The Twentieth Century

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A theory of genre formation in the twentieth century

A theory of genre formation in the twentieth century

that seemed petrified by an instantaneous invulnerability. Suddenly, on one side of the station, a cry of death tore open the enchantment: 'Aaaagh, Mother'" (311). Although García Már- quez's depiction may simply be coercing readers to accept temporal rupturing rather than a split event, the scene's relationship to the executions in Invitation and Kingdom is marked. Such engage- ment with real-life political threat and disjuncture in the face of finality suggest an alliance between Invitation and magical realism by proposing that oppressive systems can be weakened through intelli- gent subversion. Zamora and Faris, for example, claim that: "In magical realist texts, ontological dis- ruption serves the purpose of political and cultural disruption: magic is often given as a cultural cor- rective, requiring readers to scrutinize accepted realistic conventions of causality, materiality, motiva- tion" (3). This cohabitation of the real and the marvelous suggests a re-envisioning of the world that asks readers to refashion established patterns of political and literary thought. In doing so, readers are effectively able to infer why writers might be including magical happenings and therefore can de- code the text: "In contrast to the magical images constructed by Surrealism out of ordinary objects, which aim to appear virtually unmotivated and thus programmatically resist interpretation, magical realist images, while projecting a similar initial aura of surprising craziness, tend to reveal their moti- vations–psychological, social, emotional, political–after some scrutiny" (Faris 171). I should like to note that the texts under analysis here are not straightforward political allegories. Instead, it is the coupling of socio-political context with realist subversion that is integral. That is, they adopt realist prose fiction operators (fidelity to ordinary subject matter, linear progression, verisimilitude) to toy with their accepted implications. In the twentieth century, reacting against the world of the novel and a heightened threat of warfare, anti-realist narrative forms can be seen to subvert the political context of a literary tradition in a way that liberates the textual experience.

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Musical Performance in the Twentieth Century: an overview

Musical Performance in the Twentieth Century: an overview

than ever before. Although the travelling virtuoso was already a common figure in the nineteenth century, far greater numbers of performers exploited the ability to travel easily in the twentieth century. Successful performers with national reputations might become international icons; star performers, who in the early decades might rely on one agent to deal with their relatively local affairs, or even handle the bookings themselves, would eventually identify different agents to cover various territories around the world. Agents themselves became increasingly powerful multinational operations, retaining a roster of performers from a variety of countries whom they sought to place via their connections with record companies, orchestras, opera houses and concert promoters. While this was true of many different musicians and ensembles, of none was it more true than orchestral conductors. Figures such as Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977), Wilhelm Furtwängler (1886-1954), Otto Klemperer (1885-1973) and, perhaps above all, Herbert von Karajan (1908- 1989), became international icons who wielded exceptional power in the worlds of symphonic and operatic music. Karajan, for example, at one point held four chief conductor appointments simultaneously in different cities around the world. 1 Ultimately some of these names became brands, able to command high fees for

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Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

Recombination suppression: Recombination suppression, as its name suggests, prevents genetic exchange. Its pres- ence was soon demonstrated in crosses between t-haplo- types and wild-type (+) chromosomes. Whereas in wild type, T and an outside marker can be measured as 20 cM, the rate of recombination between t and wild type is only an exceptional 1/1000 or 0.1 cM. This was a genetic puzzle for half a century and was not completely understood until 1982. We now know that t-haplotypes contain four nonover- lapping inversions and behave like the balancer chromo- somes known in Drosophila that also lock up an entire region. Sequencing has shown that the length of the t-com- plex region is .37 Mb and contains well over 500 genes, so the idea that it is a region of some unique developmental importance is no longer tenable. After the 1980s screens in Drosophila to identify genes crucial for embryogenesis (Jür- gens et al. 1984; Nüsslein-Volhard et al. 1984; Wieschaus et al. 1984), it was clear that, in a region of this size in the mouse genome, many loci causing recessive embryonic le- thality would be expected to occur. Nevertheless, as a result of this misconception of the unique importance of the t- complex region for development, and the additional fact that the major histocompatibility complex (H2) was in- cluded in the region, the consequence was that the proximal third of chromosome 17 became by far the best-mapped region of the mouse. This was true at a time when the rest of the mouse chromosome maps were still very sparsely populated with known mutations.

