considered more attractive by the research subjects which may distort the experiment to a substantial degree, because the people who fi nd themselves in the less desirable group may feel offended, try to compete, etc. (Brzeziński 2003). The random division may also be distorted by other factors: “the persons taking part in the experiment (after the random selection) were dissatisfi ed with the fact that they are not in one group with the people they were friends with and the seniors wanted to exchange the lots they drew and move between groups” (Researcher 3). Yet another issue con- nected with insubordination that could have decisive infl uence on the successfulness of the experiment is following the instructions during the activities that are subject to measurement. “The participants would tend to cheat during control tests, to help each other (even though they knew that they would not be graded and the results would have no infl uence in their participation in the classes) despite their declara- tions not to do so (...) Some people would choose a different strategy and they would ostentatiously refuse to answer the test questions. It proved possible to eliminate the problem through persuasion and regular reminding of the participants of the aims of the experiment and the rules of conducting it” (Researcher 1). As already mentioned by Researcher 1, these examples suggest that the research subjects might not follow the instructions because, among others, they have not been suffi ciently informed of the specifi cs of the classes that they participate in. It is the role of the researcher to make it clear that these are not regular classes and following instructions is of crucial importance in conducting them properly. The doubts connected with participation in the particular activities, discomfort, etc. should be addressed in research subjects’ questions to the researcher. Writing down a contract to be put up before each meet- ing with the research subjects could be helpful, as well.
The booklet encouraged the seniors to set nutrition and physical activity goals in line with national recommenda- tions. It explained health benefits of adopting good nutri- tion and participating in regular physical activity and gave clear guidelines on these. The final version of the booklet consisted of three sections. The first section introduced the program and asked questions about health concerns and issues based on the Health Belief Model. It explained how to address these health concerns and provided con- tact phone numbers and websites for specific health agen- cies. The second section gave information and examples on how to follow the Dietary Guidelines for Older Aus- tralians . The seniors were then asked to set a couple of nutritional goals based on their own eating habits. Examples of nutritional goals are shown in Figure 3. The Process to develop and evaluate the intervention
attention to the basic concepts, the de Þ nition of domestic violence, expressions of the analysis of risk behavior and the speci Þ cs of the seniors in the role of victim. The lecture then resulted in the speci Þ c procedure of the victim or a witness of defense against domestic violence, i.e.. The possibility of Þ ling a cri- minal noti Þ cation to the police of the Czech Republic, for help on the other hel- ping agencies. For example The „Bílý kruh bezpeĀí“ association, that since 1996 is a full member of the transnational organization of Victim Support Europe (previously The European Forum for Victim Services), that actively cooperates in the development of projects, standards, researches, reviews, implementa- tion of the documentation for the framework decisions of the Council of the European Union in the Þ eld of the treatment of victims of crime in the EU (ÿírtková, 2014; http://www.bkb.cz/).
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Modified Barthel Index (BI), the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the number of leisure activities engaged in, normal vision (including with corrective eyewear), income source, and sleep qual- ity, were retained in the model. Discriminating power was evaluated by several criteria: (a) Wilks’ lambda, (b) variance explained, and (c) percentage correctly classi- fied. The results are shown in Table 3. The discrimin- ation model gave Wilks’ lambda = 0.28, Chi-square = 118.92, df = 13, and p <0.001, implying that the AG and IG clusters were significantly different with respect to the given discriminator variables in the model. In addition, the means of these variables for the two groups were also significantly different at the 5% level. Seventy- two per cent of the variation between the two groups was accounted for by these discriminating variables. Of these variables, LSI-A and GDS were the most signifi- cant factors contributing to the discriminant function. The resultant equation was then used to allocate the se- niors to an appropriate group according to the seniors’ information in the D2 dataset. As a result, 98.51% and 94.12% of those in the AG and IG groups, respectively, could be correctly predicted, indicating that the model has a high level of predictive power.
