The Colonial Period

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The persistence of Asante Chieftaincy in Ghana in the colonial period (1896-1957): explanations for an enigma

The persistence of Asante Chieftaincy in Ghana in the colonial period (1896-1957): explanations for an enigma

mediatory role, but the exercise of this function became less important for them than it had been in the pre-colonial period. The religious peacekeeping function, on the contrary, increased in significance throughout the colonial period. As a consequence of the continuous role the Asante traditional authorities had in mediation and peacekeeping roles, the Asante Chieftaincy Institutions in its different forms, the pre-colonial Asante Union, the Asantemanhyiamu, the Kumasi Council, the colonial Council of Kumasi and the Asante Confederacy were continuously legitimized with the help of rituals and symbols derived from the Asante Indigenous Religion. The mass movement that was mobilised by Asantehene Prempeh II – with the help of the nkwankwaa – by using cultural nationalistic symbols and an ideology having their roots in the Asante Indigenous Religion, contributed to the fact that in the postcolonial period the Asante institution of chieftaincy was not abolished but incorporated into the modern democratic government. However, institutionally the study of religion and those of chieftaincy were deliberately separated in African universities to better serve the African nationalistic goal of promoting pride for African religions and African syncretistic religions and condemnation for the political outmoded Institution of Chieftaincy. The study of the religious functions of the Asante traditional authorities was therefore left out the African academic curriculum, whereas the North Atlantic academic world mainly concentrated on the task of African development assigned to the traditional authorities. The insight provided in this article into the relationship between religion and chieftaincy is meant to start filling the academic gap on this matter and to show that alongside functions of an economic and political nature the religious roles of traditional authorities have truly transformed but have nevertheless continued to be significant since pre-colonial times. The term of Indigenous Religions recently introduced in the study of religion as describing dynamic and socially contextualised religions of indigenous people which is adequate to express the social historical continuation of (Akan) spirituality and Berner’s concomitant model of religious syncretism, has helped to take the matter up beyond the level of delegating the study of African Indigenous Religions in British colonial Africa to scholars of essentialist and static and structural studies of religion (such as Parrinder’s African Traditional Religion) or to that of political historians like Hobsbawn and Ranger who describe these religions mainly in terms of political motivated ‘invention of traditions’.
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Buddhist writers in colonial Korea : rethinking Korean literature, religion and history during the colonial period, 1910-1945

Buddhist writers in colonial Korea : rethinking Korean literature, religion and history during the colonial period, 1910-1945

There had been religious and scholarly interest in Wŏnhyo during the colonial period but Yi Kwangsu was probably the first writer who reconstructed the life of this historical figure using literary imagination. How did he depict Wŏnhyo and his life in his fiction? How distinctive is his literary approach compared with religious and scholarly approaches, in particular with Ch’oe’s article on Wŏnhyo? Let me first give a summary of the plot of the novel. It begins with the death of Queen Sǔngman. This charismatic female ruler dies of sickness after she has spoken of her unrequited love for Wǒnhyo. Wǒnhyo is shocked by her death and afflicted by feelings of guilt because of his refusal to grant her wish. One day, he meets a monk called Taean 大安 and realizes that compassion is to provide practical help, adjusting to the needs and condition of living beings. Wǒnhyo then puts his awakening into action. Hearing that Princess Yosǒk is dying for love of Wǒnhyo, he transgresses the vinaya precept that forbids contact with women and sexual intercourse. After his transgression, Wǒnhyo calls himself a kŏsa ( 居士 , lay-believer) and goes to practice a form of Silla’s native ascetic training. Afterwards, he confronts a cluster of beggars who had caused social unrest and makes them surrender by reciting mysterious mantras. The beggars repented their sins and became distinguished generals and spies during Silla’s war with Paekche and Koguryŏ. Wǒnhyo himself hides in the mountains and teaches his followers.
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Chiefs and Local Government Administration in West Budama County in Uganda During The Colonial Period, 1900-1962

Chiefs and Local Government Administration in West Budama County in Uganda During The Colonial Period, 1900-1962

