The Relationship Between Sentence Structure and Propositional

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Annotation of Sentence Structure; Capturing the Relationship among Clauses in Czech Sentences

Annotation of Sentence Structure; Capturing the Relationship among Clauses in Czech Sentences

Malostransk´e n´am. 25, 118 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic { lopatkova,kljueva,homola } @ufal.mff.cuni.cz Abstract The goal of the presented project is to as- sign a structure of clauses to Czech sen- tences from the Prague Dependency Tree- bank (PDT) as a new layer of syntactic an- notation, a layer of clause structure. The annotation is based on the concept of seg- ments, linguistically motivated and easily automatically detectable units. The task of the annotators is to identify relations among segments, especially relations of super/subordination, coordination, apposi- tion and parenthesis. Then they identify individual clauses forming complex sen- tences.
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SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE

SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Janet left quickly. Janet left early. A word’s category membership does not always bear such a straightforward relationship to its meaning, however. For example, there are nouns such as difficulty, truth, and likelihood, which do not name entities in the strict sense. Moreover, even though words that name actions tend to be verbs, nouns may also denote actions (push is a noun in give someone a push). Matters are further complicated by the fact that in some cases, words with very similar meanings belong to different categories. For instance, the words like and fond are very similar in meaning (as in Mice like/are fond of cheese), yet like is a verb and fond an adjective.
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Sentence Structure

Sentence Structure

In a tree structure there is a single topmost node, which we call the root node, the node from which the rest of the tree grows downwards. This topmost node is S, and so the sentence as a whole which is symbol- ized by this root S is called the ROOT SENTENCE . Most other sentences which are contained directly or indirectly inside this root sentence are called SUBORDINATE CLAUSES ; we could call them subordinate sentences but by calling them clauses instead of sentences we draw attention to some differences between the root and the subordinate versions of sen- tences. The relative clauses which we saw at the end of the previous chap- ter are examples of subordinate clauses as modifiers of a noun inside a noun phrase. Here are some examples of root sentences which contain subordinate clauses; the subordinate clauses in each case are underlined.
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Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT

D. S V SC (A or N) Such sentences will contain a linking verb. SC = subject complement; it tells you what is being predicated about the S. [Note: grammarians also label the SC as a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective.] Structurally, in English the linking verb most often comes between the S and the SC. The “(A or N)” notation above indicates that the SC can be either an adjective or a noun. Exx.:

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The relationship between capital structure and ownership structure

The relationship between capital structure and ownership structure

financial health or dividend related issues, to call urgency on the short-term basis. Results are also in the favour of the paper, as there is positive relationship of dividends with the standards and tools of organization for the capital structures and investments. To map out a standard for techniques and temporary issues, there is no substantial research conducted in Pakistan’s context that caused the insignificance of results in a clear way. Second key variable, which is discussed in this paper, is ‘profitability’, as it is evident amongst major issues in an organization that companies are facing major flaws in capital investment while managing trends for profitability. To ensure techniques and immediate results, tools are more significant in investment and industrial sectors, for the secondary and the primary techniques. Profitability is the major concern when we deem investors and creditors, as major focus in organizational scenario. Infrastructure intensive industries are deploying more as compared to the other industry players. The profitability ratio and factors are more crucial in nature whilst in relation to their long run comparison considered (Wei and Zhang, 2008).
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The structure of the English Sentence

The structure of the English Sentence

Basic Syntax in English When writing in a foreign language it is important to know and to review the order of the words in the sentences we make. Many times we translate directly form our native language and we do not notice that the order of elements is not necessarily the same. One of the main differences between the Romance and the Germanic languages is based on the versatility of the former in the order of the words in the sentence. Declinations allow a wide range of syntactic structures, whereas in English, for instance, subjects and verbs should be closed together or otherwise it would be impossible to understand the sentences.
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The Relationship between the Structure and the Activity of Pyrethroids

The Relationship between the Structure and the Activity of Pyrethroids

Natural chrysanthemic acid has a trans-isobutenyl group at C-3 on the cyclopropane ring, but other substituents there produce greater or more rapid action.. Even with no substituents at [r]

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The Relationship between Capital Structure and Profitability