from active life, giving up previously performed roles and isolation from the larger surroundings (Kaãuİny, 2002). It is the stereotyping of the elderly people which stigmatizes them and in ß uences the way in which they are treated. The strength of stereotypes also affects the behavior of the seniors themselves, who surrender to the expectations of the community (âazarewicz, 2015, p. 26). Thus a phenomenon of self-ful Þ lling prophecy is created. It is not only the active life of the heroine of Last Lovers that separates her from the stigmatizing view of the elderly. Her physical condition also strays from the typical image of seniors, women in particular. The view on senior women is mentioned by Dorota Nie- wiedziaã (2014, p. 263): “Today’s senior is faced with an exclusion from cul- ture, and in the best case she is associated with a stereotype in which her most important traits are unattractive appearance, the envy of youth, struggle for attention or the loss of femininity”. Even in the case of appearances, Mirabelle differs from the majority of women of similar age: she is slim, graceful, agile, quick, brave and full of life. Without a doubt one can consider her an attractive woman, both in body and spirit. In spite of this, in the eyes of Þ fty-year-old John she for some time remains “an old lady”. The American’s perception shifts only as a result of the change in his relations with Mirabelle – when they establish an erotic bond. Then the descriptions of the Parisian become simply depictions of an appealing woman. A woman who has a delicate and kind face, soft, narrow lips, hair tied into a long braid and looks like a small girl, a teenager (Wharton, 1991, p. 192, 197, 213, 218). The American even concludes that “it really is hard (…) to believe (…) that she’s seventy-two years old” (Wharton, 1991, p. 232).
The trend of aging population in our country is gradually obvious at present, The nation is getting old before getting rich, the medical care and seniors care resources of seniors are separated, which bring great challenge to the seniors of accessing to quality medical care and seniors care resources, healthy aging goal couldn’t be guaranteed, the sick seniors are usually suffering from chron- ic diseases with long period illness, complications, treatment difficulty and long-time care, the economic burden of disease and cost of health care work- ers increased rapidly, with the increase of seniors population that couldn’t take care of themselves, the demand for medical services and long-term care would present a trend of rapid growth, the existing pattern of family care, medical services and financing structure of medical care will be under huge challenge. The traditional concepts of “keeping our aging population healthy and out of poverty” is under tremendous impact, the research on the integra- tion of medical-seniors care is of great practical significance to demands of the large amount of disabled and semi-disabled who need to be taken care of, is the only way to enter the healthy aging in China.
Gamified wearables have the potential to assist seniors in living independently with a good quality of life. However, the use of (gamified) wearables by seniors is very limited. This study applies the uses and gratifications approach to research the limited use of the gamified wearable. The uses and gratifications theory states that needs can motivate the use of computer mediated communication. In previous studies it has been found that seniors have different needs that motivate them to use health technologies compared to other age groups. This qualitative study aimed to find the needs that motivate the use of gamified wearables by seniors. To find these needs, laddering interviews have been conducted with a group of 12 seniors that live independently in their own homes. Four needs were identified: the needs for 1) good health, 2) accomplishment, 3) independency and 4) peace of mind. The need to be healthy and the need for accomplishment could be fulfilled by the gamified wearable and motivated seniors to use it. Gamification played an important role in providing the seniors with a way to compare themselves with others, which was expected by participants to lead to accomplishment. Support and a simple design were expected to help fulfill the need for peace of mind. However, the needs for independency and peace of mind were undermined by the gamified wearable and formed barriers for its use. Participants expected the gamified wearable to make them less independent and diminish their sense of accomplishment of being healthy autonomously. The participants also feared information anxiety caused by information about their physical health, which they expected to undermine their peace of mind. This study concludes that a more user-centric design is needed for the gamified wearable to meet the needs of seniors. Only the overcoming of the found barriers could lead to a higher use of health technologies such as the gamified wearable. Keywords: Gamified wearable - Health technology - Gerontechnology - Aging - Human needs
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Subjects were cadets (n=25) and juniors (n=18) compet- ing in Poland’s championships in Svidvin and Warsaw, and pre-seniors (n=11) and seniors (n=18) who entered for the Polish Sumo Cup 2009 in Gorzow Wielkopolski, a total of 46 males and 26 females, aged between 15 and 16 (cadets), 17 and 18 (juniors), 19–21 (pre-seniors), and 22 and older (seniors). Age differences were par- ticularly pronounced among the seniors, 50% of whom were in the 22–23 bracket, the other half fell into the 26–33 band. 71.4% of the subjects were city residents. Cadets, juniors, and pre-seniors had secondary school education or lower (75% were students); 35% of seniors had university education. 60% of the subjects had jobs, 30% were still at school. There were also 4 unemployed individuals, who did not pursue any further education. 52.9% assessed their own financial standing as ‘very good’, 36.8% as ‘good’. Seven individuals evaluated it as ‘bad’, including two who said it was ‘very bad’. Half of the subjects were world champions (13.5%), European champions (14.9%), and Poland’s champions (21.6%),
Abstract: Various studies on active ageing have focused on social participation as an element in the promotion of related policies. Literature on the subject reveals that the participation in voluntary activities is a factor which contributes positively to the process of active ageing. This article explores gender disparities related to active volunteerism among Italian seniors. Of the 900 active subjects aged between 65 and 74 who participated, 146 were engaged in voluntary activities. Constrained cluster analysis techniques based on a series of variables including age, income type, relationship networks, value attributions, and sector of volunteering association were applied to identify the statistical differences between elderly male and female volunteers. The results show a difference in volunteer profile between the genders. Male volunteers are younger, often married and more active, while women are older, often widows and possessing a strong religious vocation. Furthermore, while men are more likely to be involved in activities related to sports, women tend to donate time to solidarity and educational initiatives aimed at individuals. The promotion of active ageing policies should consider as crucial not only the differences in national welfare regimes, but also how gender disparities determine different forms and opportunities for social participation.