Brett (1973:220) observes that peasant production was cheap and profitable because it could sustain itself by providing its own labour and buying implements from income. This concept of “cheap and profitable” only accrued to the colonial state machinery and not to the peasants themselves. (Chambua 1984) also note that the imposition of export cash crops by colonial powers broke up the traditional natural economy of pre-colonial Africa, the result of which was irreversible, leading to African peasants being differentiated along class lines and also integrated into the market for both their production and reproduction. In essence, Padhola was experiencing a systematic process of the development of underdevelopment. The establishment of colonial rule in Padhola not only incorporated the area into the expansion and development of the world industrial capitalist system but also introduced monopolistic metropolis and satellite structure and development of capitalist economy and society itself. In the long run, Padhola became increasingly marked and identified with economic, social and political structure of satellite underdevelopment (Peer Discussion, Okware, Onyango, 2010).
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Dedrick_unc_0153D_19038.pdf

Dedrick_unc_0153D_19038.pdf

Repartimiento de bienes, a system that forced indigenous communities to sell commodities cheaply, though illegal during most of the Colonial period, was practiced widely among Spaniards in positions of power, such as royal provincial governors and priests (Patch 1993:30). Its purpose was simply to maximize the profits of a Spaniard at the expense of the indigenous producers. Early evidence of this practice, mentioned in the introduction, included records that Juan de Contreras, first encomendero of Tahcabo, forced residents of his encomiendas to buy cacao beans in exchange for highly-desired cotton during the 1550s (Quezada 2014:93). More records of the practice exist for later times, predominantly during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the targeted commodities consisted primarily of beeswax, honey, and raw cotton or cotton cloth. In these cases, Spaniards provided goods, cash advances, and even indulgences in exchange for cheap and often under-weighed commodities (Farriss 1984:44; Patch 1993:30-31, 91). The timing of these activities coincided with encomienda tribute payments, and town gobernadores were also held accountable for repartimiento payments (Patch 1994:104). If community leaders needed to acquire commodities in order to meet their various quota obligations, they bought them at high prices or on credit from Spaniards who controlled the trade (Patch 1993:88).
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Utilizing Laser Cutting, 3D Printing and 3D Scanning to Create an Affordable Fully Interactive Prototype of a Full Size Animatronic Figure

Utilizing Laser Cutting, 3D Printing and 3D Scanning to Create an Affordable Fully Interactive Prototype of a Full Size Animatronic Figure

Kaduna City was established by the colonial government in 1912 as an administrative headquarters. Since then, Kaduna has maintained its initial function as an administrative headquarters passing through various administrations; colonial, military and civilian respectively. The architecture of the town has passed through various transforming experiences. This paper reviews the context of the architectural development of Kaduna, from 1900-2000 identifying the factors that have shaped it, styles, elements of transformation and continuity and architects involved in the process. A questionnaire as well as structured interviews and building survey have been used to articulate opinions, perceptions and views of a carefully selected sample of respondents. The paper concludes that the major factors that affected the development of architecture in Kaduna city include its growth as primate city, diversity of people that flocked into the city in search of the opportunities, the choice of the city as an administrative headquarters, the work of the expatriate architects that laid the foundation and the indigenous architects that built on their works. Great transformation is seen in the progression from various architectural styles from the neoclassical style of the colonial period to the enhanced modern/postmodern architecture of the 2000s while continuity manifests in the elements that appear in the traditional architecture such as dome and arches and in the climate consciousness of the plan with courtyards.
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Niraja Gopal Jayal, Citizenship and its Discontents: An Indian History

Niraja Gopal Jayal, Citizenship and its Discontents: An Indian History

proposition, which could be summed up as follows: (i) citizenship is about legal status; rights and entitlements; and identity and belonging. (ii) These legal, social and cultural dimensions are connected in ways that are sometimes convergent, and sometimes divergent. (iii) Investigating how these three dimensions have been conceived, discussed and translated (or not) into policy sheds light on some of the major political issues confronting India today, even as it reveals the Indian contribution to important theoretical debates. Each section is composed of three chapters focusing respectively on the colonial period; the constitutional moment; and post-independence developments.
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Aerial Archaeology at the Moland House: Balloon-Elevated Videography in Search of Colonial Period Structures

Aerial Archaeology at the Moland House: Balloon-Elevated Videography in Search of Colonial Period Structures