The Relationship between Capital Structure and Profitability

This study examines the relationship between capital structure and profitability of the Jordanian manufacturing firms. The literature cites a number of variables that are potentially associated with the profitability of firms. In this study, the selection of exploratory variables is based on the alternative capital structure, profitability theories and previous empirical work. The choice can be limited, however, due to data limitations. As a result, the set of proxy variables includes six factors: three ratios of short-term debt to total assets, long-term debt to total assets, total debt to total assets and, in addition, sales growth, firm size, and profitability (measured by return on equity). This study is organized as follows: First research objectives and importance are shown, and then the literature for the relevant theoretical and empirical work on capital structure and its effect on profitability are reviewed. After that, the methodology and framework which includes sample and the variables used in the empirical analysis is presented. After words, separate section portrays and discusses the data analysis, discussion and statistical results. Finally the conclusion and recommendations are presented.
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Based on Sentence Structure Analysis

Based on Sentence Structure Analysis

We have made several experiments which confirm that our model is able to learn how to create questions from sen- tences and question generated by our method achieve bet- ter correctness in comparison to the best of state-of-the- art systems from the Question Generation Shared Task Challenge. We also compare questions generated by AQG systems with questions expected by users through metrics used in related NLP tasks and found, that there are only small differences between them.

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The Relationship between Earning Management and Capital Structure

The Relationship between Earning Management and Capital Structure

ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the relationship between capital structure and earning management. For analysing we used 119 non-financial companies that listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2008. The researchers will focus on comparing the Jones Model and the Modified Jones Model, which are the two most frequently used model in empirical analysis nowadays. Earnings management is a kind of management which uses accounting techniques to meet the executives. Researchers in this area found many approaches to detect the earnings management; within these approaches are the discretionary accrual models which include the modified. Our findings suggested a positive relationship between debt ratio and discretionary accruals is (0.000). Also there is a negative association between return on assets (ROA) and debt ratio. Finally return on equity and total assets related positively with debt ratio.
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The Relationship Between Family Structure and Sexual Activity

The Relationship Between Family Structure and Sexual Activity

In a typical multivariate regression model, each of the predictor variables is competing with the others, and the direct effects of family structure represent only the independent effects, net of all other variables. Due to the effects of control variables, depending on what measures are used in the model, a significant direct effect of family structure observed in a simple bivariate analysis may be non- significant or zero in a multivariate model based on the same data. (This is the case in the majority of the non-significant results reviewed in the body of this paper.) When this happens, the other variables are said to “mediate” or “explain” the observed relationship between family structure and adolescent sexual outcomes. For example, changes in residential mobility (Crowder and Teachman, 2004; South, Haynie, and Bose, 2005) and differences in family income and resources (Stewart, 2003; Painter and Levine, 2004) explain some of the difference in rates of conception between adolescents from single- parent households and adolescents from married- parent households (Crowder and Teachman, 2004).
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The relationship between road accidents and urban structure

The relationship between road accidents and urban structure

transformation of the original data matrix by means of the principal components analysis, was completed individually for each year, the various derived components [r]

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The Relationship Between Ownership Structure and Role of Board

The Relationship Between Ownership Structure and Role of Board

Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 1557 internal investors with management rights and external shareholder who are investors without ballot right. The agency theory indicates that the management is trying to attain their own benefits rather than to work for achieving the shareholders benefits and objectives. Within of this outcome is the agency problem due to the conflict of interest between the owners of the company and those who manage the company. Fama (1980) argues that the composition of board structure is an important mechanism because the presence of non- executive directors represents a mean of monitoring the actions of the executive directors and of ensuring that the executive directors are pursuing policies consistent with shareholders interests. to safeguarding the interest of shareholders, board of directors is appointed through the election in the annual general meeting. The board of director is the agent to the shareholders in ensuring the transparent financial reporting the reflect the real financial position of the companies.
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The Relationship Between Prisoners’ Academic Self-efficacy and Participation in Education, Previous Convictions, Sentence Length, and Portion of Sentence Served

The Relationship Between Prisoners’ Academic Self-efficacy and Participation in Education, Previous Convictions, Sentence Length, and Portion of Sentence Served