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Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond

Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond

environmental themes developing from the 1960s (in which Kuhn’s contemporaneous work is mentioned parenthetically), new kinds of very big networks in genomics, internet-based computing etc., and the challenge of connecting the miscellaneous ends at which the sciences had arrived by the turn of the 21st century. Part two is a study of ‘Sciences in a world of conflict' – the First World War and Nazi science – while part three covers the Second World War and the Cold War, studying the particular sciences that the latter comparatively non-lethal conflict generated. The Edgertonian themes of science co-evolving with warfare thus take up the preponderance of this monograph, cogently linking the rise of global warfare with the rise of global science. Not all readers will agree with this emphasis, but Agar undeniably offers us a refreshing change from the peaceable sequestered world of Kuhnian ‘normal’ science innocent of participation in, let alone profit from, the world’s darkest woes.

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Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century

Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century

Before moving forward I would also like to comment on the ‘methodology’ of the volume. Clearly, we have to accept that those who write books which essentially constitute ‘broad sweeps’ are unlikely to bring many human stories into the narrative. We might view Bethencourt as guilty of this, perhaps, inevitable ‘sin’, but when he does introduce personal stories, often involving visual material, the (sometimes dense) narrative comes to life. I would not agree with him that his ‘book is based largely on the analysis of primary printed and visual sources’ (p. 1), especially by the time we reach the 20th century, by which point they have almost disappeared. Nevertheless, the sections of the book which I found most interesting and rewarding and from which I learnt most, precisely involved the deconstruction of either pictorial or literary sources, which Bethencourt carries out in a highly expert manner. He demonstrates himself equally at ease when dealing with ‘Casta Painting’ in 18th-century Mexico, illustrating racial hierarchies through the visual medium, as when analysing the texts of those who played a role (or not) in the evolution of modern concepts of racism, whether Carl Linnaeus, Charles Darwin or Adolf Hitler, where Bethencourt dissected Mein Kampf and perhaps suggests a structure where one does not really exist. Bethencourt demonstrates expertise in analysing a variety of methods of communication, as a result of his multilingualism (which, at the least, encompasses English, Spanish, Portuguese and French) and because he demonstrates himself to be both an art historian and political theorist. The weaker sections of the book consist of those when the primary

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Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century

Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century

diplomatic dimension of international, especially Great Power relations is distinctly low-key. The associated military dimension also figures rarely and meagrely: the First World War is in any case excluded from consideration but even the Second World War comes across as a phenomenon which is bizarrely battle-free. More generally, the account is long on balance but much shorter on personalities, very far from the sub- Carlyle concept of history as 'the collected biographies of great men'. Such luminaries as Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin and Margaret Thatcher are not permitted to strut their stuff on Mazower's historical stage. Similarly, the emphasis is on historical process, not historical events: the March on Rome, the battle of Stalingrad, the Berlin Airlift, the Hungarian Uprising, the Prague Spring and the fall of the Berlin Wall are just samples from a twentieth-century cavalcade of dramatic (and photogenic) episodes which fail to be accorded any high profile in this narrative. Perhaps it is significant that the book contains no illustrations other than the admittedly powerful and rather shocking dust-cover photograph of a woman member of the British Union of Fascists brandishing a swastika-centred Union Jack. Where other histories of the twentieth century make a feature of sets of contemporary photographs (notably Hobsbawm's Age of Extremes), Mazower's conscious emphasis on the essentially unpictorial and unfilmable, even invisible processes of socio-economic development renders illustrations inappropriate, distracting and even irrelevant. This point raises the question of the projected readership for the book. Dark Continent is not really academic history since it makes no claim to utilise hitherto unavailable sources to illuminate hitherto-neglected

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Closing the gap between music and history in Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus

Closing the gap between music and history in Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus

Even without taking account o f his political non-engagement, and his lack o f awareness o f the important historical events unfolding around him, nothing marks Leverkühn out definitely as a citizen o f early twentieth century Germany. Zeitblom makes clear in the very first chapter o f Doktor Faustus that Leverkühn does not himself have any sense o f belonging to particular groups, and by implication, to his contemporary world: “Seine Gleichgültigkeit war so groC, daB er kaum jemals gewahr wurde was um ihn her vorging, in welcher Gesellschaft er sich befand... If anything, Leverkühn is part o f a Germany long past. His home town o f Kaiseraschem not only holds the remains o f Kaiser Otto m , but also recalls Luther and Faust. As such, the town recalls the most ancient Germany history. Although Leverkühn moves away fi~om Kaisersaschem when he grows up, his environment does not change substantially. Zeitblom muses, when they go to study theology in HaUe: “wenn ich mich lunsah in unserem neuen Lebenskreis, so land ich, daB der Schauplatz sich zwar erweitert, aber nicht wesentlich verandert hatte”. Leverkühn certainly never loses his roots in the past rather than the present. Gunilla Bergsten observes that: “Das geographische und soziologische Symbol der “faustisch-dürerischen” Sphare, die Adrian standig umgibt, ist Kaisersaschem”.*^

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Staging Modernism

Staging Modernism

The works appearing in my thesis exhibition – a survey of three years of creative practice – do not illustrate the modern-period bachelor pad: they develop the bachelor pad- form. Architectural details from mid-twentieth century residential and commercial buildings were recreated in miniature, arranged as different tableaux, and then photographed. The one-twelfth scale model objects are presented in photographs as illusions of life-size. “Iron” filigree gates, “concrete” wall blocks, “pine” bookcases, and “mineral” clusters are arranged like props before “plywood” walls (Figure 1 & 2). The action of staging canonical designs from the modern period was important; the process was critical to my understanding of Baudrillard’s rules of seduction. I have heard this statement applied to my artwork: “This is not seductive.” It is true: my photographs and collages do not exhibit mechanical, orgasm-centered sexuality. They are noticeably lacking sensuous strokes. The human figure is not represented. There is no phallus, no chasm. And obvious stand-ins were avoided: I did not build a tiny Playboy Bed. The gestures that provoke enticement are refined. I tried to create perfect artifice. The “iron” gates and “concrete” wall blocks were cut with a laser to resemble filigree and tracery. The “mineral” clusters were composed of folded paper, glued and gilded. The “plywood” panels were made of museum board with a “veneer” of scaled wood grain. These details are in many ways seductive. In Seduction, Baudrillard poses the question, what is the characteristic of the seducer? The answer would define my approach to art making. “The scenario of seduction is […] spiritual. It demands a certain spirit in the eighteenth century sense, that is to say, intelligence, charm and refinement, but also in the modern sense of the Witz or stroke of wit”. 10 There exist two types of

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Bureaucracy As the Border: Administrative Law and the Citizen Family

Bureaucracy As the Border: Administrative Law and the Citizen Family

This contribution to the symposium on administrative law and practices of inclusion and exclusion examines the complex role of administrators in the development of family-based citizenship and immigration laws. Official decisions regarding the entry of noncitizens into the United States are often characterized as occurring outside of the normal constitutional and administrative rules that regulate government action. There is some truth to that description. But the historical sources examined in this Article demonstrate that in at least one important respect, citizenship and immigration have long been similar to other fields of law that are primarily implemented by agencies: officials operating at various levels within the administrative hierarchy have played a profound role in the cultivation of the substantive legal principles that those agencies administer. Searching for standards with which to interpret family-based citizenship and immigration statutes, twentieth-century administrators adapted family law principles in the process of developing new rules to govern who counted as a citizen. At times, these administrators operated with a significant degree of autonomy and authority, to a certain extent because of neglect rather than by design. At other times, these administrators shaped the law through legislative and adjudicative processes. These historical sources offer an instructive case study of administrative constitutionalism and of the fluid and dynamic relationship between “internal” and “external” administrative law. They also illuminate the active role of administrators in developing a

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Twentieth Century Music and the Question of Modernity

