benefits are unequally distributed, with community benefits typically accounting for only a small proportion of the total value of wildlife. For example, in Tanzania with the introduction of a standard set of fees for all types of non-consumptive use (from walking safaris to game drives) under the wildlife and conservation Non-consumptive use regulations 2007, Tour operators had to pay fees to the central treasury that would then be dispersed to villages and to the districts. This move however was not received positively by both local communities who felt that their negotiations with tour operators directly was cut off, and tour operators who felt their businesses was at risk because of double charges to wildlife in village lands and that in protected areas (Melita & Mendlinger, 2013) These kinds of regulations undermined the principle of devolution in which villages themselves could establish fees in discussion with private investors and were paid directly by these investors (Katherine and Emmanuel, 2011). Although these new regulations threatened community’s revenues from tourism quite significantly, the then Acting
Developing areas surrounding Lake Tondano as a specific tourism industrial area will facilitate integration models of tourism and conservation. Tourism industrial area, which is managed in sustainable principles, will allow lake conservation as well as local economic development. Scholars point out that there are numerous approaches to meet destination sustainability, namely economical, sociological, political and ecological approach. In North Sulawesi, Pangemanan et al., (2012) argues that pricing policy could be a significant economical tool to ensure tourism sustainability in Bunaken. In another study, Andaria et al., (2013) confirms that community involvement is one of the important aspects in nature-based tourism in Bangka Island. The spatial model, however, is absent. In perspective of spatial planning, defining the spatial pattern of landscapes has been recognized as a success for land and space management.
Eco-tourism sometimes acts as a „land grabber’. It has become a land hungry industry. Local community often is removed from their homes for construction of hotels, resorts, golf courses, marinas and water parks to attract eco-tourists. Such developments usually take place in unspoilt locations along coastlines or rivers for enjoying panoramic views. Land of local communities is commonly appropriated for creation and extension of wildlife tourism and conservation as tourists don‟t want to see local people blotting the landscape of their safari. Thus beautification‟ is used as an excuse to demolish homes or replace them with tourist activities. For example In April 2006, 7000 people were evicted from their homes in Digya national park, an island on lake Volta as government had plans to develop areas as a golf course for tourists.
Such a holistic and integrated approach is essential in the Kenyan context. Wildlife safari tourism certification programmes should include criteria and indicators that help postcolonial states to move beyond dependency and subordination, and break off domination of the country’s conservation and tourism development. To accomplish this, first, certification programmes and indicators should consider the historical and political context in which wildlife conservation and tourism takes place. Second, they should be devised to meet the basic economic, social and cultural needs of the local people over the economic interests and growth of the tourism industry in general. They must work towards elevating the dignity and self-respect of local people, ensuring they are agents of their own destiny and well-being. With respect to safari tourism, local residents, pastoral and nomadic populations should be empowered to determine what forms of safari tourism programmes they want to see developed, how the tourism costs and benefits are to be shared among different stakeholders (i.e., government, private investors, conservation groups and the local people), and how they are to “represented,” not just in decision- making related to tourism and conservation, but also media- related representations (this last point is a difficult one requiring future research and discussion). Drawing on the postcolonial critique conducted in this paper, certification programmes for protected areas should specifically develop criteria and indicators to address:
Given such circumstances, managing the industry to ensure sustainability is likely to be complex. Higham et al. (2009) suggest that a pre-tourism phase in which baseline data are collected is necessary to set up frameworks for monitoring of tourism and management actions. Beasley et al. (2014), advocate adopting the precautionary approach, and suggest that despite potential economic benefits to local communities, in the absence of appropriate management, previously designed regulations and continuous monitoring, vessel-based cetacean-watching tourism should be discouraged. In a situation like Chilika Lagoon however, given that dolphin- watching tourism has already been established (without data collection and monitoring in a pre- tourism phase) and represents a large share of the economic value of the lagoon (Kumar 2010), supporting the livelihoods of already marginalised local communities (Chapter 2), a complete shut-down of the industry, or a sudden mandatory reduction in fleet size is not feasible. Such sudden and mandatory restrictive measures are not likely to be accepted within the local community, and could potentially result in reactionary negative attitudes towards dolphin conservation. In such circumstances, a solution could be to develop an early warning system as a user-friendly decision-making tool, providing managers with specific information regarding the site and its risk of decline (see Chapter 7 for details).