Practical implications Previous studies (e.g., Davis et al., 2013; Kim & Clark, 2013) have shown that prison education re- duces recidivism. Although we do not have similar studies on the relationship between participation in prison education and recidivism in Norway, a positive relationship between academic self-efficacy and achievement in school has been revealed (Dinther et al., 2011; Pajares, 1996; Zimmerman, 2000). Academic self-efficacy is essential to academic success. It sustains motivation and promotes learning. Apparently, academic self-effi- cacy may be of indirect importance for post-release success and consequently lower recidivism. Based on the research they have reviewed, Linnenbrink and Pintrich (2003) recommend that teachers should help students maintain relatively high but accurate self-efficacy, provide them with challenging academic tasks that they can achieve with effort, foster the belief that competence or ability is changeable, and finally promote their domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs rather than global self-esteem. Self-efficacy is increased when students adopt short-term goals, are taught to use specific learning strategies, and receive rewards based on achieve- ment, not just engagement, because achievement rewards signal increasing competence (Graham & Weiner, 1996). Thus, an important pedagogical implication emerging from the findings is that prison staff should take seriously their share of the responsibility in enhancing the academic self-efficacy of the prisoners. In partic- ular, prisoners with prior convictions who have a lower level of education and do not participate in prison education need to be empowered with resources that can boost their self-efficacy. Although the mean ICT self-efficacy score was in the higher range, the findings may indicate that inadequate equipment puts prisoners at a competitive disadvantage after release and that the prison authorities must quickly solve the discrepan- cy between prison security routines and the need of prisoners involved in educational activities to use ICT equipment in their studies. The period of incarceration is an opportunity for prison teachers to take steps to improve prisoners’ academic self-efficacy, including their ICT self-efficacy, and especially the self-efficacy of prisoners who have learning challenges due to ADHD and reading and writing difficulties. Better education will likely contribute towards improving the prospect for successful reintegration into the society. Also, prison staff and prison educators should be aware that prisoners’ academic self-efficacy may serve as an important guiding factor for their own decision to enroll in education or not. Thus, assessment of academic self-efficacy can provide important guidelines for educational staffs’ academic supervision in a prison context.
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Research about Causative Sentence in modern Japanese : the relationship between form and function of V-saseru in a sentence and the causative meanings

Research about Causative Sentence in modern Japanese : the relationship between form and function of V-saseru in a sentence and the causative meanings

14 きかける」ことを表現する文」 )について、動作の源泉のありか 3 (「動作の源泉=使役主体」 と「動作の源泉=動作主体」)、動詞の意志性(「意志動詞」と「無意志動詞」 )、および「 V- サセル」の肯定/否定の形(「みとめ」と「うちけし」)という3つの条件によって使役の 意味に違いがあり、次のように《指令》、 《許可・放任》、 《変化のひきおこし》、 《放置》、[r]

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The relationship between risk and return and banks income structure

The relationship between risk and return and banks income structure

In another investigation, Stiroh and Rumble (2006) find that interest income can be correlated with non-interest income because of the possible cross-selling of different products to the same cus- tomer. They also believe that when clients obtain financing from banks, they also worry about how to repay it and an easy retail payment service can facili- tate repayment and attract more customers to bor- row money from banks. Marcucci and Quagliariello (2006) investigated the relationships between credit risk and the business cycle for financial stability and risk management purposes. They hold that many previous studies generally neglected the presence of asymmetric effects, i.e., the likelihood that the influence is dissimilar over various phases of the business cycle. They tried to use threshold regres- sion models with two or more regimes at both the aggregate and individual levels to exploit a unique dataset on Italian bank borrowers’ default rates. The study tried to figure out whether the relationship be- tween the business cycle and credit risk was subject to regime switches, determining endogenously the thresholds. The results recommended that the effect of the business cycle was more pronounced when starting credit risk levels were higher, and also dur- ing the downturns.
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Dissecting the relationship between protein structure and sequence evolution

Dissecting the relationship between protein structure and sequence evolution

in space and time domains – corresponding to structural and evolutionary vari- ations – mutually influence each other at the amino acid level. In particular, it is generally observed that the amino acids in the core of protein are more conserved than the amino acids on the surface. Some site-specific structural quantities have been already identified that are capable of explaining the gen- eral patterns of sequence variability in globular proteins. A prominent example is the amino acid exposure to solvent molecules – typically water – which sur- round proteins in vivo. Furthermore, some partial associations between the local flexibility, packing density and sequence variability can be also observed among globular proteins. There is however no consensus as to which set of structural characteristics play the dominant role in sequence evolution. The strength of sequence–structure correlations also appear to vary widely from one protein to another, with Spearman’s correlation strength ρ ∈ [0.1, 0.8].
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The Relationship between Non-Financial Stakeholders and Capital Structure

