Thigh Circumference

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ROLE OF FETAL THIGH CIRCUMFERENCE IN ESTIMATION OF BIRTH WEIGHT BY ULTRASOUND

ROLE OF FETAL THIGH CIRCUMFERENCE IN ESTIMATION OF BIRTH WEIGHT BY ULTRASOUND

important distinguishing characteristic feature of asymmetric IUGR (Vintzileos et al, 1987). Other features like scrawny limbs (because of decreased muscle mass) and thinned skin (because of decreased fat) lead to decrease in thigh circumference which also can be measured by ultrasound. However many standard ultrasound fetal birth weight models do not incorporate thigh measurements which may be proven most useful in predicting fetal weight when growth abnormalities are present. Many pediatricians use postnatal thigh circumference to screen low birth weight babies as it serves as one of the important indicators of soft tissue mass (Mattoo GM et al, 1991).
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Role of fetal thigh circumference in prediction of fetal weight and comparing it with other clinical and ultrasound methods

Role of fetal thigh circumference in prediction of fetal weight and comparing it with other clinical and ultrasound methods

Upon admission, the mother's opinion about fetal weight was recorded. Symphyseal-fundal height and abdominal girth were measured and two formulas were used to calculate fetal weight. An ultrasound scan was then performed by a specialist to estimate fetal weight. The ultrasound fetal weight was calculated automatically by the equipment, using Hadlock's reference table, which used the Biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length. All participants delivered within the next three days following the FWE, and the infants were weighed using a digital balance, immediately after birth.
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Evaluation of Factors Influencing Thigh Circumference Measurement in Dogs

Evaluation of Factors Influencing Thigh Circumference Measurement in Dogs

Previously published studies have attributed variability in measurement to factors such as limb position, dog movement, and site of measurement along the limb (Smith et al., 2013, Baker et al., 2010). The results of our study indicate that in addition to these factors, the technique itself is responsible for this poor reliability. Despite controlling these factors in the cadaveric portion of this study, variability still existed both within and between observers. This suggests that an unidentified variable may affect measurements of TC with the GT. Possible causes of this could be inconsistent placement of the GT on the medial aspect of the thigh, slipping of the GT given the conical shape of the thigh musculature, or differences in clinical experience and skill with the GT. All observers were trained to use the GT prior to data collection; however differences in comfort with or prior exposure to the GT may have contributed to poor reliability in measurement. Given that the measured difference in TC between minimum and maximum inflation levels of the submuscular expansion device was less than 2cm, an intra-observer variability of almost 1cm and an inter-observer variability of over 2cm calls to question the ability of the GT to detect true changes in TC even when utilised by a trained observer. Though the GT has been validated in previous studies for the measurement of TC on a single occasion, no study has confirmed the sensitivity of the GT to changes in canine TC while also accounting for the inherent variability in measurement (Baker et al., 2010, Millis, 2004). Furthermore, the clinical significance of changes in TC is not well established in the literature. Moeller et al. demonstrated that 5 years after unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, dogs had significantly smaller TCs on the operated limb compared to the non-operated limb, but that no subjective lameness was associated with this difference.(Moeller et al., 2010) Given the results from the present study, it is possible that the large standard deviation and minimal difference between groups in the Moeller study (39.5 ± 5.5cm vs. 40.1 ± 5.6cm) resulted in a type-I statistical error.
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Comparison between twelve and six sets of high load leg extension on muscle strength

Comparison between twelve and six sets of high load leg extension on muscle strength

Subjects had previously joined pre-measurement as described in the next section, and their 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) leg extension in the right leg was measured. One week later, subjects performed leg extension and measurements. Measurements were conducted before (PRE) and after (POST) exercise, as well as one day, two days, three days, five days, and seven days after exercise. Each subject’s leg extension 1RM was determined according to the guidelines set by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (Baechle, Earle, & Wathen, 2008). We divided subjects into two groups: 12SET and 6SET. Participants in 12SET performed 12 sets, while those in 6SET performed six sets of exercise. The 1RM was 50.7 ± 9.6 kg in 12SET, and 53.0 ± 5.2 kg in 6SET. On the first day, each subject came to the laboratory and measured muscle soreness and thigh circumference. They then measured maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC) and isokinetic strength of each angular velocity (30/ sec.: ISOK30, 60/ sec.: ISOK60, 150/ sec.: ISOK150, 240/ sec.: ISOK240). They subsequently moved to the training room and performed leg extensions. After the exercise, muscle soreness and thigh circumference were measured immediately, after which they returned to the laboratory for measurement of MVC and isokinetic strength of each angular velocity. The experiments of each day for each subject were performed at the same time of day in consideration of circadian rhythm.
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The association of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis with thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes

The association of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis with thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes

Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were mea- sured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated by div- iding weight (kg) by the square of height (m 2 ). WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower border of the rib cage and the iliac crest. Thigh circumference was measured at the midpoint from the inguinal crease to the proximal pole of the patella, and calf circumference was measured at the point of greatest circumference. Visceral fat thickness (VFT) was measured using a high resolution ultrasonographic system with a 3.5-MHz con- vex probe (OGIQ 7, GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA). VFT was defined as the distance between the anterior wall of the aorta and the internal face of the rectoabdominal muscle perpendicular to the aorta at the point of 1 cm above the umbilicus [25]. We measured blood pressure (BP) in the right upper arm of patients in a sedentary posture while they were seated after having rested for at least 5 min
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Adult Tourniquet for Use in School-Age Emergencies

Adult Tourniquet for Use in School-Age Emergencies

from 1 (360°) in an underweight child to our protocol maximum of 3 turns. The 3 subjects whose pulse remained present after 3 turns had BMIs of 35, 38, and 35 and thigh circumferences of 60, 58, and 61 cm, respectively. All were in the oldest age group (14 – 16 years). The subject who stopped at 2.5 turns because of pain also had a high BMI (33) and large thigh circumference (54 cm). Following the same pattern as described in the upper extremity, the number of turns required to occlude blood flow gradually increased with an increase in thigh circumference (Fig 6).
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Multiple sets resistance training: Effects of condensed versus circuit models on muscular strength, endurance and body composition

Multiple sets resistance training: Effects of condensed versus circuit models on muscular strength, endurance and body composition

Arazi H, Asadi A. Multiple sets resistance training: Effects of Condensed versus circuit models on muscular strength, endurance and body composition. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 733-740, 2012. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of condensed multiple-set resistance training and circuit multiple-set resistance training on muscular strength, endurance, body composition and arm and thigh circumference in healthy males. Twenty seven healthy males volunteered to participate in this study and assigned into three groups; according to; condensed multiple-set group (COM; n=9), circuit multiple-set group (CIM; n=8) and control group (CON; n=10). Subjects in the COM performed resistance training exercises for 3 sets continuously; whereas subjects in the CIM performed resistance training program for 1 set of each exercise and come back to the first exercise and this approach was performed 3 times each training session. Pre and post 8 weeks of training, one repetition maximum (1RM) and muscle endurance (60% of 1RM) for leg press and bench press, body weight, arm and thigh circumference and body composition were measured. No significant differences in body mass, arm and thigh circumference and muscular strength for the bench press exercise were observed for any group during the 8 weeks of training period (p > 0.05). A significant increase in muscular strength for the leg press exercise was observed for COM after 8 weeks of training (p < 0.05). Both the COM and CIM groups showed significant improvement compared with pre training and CON in muscular endurance for the bench press and leg press exercises (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it can be recommended that, COM is better for improving muscle strength and both training programs are proper for increasing muscular endurance. Key words: RESISTANCE TRAINING SYSTEMS, CONTINUOUS, SEPARATE, MUSCULAR PERFORMANCE.
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Effect of Plai cream [Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. syn. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.] combined with ultrasound on delayed onset muscle soreness

Effect of Plai cream [Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. syn. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.] combined with ultrasound on delayed onset muscle soreness

This study showed the eccentric exercise program is effective at inducing DOMS by significantly increasing the pain score, thigh circumference and creatine kinase release, and decreasing pressure pain threshold and muscle strength compared to baseline in each group; 14 % Plai cream, ultrasound and 14 % Plai cream combined with ultrasound. However, this study found no substantial difference in pain score, pain pressure threshold, rate of perceived exertion, creatine kinase, muscle strength, range of motion and thigh circumference during a recovery from eccentric exercise among the 3 intervention groups. The combination of 14 % Plai cream and ultrasound did not show any greater effect than 14 % Plai cream or ultrasound alone. Application of 14 % Plai cream may have similar effect on DOMS to ultrasound therapy.
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In canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture is outcome following TPLO improved compared with lateral suture?

In canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture is outcome following TPLO improved compared with lateral suture?

o No significant difference between treatment groups Thigh circumference o No significant difference between treatment groups  Stifle joint goniometry o No significant difference betwee[r]

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Comparison of Some Biomotoric Properties and Anthropometric Measurements of Male Basketball and Football Players

Comparison of Some Biomotoric Properties and Anthropometric Measurements of Male Basketball and Football Players

The height measurements of the players were performed by making them stand in anatomic position with bare feet, and soles joints. The body weight measurements were performed with shorts and undershirt in bare feet with Baster brand scale with 0,1 kg sensitivity. Circumference measurements were performed in 7 different points, which were Shoulder circumference, Chest circumference (inspiration) and Chest circumference (expiration), hip circumference, thigh circumference, biceps circumference, Forearm circumference. In order to perform the subcutaneous fat measurements, Holtain brand skinfold caliper was used. The measurements were made at 8 different points, which were chest, biceps, triceps, subscapula, abdominal, subrailiac, thigh, calf. In order to determine the Body Fat Percentage values of the players, the Lange formula was made use of.
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Anthropometric surrogates to identify low birth weight babies: hospital based cross-sectional study

Anthropometric surrogates to identify low birth weight babies: hospital based cross-sectional study

Results: In the present study, low birth weight was present in 262 (52.4%) of the newborns. Thigh circumference with cut off value of 15 cm had higher sensitivity and specificity of 97.5% and 80.9% respectively. It was followed by Mid upper arm circumference with cut off value of 10 cm, sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 93.9%. Thigh circumference and mid upper arm circumference had high area under curve of 0.949 and 0.855 respectively. All the anthropometric measurements were statistically significant at 5% level of significance.
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TO STUDY THE EFFICACY OF VIDANGADI CHURNA IN STHAULYA W S R TO OBESITY

TO STUDY THE EFFICACY OF VIDANGADI CHURNA IN STHAULYA W S R TO OBESITY

The effect of therapy on physical characteristics like Body weight, BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Mid Arm Circumference and Mid Thigh Circumference were highly significant. It was observed that the improvement in various circumferences of the body was more than that of the weight loss. The reason for this is the Lekhana Karma of the contents like Yava, Yavakshara and Lauha Bhasma of the Vidangadi Churna. The role of Anupana Madhu is universally accepted in the weight loss therapy.

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A study to assess nutritional profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

A study to assess nutritional profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

Results: Present study shows that there was significant difference in mid arm circumference and mid-thigh circumference between COPD cases and control groups as well as between serum pre-albumin and serum transferrin level, serum uric acid (p=0.018) and serum calcium level (p=0.002). There was no statistically difference with respect to serum total protein (p=0.308), serum albumin (p=0.533) and serum phosphorus level (p=0.064) between COPD patient and control groups. There was statistically significant difference in total lymphocyte count between COPD cases and control groups as well as between serum LDL and serum HDL, serum LDL and serum HDL with COPD grading. As COPD grading increased there was significant decrease in serum LDL and serum HDL level. There was no significant difference with respect serum TG (p=0.738), VLDL and total cholesterol level (p=0.063) between COPD cases and control groups.
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Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

measure the waist, hip, and thigh circumferences to the near- est 0.1 cm. Waist circumference (cm) was measured midway between the bottom edge of the last rib and the iliac crest in the mid-axillary plane. Hip circumference (cm) was measured at the level of the widest circumference over the buttocks. Thigh circumference (cm) was measured at mid-thigh on the right side, defined as the midpoint between the superior ridge of the patella and the crease of the groin. Waist-height, waist- hip, and waist-thigh ratios were calculated as the waist circum- ference divided by height, hip circumference, and thigh cir- cumference, respectively.
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A study of anthropometric profile of indian inter-university male cricketers

A study of anthropometric profile of indian inter-university male cricketers

Koley S. A study of anthropometric profile of indian inter-university male cricketers. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 427-435, 2011. The purpose of this study was of two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian inter-university cricketers and, secondly, to search the correlations among the anthropometric characteristics studied (if any). To serve this purpose, twelve anthropometric characteristics were taken on purposively selected 98 Indian inter-university (nine Indian universities) male cricketers aged 16-25 years (mean 21.03 years, ± 1.72) participated in the competitions organized in Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. An adequate number of controls (n = 99, mean age 21.50 years, ± 1.13) were also collected from the same place for comparisons. The findings of the present study indicated statistically significant differences (p≤ 0.05 - 0.000) in weight, BMI, thigh length, total leg length, calf and hip circumferences, percent body fat and back strength between cricketers and controls. Also, significantly positive correlations (p≤ 0.05 - 0.01) were noted among the linear measurements, viz. height, thigh length, lower leg length; and the circumferential measurements, viz. mid thigh circumference, hip circumference and calf circumference in Indian inter-university male cricketers. Key words: ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS, INDIAN INTER-UNIVERSITY MALE CRICKETERS.
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Renin response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in man