Although LMS is not as effective as phone-based health-coaching, it was more effective than con- trol group with respect to hypertension self- efficacy, self-management behavior, hyperten- sion-related knowledge, medication adherence, and systolic BP. This is consistent with the results of previous studies that revealed an increase in medication adherence and a decrease in BP among seniors and adults after they started re- ceiving short message service (SMS) reminders on antihypertensive medication (13, 23). In other words, this study showed that LMS like SMS, is effective for hypertension management. However, a comparative study is necessary in the future to examine whether simple text message or LMS reminders with detailed customized health in- formation is more effective. In addition, the du- ration of sending SMS reminders to change par- ticipants’ lifestyle habits varied across previous studies, ranging from 6 weeks to 12 months (24), and the frequency also differed from twice a week (25) to daily (13). Although this study, which was conducted over 8 weeks, was effective in changing the health behavior of seniors, fol- low-up is required to examine how effective these methods are in the long-term. Research must also be conducted to determine the differences in ef- fectiveness based on the weekly frequency of LMS.
These analyses estimate 10-year and lifetime gross per capita savings when Medicare beneficiaries with over- weight (and at least one weight-related comorbidity) and obesity lose 10% or 15% of body weight, whether that weight loss is temporary or permanent. Over ten years, gross per capita savings to the Medicare program range from $6,456 to $13,474 depending on BMI category, per- cent weight loss, and sustainability of weight loss. Aggre- gate savings to the Medicare program will depend on the number of seniors with overweight and obesity who take the medication, and the cost of drug to Medicare each year. Sustained weight loss is difficult to achieve via lifestyle intervention due to physiologic mediators of ap- petite that encourage weight re-gain. Until recently, the lack of effective medical therapies has left only bariatric surgery as an option for some patients. However, new obesity medications have the potential to produce and/ or sustain these levels of weight loss, and this provides rationale and relevance for our analyses. Two obesity drugs have recently been approved by the FDA, namely phentermine/topiramate ER (Qsymia W ) and lorcaserin (Belviq W ). The manufacturer of a third drug, bupropion SR/naltrexone SR (Contrave W ), has reached an agree- ment with the FDA to conduct a pre-approval cardiovas- cular outcomes trial.
Bautmans and colleagues  were the first researchers to test an element of flexibility training with WBV in seniors. Twenty-four nursing home residents (9 male and 15 female) were randomly selected to either a WBV group or a control group. Participants from both groups were examined on flexibility pre- and posttest utilizing the chair sit-and-reach test (lower body flexibility) and the back scratch test (upper body flexibility). The WBV group performed lunges along with various types of squats and calf raises on a vibration platform, which target all the lower limb muscles. After 6 weeks, lower body flexibility improved significantly in the WBV group, indicating that general exercises may ben- efit flexibility. No significant differences were found in upper body flexibility pre- to posttest in either group, which may be attributed to participants not performing any exer- cises that targeted the upper body specifically .
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This article examines the extent to which these two discourses are evident in understanding the fraud victimisation of older persons from the perspective of the volunteers who interact with them. It is based upon interviews with twenty‐one volunteers (all seniors themselves), who provide telephone support to older fraud victims across Canada, through the Senior Support Unit (SSU), Canadian Anti‐Fraud Centre (CAFC). This article examines the literature surrounding each of these discourses before analysing to what extent they are evident within the narratives of volunteers who provide support to older fraud victims. As a result of this analysis, it is argued that volunteers overwhelmingly understand fraud victimisation to occur as a result of social vulnerability (through loneliness and isolation of an older person). Limited evidence of victim blaming is presented; rather, volunteers provide examples where they actively seek to resist victim blaming attitudes. Finally, the article discusses the implications for these two discourses on the individual victims themselves, arguing that, whilst neither is overly positive, an understanding of fraud victimisation centred on vulnerability allows for support to be provided through programs such as the SSU. Overall, this article argues that the discourses and understanding of how fraud occurs to older persons is an important factor in facilitating the type of support which is provided by the SSU.