The Relationship between Non-Financial Stakeholders and Capital Structure

In today’s dynamic environment, both intellectual capital (IC), the main value added factor, and perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU), an unpredictable contingency factor, influence corporate performance (CP). Financial accounting literature highlights the importance of non-financial factors. Therefore, it is important for organizations to rely more on non-financial criteria than on financial factors to achieve higher competitive advantage. Identifying the most important non- financial factors that affect corporate performance and their relationship with capital structures (CS) is the main issue in today’s dynamic conditions. This research examines the relationship between non-financial factors of IC and PEU and evaluates their influence on CS directly or indirectly by considering the mediation effects of corporate performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 339 public listed Iranian manufacturing companies selected based on census data. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The main findings of this study are as follows: IC can enhance corporate performance, PEU is positively linked to corporate performance, and corporate performance is positively linked to capital structure. The results also indicated a full mediation effect of corporate performance in the relationship between PEU and capital structure. Also, we analyze intellectual capital relation with 1) traditional vs. secular-rational values and with 2) survival vs. self-expression values. In order to determine the most efficient versions of intellectual capital, an Intellectual Capital Multiple Criteria Decision Support (ICMCDS) system was developed, consisting of a database, database management system, model-base, model-base management system, and user interface. This study contributes to determining capital structure decision making by considering IC and PEU in the context of companies in Iran. Further in-depth research is needed to examine the links between non-financial factors and capital structure with different measurement and perspectives to develop a deeper understanding of their effect on capital structure.
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The Relationship between the Concepts of Agency-Structure in the Thought of Beheshti

The Relationship between the Concepts of Agency-Structure in the Thought of Beheshti

the only possible way to make changes in structures depends on the actions. These ac- tions also produce and reproduce structures. Giddens opposed the overall preference for the structure to action. Giddens sees action as a set of actions in relation to each other, which is also referred to as a continuous flow of behavior. For Giddens, actions have three characteristics. First, they are in the form of unconscious knowledge, and in describing this state of affairs, Giddens considers the subconscious as a human factor. On the point of this unconscious comes from a sense of trust. This sense of duty is to provide a sense of protection and protection from threats, which threatens to create a feeling of hint and fear in the human factor towards the future. The second aspect of the action is tacit know- ledge (knowledge of how). In this kind of knowledge, which has acted as an awareness of action, it is said that humans are not able to express it, and this sense forms in another way through the socialization of humans, which is also said to be implied by the pro- gram. To be Giddens believes that activists often have implicit reasons to act for them- selves to justify their behavior, which is why they hide the action from the perspective of others at first. The third aspect of the Gid- dens' perspective is the rethinking of know- ledge (knowledge of what is). This know- ledge is known as the self-consciousness and control that man has on his daily life. Gid- dens believes that actors have the ability to control and take care of their actions in each act of action, actors and scenes are monitored in a reciprocal manner, which is referred to as a supervisory review. Reactive monitoring operates in a systematic manner and monitors the interaction environment (Craig, 2002: 144).
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An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Capital Structure and Profitability

An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Capital Structure and Profitability

A case study of SMEs in Masvingo Urban concluded that productivity is positively related to debt financing. The level of debt financing must be moderate to avoid large interest payments which can prevent SMEs from investing using internal sources of finance. Research on sugar industries of Pakistan has concluded a positive relationship between financial leverage and return on assets. Further, the study conducted by Sara Sana and Heman Das on the textile industry of Pakistan concluded that the relationship between debt and return on equity is nonlinear. They said that the optimal ratio of debt financing is 56%, so the firms with approximately this ratio are growing ones, and excessive debt causes an increase in interest cost. The ROE increases up to the optimal debt level after which the decline comes. Moreover, size has no effect on ROE, but sales growth has a significant positive impact. Evidence from the French service sector elaborates that debt has no impact on profitability, either in a linear way or in a non-linear way.
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