Archaeological excavations have taken place for more than twenty years at the Colonial Period Moland House site in Hartsville, PA (36BU301). These have unearthed thousands of artifacts, and numerous buried features, that support historical accounts pertaining to the site. In the summer of 2009, field school students from Penn State University Abington College deployed a balloon-elevated digital video system to gather remote imagery of the site at altitudes from 10-100’ above the ground. The resulting images gathered by the aerial videography suggest a variety of potential additional buried structures on the site. These data will guide future excavations aimed at locating additional structures from throughout the history of the site.
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Investigating use of daylight in a typical Algerian public classroom typology

Investigating use of daylight in a typical Algerian public classroom typology

Based on consultations with professors and officials in the Directorate of Education Algeria, the conceptual models of Algerian public schools are divided into two types of school buildings. Schools inherited from the colonial period; those built during the period of French occupation are characterized by variation on the arrangements of classrooms even for a single school. Usually, unilateral lighting is the common design of daylighting in these schools. Their architectural designs do not provide too much visual comfort due to insufficient daylight due to the restriction in the area of windows, which obstruct the admission of natural light. Finally, it is necessary to note that schools classified under this type are disappearing.
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Indigenous Political Organization in Huamachuco, Peru, in the Early Seventeenth Century.

Indigenous Political Organization in Huamachuco, Peru, in the Early Seventeenth Century.

Conducting research in Spanish colonial archives is a challenging enterprise because of the volume of material involved, the multi-layered complexity of each manuscript, the indeterminacy of meaning of these sources, the contradictions, and the ambiguity of the data (Burns 2010:18; Noack 2003:214; Rostworowski 2009:343; Salomon 2002:485). The errors in ethnohistorical research are in the interpretation of the information written on the manuscripts. In the colonial documents, there are several levels of interpretation: first, the interpretation of the documents during the Colonial period; then, the current interpretation of these documents by different researchers. To interpret and analyze colonial manuscripts it is necessary to remember that, most of the time, the indigenous peoples could not transmit their worldview through written records or “to the dominant culture without mentioning prohibited or sensitive topics, like ancestor worship, which in effect underlaid their entire existence and way of life” (Ramírez 2006b:372). In addition, to reduce the margin of error in cross cultural translations, the fluency in the language in which the manuscripts were written becomes important. It is also essential to be aware of the constant changes of meaning of key words to avoid anachronisms and
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The Politics of Survival: Indian and European Collaboration in Colonial North America, Ian Pajer-Rogers

The Politics of Survival: Indian and European Collaboration in Colonial North America, Ian Pajer-Rogers

It is clear that without the presence of the Indians and the subsequent reliance that is consistently present through economic, social, and militaristic dealings, European settlers would not have been able to develop a working society as quickly or effectively as they did. They certainly would not have thrived without the introduction of corn and tobacco (staples of the Virginia economy) or the fur trade (mandatory for French development.) The reliance that so defined Indian-European political relations throughout the colonial period was a defining factor in the evolution of America and Americans. Historians should work to ensure that these important interactions are not relegated to the Euro-centric attitude of simple dominance over the "savages" that helped America and Americans to become what they are, even today.
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Post-colonial theory in Zimbabwe’s education system: Headmasters’ views

Post-colonial theory in Zimbabwe’s education system: Headmasters’ views

Postcolonial theory tries to understand the power and continued dominance of Western ways of knowing. Sharp (2009), following Spivak (1988), argues that other forms of knowing are marginalized by Western thinkers reforming them as myth or folklore. In order to be heard, the subaltern must adopt Western thought, reasoning, and language. Because of this, Sharp (2009) and Spivak (1988) argue that the subaltern can never express their own reasoning, forms of knowledge or logic; they must instead form their knowledge to Western ways of knowing. It is on this basis that the education system is influenced by policies enacted during the colonial period and that although African countries became independent, the continued use of these policies means that they are still culturally, economically, and politically dependent on colonial masters. There have been studies written in the propagation of colonial structures in the post-colonial era (Diang, 2013; Imoh-Itah, Amadi, & Akpan, 2016) while some have focused on the total disbandment of any colonial structures in independent states (Talton, 2011). It has been argued elsewhere especially in history books written by Eurocentric authors who claim that colonialism brought with it many benefits, while those historians that are Afrocentric argue otherwise. Despite all the arguments put forward in defense or support of colonialism, the fact remains that colonial structures have been adopted, propagated into the post-colonial period.
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Simbu paths to power : political change and cultural continuity in the Papua New Guinea Highlands