Renin response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in man

Inflation of cuffs induced a decrease of right atrial pressure, cardiopulmonary blood volume, and cardiac output, but there were no changes in the extra-arterial systolic and diatoloic pressure or in the pressure amplitude. After cuffs were deflated, renin and hemodynamic parameters returned toward normal. In nine volunteers in whom thigh cuff inflation initially elicited renin increases, subsequent intravenous propranolol (0.25 mg/kg) abolished the response to repeated cuff inflation. The renin increase to thigh cuff inflation was absent or suppressed in four patients with a recently transplanted denervated kidney. It is concluded that thigh cuff inflation elicited a reflex-mediated renin increase, and that the reflex stemmed from stimulation of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors.
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The anterolateral thigh flap for soft tissue reconstruction in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma

The anterolateral thigh flap for soft tissue reconstruction in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma

In our study, there are several points about the ALT flap for lingual reconstruction that may be worthy of discussion. Firstly, it is safer to make the first incision relatively medial in the thigh and the midline is often a good choice. Secondly, it is important to complete the dissection of the perforator; musculocutaneous perfor- ator dissection is not easy; many tiny branches arise from the lateral aspects to the muscle itself during dis- section of an intramuscular perforator. Starting at the deep aspect of the fascia lata and working from distal to proximal, it is also safe to dissect a perforator only. Thirdly, it is useful to mark one aspect of a perforator for minimizing the possibility of twisting the perforator,
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A new formula for estimated fetal weight: The impression of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, mid-thigh soft tissue thickness and femoral length on birth weight

A new formula for estimated fetal weight: The impression of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, mid-thigh soft tissue thickness and femoral length on birth weight

Scioscia study had shown that STT is significantly correlated with AC (p<0.001; r 2 =0.36) and both R squares for correlation of these variables with actual birth weight were about 0.46 (24). Compatible to those studies, our study showed significant correlation of AC with STT and also in regression of BW by BPD, STT, FL same R square was achieved as in model using BPD, AC, FL (r 2 =0.7). But contrary to abovementioned studies, we found higher R square in single measurement regression of BW by AC than STT (r 2 =0.449 vs. r 2 =0.249). Like our study, Larciprete et al study showed higher R square in single measurement regression of EFW by AC than mid-thigh tissue area (MTTA) (r 2 =0.59 vs. r 2 =0.19) (25). This study also mentioned that AC is correlated with MTTA (p<0.05).
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Blood pressure in adults and its association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters

Blood pressure in adults and its association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters

factors with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Among those risk factors which were considered in this study BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, serum triglycerides and CRP levels had a positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressures and it was found to be statistically significant. HDL and serum bilirubin had a negative correlation, but this was not statistically significant as seen in Table 5.

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Thigh muscle volume in relation to age, sex and femur volume

Thigh muscle volume in relation to age, sex and femur volume

2008; Ruff and Hayes 1988). In line with previous studies (Feik et al. 1996; McNeil et al. 2009; Riggs et al. 2004), we found no significant change in total bone shaft CSA, and studies where an age-related increase was reported, it was only 5 % in a small population (Allen et al. 2011). Bone size is therefore a suitable internal standard against which to normalise muscle size. There were considerable differences in the extent of sarcopenia depending on whether muscle volume is normalised to height squared or to femur volume. When normalising to height squared, only 1 out of 25 older men fell 2 SD below the mean of the young men (giving a prevalence of just 4 %), while when normalising for femur volume, 24 of the 25 were more than 2 SD below the corresponding young average (giving a 96 % prevalence of sarcopenia). For the female subjects, 3 out of 28 older women were more than 2 SD below the young when thigh volume was adjusted for height squared (prevalence of 11 %) but this rose to 16 out of 28 when normalised to femur volume (prevalence of 57 %). It appears, therefore, that adjusting muscle volume for height squared may seriously underestimate the effect of age on muscle mass. It should also be noted that although every effort was made to exclude non- muscle components from the measured cross-sectional areas, it is impossible to account for small fat deposits and connective tissue that can infiltrate the muscles of older people. Consequently, the extent of the loss of contractile material must be greater than the extent of sarcopenia we report. This is most likely to be at least part of the explanation of the commonly reported reduc- tion in specific tension with ageing (Rutherford and Jones 1992; Hairi et al. 2010).
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