Twentieth Century Music and the Question of Modernity

The 'never-before-thought-of' aspect of modern life requires what the sociologist of cognitive styles, Eviatar Zerubavel (1991), terms a 'fuzzy mind.' The 'fuzzy mind' is incapable of thinking analytically or of perceiving reality as a discrete set of disconnected entities. Zerubavel (1991: 82) sug­ gests that children tend to epitomize the cognitive style in question to the extent that they have problems 'thinking in a "focused" manner'; separating the 'relevant from the irrelevant'; and don't 'seem to appreciate conventional closure, spatial or temporal.' Something like the fluid thought of children can be found in mythical thought, which blends 'dreams and symbols' with the "real" world'; and also in art, which is a 'stylized form of fantasy. A mental type of adventure ... [which] respects no boundary' (Zerubavel, 1991: 83; 96). Zerubavel (1991: 106) proposes that 'attitudes towards ambi­ guity vary even within the same culture across time' and that the 'fuzzy mind' has achieved a certain 'cultural prominence since the late nineteenth century.' He adds that the 'modern bent for fluidity' is perhaps most·mani­ fested in the arts where spatio-temporal boundaries are constantly blurred in 'poems that begin in the middle of a word with parentheses . . . musical pieces that end before the final resolution of the tonic, and theatrical performances that continue throughout the intermission' (Zerubavel, 1991: 107-8).

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Knowing weather in place: the Helm Wind of Cross Fell

Knowing weather in place: the Helm Wind of Cross Fell

In this paper we employ a variety of historical sources to explore different ways of knowing and interpreting the Helm over time. 26 While the Helm Wind was unique to Cumbria, its study was always informed by ideas and activities elsewhere. We show how ways of knowing the Helm related to contemporary practices of meteorology and to wider assumptions about the study of place and region. First, we consider the role of the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century county history and the ‘ meteoric tradition ’ in studies of the Helm. This is followed by a discussion of the sig- ni fi cance of Victorian associational science and the assembly of daily instrumental weather records, with an examination of the work of the Royal Meteorological Society (RMetS) and their in- quiry into the Helm Wind. Our fi nal section moves into the mid- twentieth century and the deployment of modern meteorological practices in the study of the Helm, where we focus on the in- vestigations conducted by British climatologist Gordon Manley. Throughout we highlight the shifts that took place in terms of what constituted trustworthy and credible meteorological obser- vation, while acknowledging the overlapping nature of these ways of knowing and the persistence of multiple testimonies about the Helm and its effects.

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Twentieth century growth

Twentieth century growth

century  as  well,  controlling  for  country  fixed  effects,  in  a  sample  of  ten  relatively  well-­‐ developed  economies.  A  lack  of  aggregate  demand  was  not  a  problem  in  this  period,  so   unless  the  correlation  is  spurious  we  need  another  explanation.  The  growth-­‐promoting   externalities  associated  with  industry  would  seem  to  offer  one  such  explanation:  as  is  well   known,  the  United  States  industrialized  behind  very  high  tariff  barriers  during  this  period,   and  Germany  and  other  continental  European  countries  similarly  protected  their  heavy   industry.  The  fact  that  it  was  industrial  tariffs  that  were  associated  with  high  growth,  rather   than  agricultural  tariffs,  adds  weight  to  this  interpretation  (Lehmann  and  O’Rourke  2011).   But  even  if  the  argument  is  correct,  it  does  not  follow  that  such  policies  would  have  worked   in  even  less  developed  countries  at  the  same  time,  or  in  the  same  countries  in  later  periods.   There  is  thus  an  important  potential  role  for  country  histories  in  elucidating  the  impact  of   economic  policies  on  growth,  since  panel  growth  regressions  which  estimate  effects  that  are   consistent  across  countries  or  over  time  may  be  seriously  misleading.  

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Time travel in the forbidden realm: J.J. Slauerhoff's Het 'Verboden rijk' viewed as a modernist novel

Time travel in the forbidden realm: J.J. Slauerhoff's Het 'Verboden rijk' viewed as a modernist novel

moments of contact between the sixteenth-century character and the twentieth-century character represent a kind of modernist version of time-travel - one that, in keeping with Dunne’s theory, takes place in the mind. The unnatural or magical quality of the moments of contact emphasizes the time gap which has to be bridged by some special means. A more traditional time-travel novel, such as H.G.Wells’s The Time Machine (1898) to which Dunne also refers, not wishing to violate the sense of a coherent realistic fictional world resorts to science to invent special machines to make it possible to visit another time, thus preserving the overall time frame, while inserting the other time into the dominant time-frame. Dunne’s theory provides an alternative to physical transportation as a rationale for time travel, so that the realist illusion could be maintained if the reader accepts the notion of ‘telepathic inter-communication’. A modernist writer, on the other hand, who is no longer hampered by the constraints of realism, has no need of a plausible means of transportation, a prime example being Virginia Woolf's Orlando, whose eponymous main character starts out in the