Abstract: According to afforestation 10 years program (from 2017-18 to 2026-2027), the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) has agreed on a new logging ban policy for Myanmar‘s forest; 10-year logging ban for the Bago Yoma Region and 1-year national logging ban for the remaining areas since (2016-2017) fiscal year. Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE), one of the state-owned enterprises, is mainly responsible for the logging operation and dragging logs from the forest with Elephants is the most well recognized as environmentally friendly logging operation in Myanmar. After implemented Myanmar‘s logging ban policy is great for forests, but a big challenge for MTE for the maintenance of MTE staffs and its working captive elephants in the timber industry for elephant conservation and welfare of the elephant staffs (mahouts). MTE owns more than 3000 Captive Elephants to perform logging operation, among which more than one-third is suitable for the workforce of skidding. The rest are not suiting for work as they are babies and mothers, pregnant, training, unhealthy and/or aged elephants. Nevertheless, all of the elephants are under the care and management of MTE. As a solution of logging ban policy effects on MTE, it came up with the idea of establishing Elephant Conservation Based Tourism (ECBT) in Myanmar by taking into consideration of the conservation of elephants and the welfare of the mahouts as well as an alternative way of earning income from ecotourism. Now, MTE is already implemented elephant conservation camps in a nationwide by state-owned sector. Wildlife tourism is often promoted as an activity which supports conservation by enhancing environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior through interpretative messaging and personal experiences with wildlife. ECBT will increase absolutely in the conservation of elephant.
essential skills that are in a comfortable situation with the environment on the seabed and thus feel safe and enjoy the expedition dives. SCUBA diving usually occurs in marine locations less than 30 m deep, with impressive underwater scenery, novel features, such as shipwrecks, or high biological diversity. Over the last two decades, many tropical countries have developed significant recreational dive industries as divers have become aware of the beauty and comfort of diving in tropical environments [2,7-8]. Brander et al.  Indicated Southeast Asia to be one of the top diving destinations in the world and the expansion of coral reef recreation there to be of high economic value. Dive tourism, as other types of tourism, can bring economic benefits, improve quality of life at the destination, foster community pride, allow cultural exchange, reduce over-exploitation and promote conservation. Dive tourism became an essential part of international and domestic travel in Malaysia. Malaysian government identifies dive tourism as one of the high yield components of marine tourism and is aggressively promoting tourism icons such as Sipadan Island and Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park as a world-class SCUBA diving destination. Financial gains through investment and employment opportunities from the diving industry significant contribute to regional economic [10-11]. Diving lessons and certification, equipment rentals, dive tours, and diving accessories being easily available from coastal dive centers have made this activity more affordable and accessible even to remote parts of the world. As coral reefs are the major attraction for SCUBA divers, the degradation of coral reefs can potentially lead to the dissatisfaction of tourists and subsequently pose negative impacts on local tourism businesses.
In this study we focus on seven counties of western Ireland (Donegal, Sligo, Mayo, Galway, Clare, Kerry and Cork) that make up the western seaboard. We concentrate on these counties for the following reasons: (a) The geographical make up of this region with its mountainous terrain creates a landscape that is well suited for a variety of outdoor pursuits. As a result, photos of this landscape in particular are used as the brand image in much of the advertising material associated with tourism in Ireland (Fáilte Ireland, 2008). (b) The hilly terrain and poor soil quality makes this region better suited for extensive small-scale dry stock systems; which constitutes the farming group with the lowest average household income that is highly dependent upon environmental subsidy payments (Hynes and Garvey, 2009). (c) The continuation of environmentally friendly farming techniques in this region is of great importance since the region contains a high proportion of lands designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection Areas (SPA), and Natural Heritage Areas (NHA).