Simbu paths to power : political change and cultural continuity in the Papua New Guinea Highlands

During the late 1940s and 1950s, after pacification, it was no longer possible for men to achieve prominence through warfare and, furthermore, existing leaders lost some of their sanctions within their groups. The relevance of violence in the gaining and maintaining of political influence and power was thus partly hidden during the colonial period, and models of leadership based principally on exchange only incorporated some of the several elements involved. Missionaries had noted that opportunities for new wealth were open to njajjy njen^early in the colonial era^ Mount Hagen (Vicedom and Tischner 1943-4^ ^Nilles 1950). Access to wealth, status and the possibility of leadership became more open and perhaps more competitive under Australian rule than in precolonial times, and leaders, as we shall note, lost some of their sanctions. In the mid-Wahgi area west of Chimbu live the Kuma people, whom Reay first studied in the early 1950s, just a few years after pacification. She says (1959: 1984) that in Kuma there was a rule of succession to a titled position as authorised leader ('the first') for each sub-clan. For reasons such as inappropriate age the eldest son of a leader may not follow his father. But the role will probably stay in his lineage, with the brother or the father's brother's son of the previous incumbent if he is a mature man and can perform the required roles. This rule provides a pool of eligibles, from which a suitable leader will emerge for each sub-clan and clan. The required attributes in this competition include, inter alia, warfare skills and bravery, a scheme very like my model of Simbu.
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Political violence in the Third World: a case study of Sri Lanka

Political violence in the Third World: a case study of Sri Lanka

PRECONDITIONS OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN SRI LANKA: 711E 1971 INSURRECTION 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Impact of the Colonial Period 3.3 The Economic Change 3.4 Industrialisation and Employme[r]

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Demystifying the developmental state: a critique of the theories and practices of the state in the development of capital relations in Korea

Demystifying the developmental state: a critique of the theories and practices of the state in the development of capital relations in Korea

Tracing the formation of the Korean state in the context of the development of capital relations in Korea from the colonial period to the 1970s, chapters six and seven will present the K[r]

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5883.pdf

5883.pdf

In sum, Stedman weaves a conception of an impenetrable, untamable, savage, yet also luscious and virgin jungle (like Ralegh, he compares Suriname to a large and beautiful garden), and infuses this imaginary with a racial geography suggesting that only similarly feral races, like Indians and “Bush-negroes”, may survive and ultimately thrive in this tropical climate and therefore belong to it (Redfield 2000: 193-4). Almost certainly, the difference between Herlein and Stedman can in part be explained by the historical persistence and growing importance of marronage and maroon resistance into the interior, the emergence of ‘maroon’ as an analytical category, and the formation of distinctive maroon societies—Stedman distinguishes between the Saramakas and N’Djukas, two maroon groups that had by this point become settled in different parts of the interior (cf. Figure 1). But in addition to this historical background, I argue that in order to make sense of Stedman’s inclusion of the maroons belonging in the natural world, we need to register the complex assemblage that may have included (among other things) racial geographies and ideologies, colonial desires and eroticisms, and prior imaginings of the Surinamese interior.
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Change and continuity in women self-help groups in Maragua, Kenya; 1895-2013

Change and continuity in women self-help groups in Maragua, Kenya; 1895-2013

In the pre-colonial period matega was set amount of items to be given by each woman. With time women now the women contribute money and give to one woman, while those in a women church group give in church to one woman. These contributions continue to provide assistance to members for weddings and funerals. It helps to amass a lump sum amount for each woman. With these, a woman may buy a major household requirement, such as a cow, a water tank, or furniture. The giving of a woman a lump sum amount of money would later be known as Ngumbato. Women participation in group activities has had positive results on their roles particularly of search of fuel wood, provision of household items, improvement of shelters structures and water tanks and improvement of household food security. Statistically women group activities did not appear to have impacted significantly on women‟s status. However qualitative data indicated improvement through their acquisition of both agricultural and commercial land, involvement in income generating activities through businesses, livestock rearing, and construction of rental houses, among others. Consequently their participation in community projects and public activities helped to increase their visibility on the government side as targets of development process hence the increase in funding by the government to women for example the Women Enterprise Fund.
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Rethinking resistance: revolt and violence in African history