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Purpose: To establish a relationship between falls and handgrip strength (GS) in community- dwelling senior citizens in Egypt. Subjects: Cross- sectional study enrolling 132 subjects, all ≥60 years old. Materials and Methods: History of falls in the past year and their number as well as GS measurement in both hands using Baseline ® pneumatic squeeze handheld dynamometer. Re- sults: There is a highly significant difference between the GS of fallers and non-fallers in both hands (P = 0.000). There is a highly significant negative correlation between the mean GS and the number of falls (P = 0.003). There is a highly significant positive correlation between GS of the right hand with the number of falls (R = 0.226, P = 0.009), as for the correlation with the left GS it was a weaker positive correlation (R = 0.209, P = 0.16). Conclusion: Seniors with history of falls have a lower GS in both dominant and non- dominant hands and it is directly related to the number of falls. GS is decreased in senior fallers even if within the normal range.
The questionnaire was developed by the researchers, research partners who came from a seniors’ advocacy organization, and a home care agency. Two consumer representa- tives (two older people, aged in their late 70s – one who participated regularly in resistance training and one who did not) also assisted to develop the wording and format of the questionnaire. This study was one section of a larger research project, and the consumer representatives were part of the project team for a period of 2 years. Both consumer repre- sentatives had worked extensively in education (Professorial level) and/or the sport industry in their previous working lives. Their role in this project was to provide feedback on the appropriateness of all research documents, methods, language, and so on to older people in the community.
The emergence of widespread hookah use among US adolescents has resulted in a growing body of epidemiologic studies on its use. However, most studies have relied on small, non- representative samples. In contrast, the current study uses data from a large, nationally representative sample of 5540 US high school seniors. While con ﬁ rming previously identi ﬁ ed risk factors, this study also uncovered a number of formerly unrecognized correlates of use by adolescents, such as urban residence and high parental education. Moreover, higher weekly income, cigarette smoking, and use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit substances were also found to be as- sociated with more frequent hookah use.
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3% of high school seniors have used in the past month. These are students who are at current risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from the newest generation of SCs and also because of concurrent use of other drugs. Although previous studies have revealed that marijuana users are at high risk for use, this study revealed risk factors among current marijuana users that increase risk of current use and higher-frequency use of SCs. Prevention needs to be focused primarily on marijuana users, especially marijuana users with risk factors discovered in this analysis. Marijuana users who use other drugs in particular are at highest risk for currently using SCs, so particular focus needs to be paid to these individuals at high risk.
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Loss of the memory does not automatically mean loss of the creativity or capacity to feel and to express empathy. Music, movement, mime, touch, dance, drama and art can all be used, or used in conjunction with reminiscence (Gibson, 2011). Indeed it is essential that seniors with various cognitive functioning con- tinue to have opportunities to express their creativity (Cohen, 2004). Creative reminiscence as a form of creative life story method might be bene Þ cial to help older adults recognize the strengths they have and those that have carried them successfully during their ageing. It also provides an opportunity for self-expres- sion building on own life experience. To feel comfortable looking forward the end of life, a person must come to terms with both the good and bad in life and allow for a Þ nal separation and acceptance of that history (Stephenson, 2006). Creative reminiscence includes the process of various creative actiivities (dra- wing, painting, music, movement etc.), in which concrete products are formed. The resulting objects serve afterwards as representative of the life story work and a point of discussion for curious others with whom the elder wishes to share.
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Clinical staff initially sought subjects for the survey from electronic billing records where patients had on record at least one of the following International Classiﬁcation of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic codes between 1999 and 2001: OA (ICD-9 715, 721), joint pain or stiffness (ICD-9 719.5, 719.5), or other types of arthritis and diffuse con- nective tissue disorders (ICD-9 710-713, 719.2, 719.3, 725). Diagnosis of OA was conﬁrmed by each subject’s family physician. These family physicians were asked to exclude patients they believed were too mentally, physi- cally, or emotionally disabled to participate. In total, 244 seniors (65 years or older) were asked to complete the self-administered mailed survey. We used a modiﬁed Dillman method to obtain responses.
experience, seniors have an easier time learning and are more effectively using relatively less complex technologies. Furthermore, previous literature has outlined that various physical difficulties associated with ageing make the use of a computer ergonomically challenging for older populations compared to younger populations (Chaffin & Harlow, 2005). Although studies on the iPad are only beginning to emerge, the literature that is currently available, identified that younger to middle aged populations are predominantly using their iPads to play games, check email and social networking sites, watch videos, and read the news. As evidenced by the above list, a common characteristic of this iPad usage is that it’s heavily dominated by media consumption, except for the small amount of work-based production that involved in responding to emails (Budiu & Nielsen, 2011). It is important to note that this study did not deal with seniors, and that future research is required to determine what exactly seniors are using iPad’s for. Additionally, the
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