'The significance of rainforests in many parts of the world suggests that this text is long overdue as it explores the challenges for the sustainable development, conservation and management of rainforests for the benefit of tourism. With a highly experienced international list of contributors, the editor has delivered a timely, engaging and challenging text that is both diverse in its coverage and critical in its investigation. With a plethora of international case examples and variety of global perspectives this is a highly recommended text for those with a passion for the world's rainforests and the challenges and opportunities for the sustainable development of tourism.' -Alan Fyall, University of Central Florida, USA
Abstract. Tourism is always embracing economy, social and environmental impacts. For this reason, the policy of sustainable development of tourism is necessary. The general approach is that governments have paid attention to tourism ecologically in the long run. This is approved and financially self-sufficient, and from the perspective of social and moral for local communities is beneficial and promising. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of wetland ecosystem conservation and environmental sustainability of tourism in rural areas. The purpose of applied research and in terms of data collection is descriptive and analytical. The study population consists of 3 villages’ khawmirabad rural district, Sarkol Zarivar which in the whole 93 villages of this area, a number of villages was selected. Sample households of the village and randomly classified and 12 villages were selected. Cochran formula used to determine the sample size and questionnaire to 330 randomly selected villages were selected among heads of households. The validity of the test Cronbach's alpha was 0.77 percent. For statistical analysis of data from one sample -t- test, chi-square test and ANOVA test in spss software is used. The results show that tourism in economic and socio-cultural aspects have a positive impact on the conservation and sustainable development of the environment.
The Maasai have successfully shared this region with wildlife for hundreds of years. Nevertheless, they have lived with the economic limitations that the conservation policy produced by the NCA’s designation as a multiple land use area for wildlife, people and their livestock . This has led to stunted economic development and growth for the local population and a major problem for the community’s future. The decline of livestock produc- tion (primary economic activities of the community) combined with a major increase of the population en- couraged some locals to start small-scale businesses; however due to the NCA’s remoteness and limited infra- structure, there were serious limitations to the size and number of such businesses and many men are forced to migrate to other areas of Tanzania to earn a living. Hence tourism was suggested as a business alternative for both community and individual wealth creation. To date, po- tential tourism activities include Cultural Bomas, selling
One of the questions of my interview list concerned the costs of gorilla tourism and conservation. Each group of stakeholders had relatively different answers, which depended on their position in the system. As it is possible to gather from the data so far, the communities adjacent to the forest are the ones that had to bear most of the costs after the designation of the BINP as a national park and the introduction of gorilla tourism. As demonstrated by their answers the majority of locals I interviewed mentioned the loss of natural resources as the biggest cost. The natural resources that have been mostly mentioned were papyrus grass, medicinal plants, bush meat, firewood, constructing materials, and land. Specifically, the papyrus grass is used by women to make baskets and mats, employed both for everyday chores and utensils, as well as to sell to tourists. As the participants told me, all these resources were freely accessible before the forest turned into a National Park, and now they are available only for the persons who can afford them. Then, the other main cost for residents is the crop raiding, mainly by baboons and elephants, of their lands and crops. With the occurrence of these instances, the households bordering the forest can loose their entire annual harvest, and subsequent income (Tumusiime and Vedeld, 2012). It is indeed a great loss, which is hardly compensated although the revenue sharing programme includes a compensation plan, which is theory calls for the compensation of the households losses, but in practice is not being carried out. The closer the households are to the boundary of the National Park the poorer in terms of lifestyle and welfare level (Twinamatsiko et al., 2015), particularly because of crop raiding. One of the interviewees informed me of an instance where a group of gorillas was feeding on the banana plantation of a household close to the border. The UWA tourist guide brought the tourists to observe the gorillas from that spot, where they stayed for the entire tourist hour, resulting in the complete destruction of the banana plantation. The participant referred to me that the owner of the plantation had to defencelessly watch, with tears in his eyes, his crops being destroyed for the pleasure of the tourist.