Rethinking resistance: revolt and violence in African history

Whatever the motives, in the winter of 1850 in a week of rain, wind and even snow, a party of Xhosa police in colonial service, led by a British officer, proceeded through the western part of the Settlement eliminating the homesteads of those they described as Xhosa ‘squatters’. Their first targets were the Xhosa in Fuller’s Hoek and the other kloofs on the western boundary of the Kat River Settlement. Some were relatively independent or at least the subjects of Xhosa chiefs, including Bhotomane. One of the leaders, a certain Mali, was known to have fought against the colony during the War of the Axe. Others claimed to be followers of Hermanus but were living outside the restricted area he had been allocated. The party then moved on to Buxton where they found more squatters than in any other place among the followers of Field Cornet Andries Botha. The men, women and children were then shepherded off to Fort Hare, together with their goats and cattle. In total, more than 300 huts were burned, and 145 men, 350 women and an unknown number of children were driven off the land, together with nearly 2,500 head of cattle and 1,400 goats. 45 There were many offensive aspects to this campaign. The missionaries, and probably many of the settlers in the Kat River, disapproved of the police continuing their work of destruction on a Sunday. The expulsion of men, women and children in the dead of a Cape winter without warning and without any real provision for their future residence was widely seen as brutal, harsh treatment, although it might be argued that, unlike Maqoma and his followers 21 years earlier, this meant that they did not have crops standing in the fields waiting to be harvested. But, as he complained of the matter to his old commander, Sir Andries Stockenström, Andries Botha took exception above all to two matters: those who destroyed the houses, and those whose houses were destroyed.
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Childhood in the Early Colonial Period

Childhood in the Early Colonial Period

bor’s household, and raised in return for bo713 In the colonial South,5 families, as in New Eng- land, were large; children were set to useful labor at an early age; religion was fairly [r]

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Transnational encounters in Algeria : para colonial writing in the travelogues of German soldiers in colonial Algiers, 1830–1890

Transnational encounters in Algeria : para colonial writing in the travelogues of German soldiers in colonial Algiers, 1830–1890

We know less about Emil Bock than we do about Robert Jungmann, though what we do know seems more certain: he identifies as a Swabian, a native of the south-western German principality of Württemberg. His Diary, published at his own costs in 1883, two years after ending a two-year tour of service in the Foreign Legion, reflects many of the changes that had occurred in Algeria since the 1830s. Writing in 1881, Bock is more than just a young legionnaire, but also, potentially, a German proto-colonist straining at the leash. As a well-established coastal French Algeria extended its influence inland, the essay asks whether military service offered Bock the opportunity to test himself, both as a frustrated colonial soldier and a writer, upon the culturally and politically fluid spaces of the African interior. It considers, too, whether and in what ways his sense of identity as a citizen of the young German Empire coloured his writing about service in the French colonies.
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Engendering the Anthropocene in Oceania: Fatalism, Resilience, Resistance

Engendering the Anthropocene in Oceania: Fatalism, Resilience, Resistance

2. See the stellar ANU honours thesis by Talei Luscia (now Talei Luscia Mangioni) The Calyx of Oceania: Creativity and Environmental Movements’ where she develops the concept of the ‘genealogy of resistance’ linking the environmental activism of the Nuclear Free and Independent Movement and contemporary climate change activism with a focus on creative expression. See also Katerina Teaiwa’s ‘Our Rising Sea of Islands: Pan-Pacific Regionalism in the Age of Climate Change’, Pacific Studies, vol. 41, no.1-2, 2018, 26–54. Here she looks at the ‘thousands of years of cultural resilience in Oceania, and the seeds of Pan-Pacific regionalism, creative expression, and resistance that have been planted during and after colonial rule’. 3. Helen James, ‘How do we re-make our lives? Gender and sustainability in the post-disaster context in Asia’, in Helen James and Douglas Paton (eds), The Consequences of Disasters: Demographic Planning, and Policy Implications, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 2016, pp. 201–23. UN Women, Time to Act: On Gender, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction, lead author Kate Morioka, Bangkok, UN Women, 2016.
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