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Farmers and Capitalism

Farmers and Capitalism

Early economic systems were centered around agriculture. From this starting point, they have evolved into modern economies with farmers forging political coalitions with capital and/or labor, or being denied influence altogether in some circumstances. Here, I focus on those cases where farmers have influenced the structure of the political economy either alone or in combination with other actors. In the early nineteenth century United States, farmers’ wielded a near monopoly over politics, which led to an agrarian style of coordinated market economy. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, farmers were forced to compromise on changes to the existing economic rules and institutions as they fought to rein in the growing influence of capital. In post-WWII France, farmers shared power with labor, which led to the formation of a Mediterranean form of capitalism. And in post-WWII Japan, farmers bargained with both labor and capital to create a capitalist system that resembled France (a labor-farmer outcome) with regard to its interventionist government, Germany (a labor-capital outcome) with regard to its industrial relations, and the United States (a farmer-capital outcome) with regard to managers wielding substantial power over the corporation (as opposed to owners). I discuss these cases in turn.

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Knowing weather in place: the Helm Wind of Cross Fell

Knowing weather in place: the Helm Wind of Cross Fell

relations to their local environment, and the environment ’ s place in knowledge regimes. In this paper we have used the Helm Wind as an example of a particular weather phenomenon e the product of a place-speci fi c interaction of landscape topography and atmosphere e that has been understood and articulated through different narrative forms and produced as a result of different knowledge cultures. We have shown how individuals, social groups and orga- nisations attempted to observe, measure, understand and explain the Helm Wind over a 200-year period. We have highlighted a number of ways that the Helm was experienced and understood e aesthetically, sensually and somatically e and also represented, all of which were determined by ‘ very particular temporal moments in very speci fi c venues ’ . 113 These forms of understanding, or ways of knowing, included the meteoric tradition of eighteenth-century county history, the journalistic approach of regional reportage, the instrumental outlook of Victorian meteorology and the combination of a national meteorological outlook with a cultural climatological perspective in the work of Gordon Manley. Across these periods, scales of analysis widened, from studies of the Helm Wind as prac- tices ‘ inextricably linked with the notion of locale ’ , to a growing general appreciation that locality was ‘ part of a larger entity, not a domain of its own ’ . 114 The Helm itself was not only considered to be an active agency that inhabited its region as a public meteor and shaped the lives and health of its population, but also began to be understood as physical force that was at once a product of local topography and global atmospheric processes.

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Millennial Neo-Negritude and Negritude in the Twentieth and the Twenty-First Century

Millennial Neo-Negritude and Negritude in the Twentieth and the Twenty-First Century

Initially, many believed the Black Lives Matter movement would fade away soon after it started in 2013. However, today Black Lives Matter is an international movement that has spread like wildfire on social media with the hashtag ‘#BlackLivesMatter’. It began as a reaction to the death of Trayvon Benjamin Martin, a seventeen -year- old man shot dead by the police in America. A year later police officer Darren Wilson shot Michael Brown, another young black male in Ferguson. According to Keeanga - Yamahtta Taylor, “Brown’s death was a breaking point for the African Americans of Ferguson-- but also for hundreds of thousands of Black people across the United States” (153). Just as negritude was sparked by oppressed and angry black people in Pariswho wrote about the tension with their European counterparts, African Americans are caught up in similar circumstances that also spawn tension and anger. Even the term itself, ‘Black Lives Matter’, carries implications of negritude as African Americans rail against their aggressive western counterparts. The unfortunate events that cause such movements bring back memories of the past and puts in perspective how fifty years later there has been little progress in black freedom. Taylor argues, “the truth about racism and brutality of the police has broken through the veil of segregation that has shrouded it from public view.” (154). Thus, black protestors and others supporting the movement feel obligated to end the brutality African Americans are still subjected to in the twenty -first century by presumed white superiority, as the movement will help expose the real truth behind the façade of superiority.

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