmer Liability Out to Pasture

Lee made two arguments on appeal. First, she argued that Loftin caused her injury by choosing an unfavorable trail and that because such “sponsor negligence” was avoidable, it was not an inherent risk. 236 In response, the Court stated that the FALA “simply cannot be fairly read to limit inherent risks to those which are unavoidably associated with [farm animal] behavior.” 237 Instead, “determining what risks are inherent should be based on a common-sense understanding of the nature of [farm animal] activities.” 238 Second, Lee argued that Loftin was liable under the FALA for “failing to make a reasonable and prudent effort to determine [Lee’s] ability to ride.” 239 The Court clarified that this exception to the FALA applies “only when the failure to make the required determination is itself the cause of the damage” and that, for the defendant to defeat the exception, “a formal, searching inquiry” is not required. 240 Because Lee did not argue that “any further inquiry by Lofton into her ability to ride could have prevented” her injury, the FALA exception did not operate to hold Loftin liable. 241

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Integrating site-specific environmental graphic design within an urban context

Integrating site-specific environmental graphic design within an urban context

To streamline the navigation of a city, information design solutions are often created to enable both residents and tourists to access key information faster and reach their destinations sooner in order to have a memorable urban experience. In the occasional or daily pragmatic negotiation of city living there may be opportunities for educating residents and visitors about other meaningful topics. One of these topics could be the overall significance of animals as well as animal-related services within the urban environment. Through effective design planning and the use of 2D and 3D environmental graphic design solutions, design strategies that convey messages more locally and personally to the public could be investigated. Exploration would focus on the roles of layering, sequencing, simplicity and complexity as influenced by placemaking factors such as orientation, connection, direction and animation in an urban environment, as described by Ronald Lee Fleming in The Art of Placemaking.

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Pastoralist knowledge of sheep and goat disease and implications for peste des petits ruminants virus control in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

Pastoralist knowledge of sheep and goat disease and implications for peste des petits ruminants virus control in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

followed by a period of about 3 weeks per village during which in- dividual household visits were carried out early in the morning to be able to observe directly the sheep and goat fl ocks before they left for grazing, and to examine and discuss any clinical cases. A semi-struc- tured household interview was then carried out focusing on manage- ment practices, fl ock structure and dynamics, and disease problems and their impact (SI 1). The types of informant varied between households; in most cases the husband was the main informant with inputs from his wife (or wives) and children, but for some households the wife was the main informant with inputs from her children, her husband being rarely present. Some households in each village were visited multiple times during the 15-month study, to conduct further semi-structured and informal interviews, to follow the progress of the households and flocks over the different seasons, to investigate reports of disease, and to follow up clinical cases. Some of the households migrated during the course of the study and where possible we visited them in their new locations. Additional interviews were carried out opportunistically and as needed to cross-check or gather additional information. A total of 70 households were interviewed during the study period; 23 households in village A and 47 households in village B, of which 13 in village A and 15 in village B were visited multiple times. A woman was the main informant for 7 of the households in village A (30%) and 8 of the households in village B (17%). When visiting flocks, a general ex- amination of the flock was carried out by walking among the animals, and the livestock keepers were encouraged to point out any sick ani- mals for further examination. The clinical examination of a sick animal was a systematic examination from head to tail looking for abnormal- ities, which included the examination of eyes, nose, mouth, body con- dition, respiration, mobility and rectal temperature. During clinical examination, an informal interview was carried out to find out the local

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ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON THE EU ECONOMIC GROWTH

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON THE EU ECONOMIC GROWTH

Although international trade is an incontestable driver of economic development, scientifi c literature still lacks the studies to assess the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on the EU economic growth. The agricultural sector is treated as specifi c in comparison to other economic sectors as the EU subsidisation policies causes distorted competition in both local and global agricultural markets. The main purpose of this article is to assess the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on the economic growth of EU28. The results of the correlation and regression analyses have revealed that the international trade in agricultural products (in particular, section I and III products) contributes only insignifi cant part, to the economic growth of EU28 through the following indicators: GDP in market prices, self-employment, employment in the agricultural sector, labour force rate, subsidies and other transfers. The results have also disclosed that while analysing the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on economic growth, there is no necessity to research export and import volumes in separate as agricultural export and import show nearly the same (only with insignifi cant value differences) determinants of economic growth promotion. Another important conclusion is that the international trade in agricultural products mainly comprises the trade in live animals and animal products (meat and edible meat offal, fi sh and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates, dairy produce, birds’ eggs, natural honey, edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specifi ed or included, and products of animal origin, not elsewhere specifi ed or included) as well as animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products, prepared edible fats, and animal or vegetable waxes.

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