hoping for economic benefits in coming future as well. Furthermore, such values may incubate their sense of ownership over the site. People replied that they have a sense of ownership over the site. Hence, this shows to some extent the local residents tend to have a profound sentimental attachment to the heritage. Our survey findings regarding Kotheir residents level of attachment with their heritage seems to be inconsistent with previous studies on heritage by Timothy (1999, pp. 5-17) and Myles’s (1989, pp.118-27), which argued residents of developing countries seems have few sentimental attachments to historic and other heritages. In general the majority of the respondents want to see the tourists visiting their village and want to get engage in tourism-related businesses. Maximum number of the respondents argued that Tourism Department has never taken adequate measures to inform the local community about the basic essence of heritage conservation. In addition, according to the respondents, public discussions were hardly held to discuss what residents should do in order to sustainably preserve the rich spring and scattered temples. The local government can play a vital role in enhancing local residents’ awareness and participation in both the conservation and tourism development arenas. Villages with historical attractions can be best managed by the authorities’ pain-sticking efforts through regular visits and making direct involvement of the people a possible affair. Frequent discussions between the local government and community can be a way to narrow the broad gap between them. The integration of heritage tourism and conservation can be materialized through the collaboration of various stakeholders as well as by considering tourists’ perceptions of the site and its surroundings (Mc Kercher and du Cros,).
There is not much published information on tour- ism targeting the wildlife of Greece. Actually, this is the first time that such a study has been conducted regard- ing this country’s endemic flora. To our knowledge, the same holds true in a wider context, for other countries as well. In this study, we focused on tourists who book specialized, plant-oriented holidays that include in situ observations of Cretan plants, not on those that take excursions of general character that include aspects of nature, mostly lasting a single day. These tourists are usu- ally willing to pay a substantial amount of money in order to admire and capture the representatives of the Cretan flora in their natural environment. Extinction risk and/or protection status of the Cretan endemics may play a role for inclusion of such plants as attractions in the organ- ized tours, but not the major one: plants of this type make 35% of the advertised flora in the agencies’ webpages. Taking as a criterion of a taxon’s attractiveness the num- ber of agencies referring to it, it seems that the endemic plants of Crete that are the most traded are not the most attractive to tourists. The two markets are similar in that geophytes play a prominent role with comparable par- ticipation in their activities (40–45% representation) and so do Lamiaceae that rank first among the represented plant families. Nevertheless, only 12 taxa are common to both, corresponding to 22.6% of all traded and tourism related Cretan endemic taxa (see Additional file 2). To a certain extent, this could be due to the blooming times of the plants, which do not fall within the most convenient periods of the year for tourists from the point of view of weather and major flowering season.
Although hunting tourism is not a new activity, it appears since the dawn of human evolution, today it must be managed in a professional way in order to protect and keep the environment and the hunted. The development of agriculture and animal breeding has released most of the human communities from the worries of feeding themselves, decreasing considerably the pressure on hunted species as a food resource. In order to practice this type of tourism, some hunted species must be bred in semi wilderness to be used as trophies and food resources and to protect the wildlife. Special emphasis must be put on the productive function of the forest ecosystem, the development and intensification of agriculture, development of the infrastructure, development of mass tourism in protected areas and enlarging the natural habitat of the hunted species, reducing hunting and intensifying observation and study of wildlife behaviour through hunting tourism with an ecological character.
These study areas are chosen because of their ecological significance, serving a source of food and water, a place for recreation, education and science and most importantly, a home for the many plants and animals which need wetlands to survive. As well as providing a buffer against coastal erosion, storm surges and flooding; they also provide breeding and roosting sites for migratory birds and local water birds. Wetland plants shelter many animals and birds and are vital for the survival of many threatened species. Information on the location and conservation value of existing wetlands is valuable for anyone, particularly those who are involved in coastal activities including management, recreation and living on the coast.
Ecotourism services activity outside the national park area is also necessary to pay attention. Ecotourism development in remote villages near or outside the national park is very important. These areas generally face with the lack of infrastructure, information and economic activity. This can improve the distribution of economic development. These rural areas usually have a resilient conservation characteristics in social and environmental aspects . The local indegenous, experience and cultural values has been attached in the rural environment to support an economic life. The region can be part of the coastal, sea, or land ecosystem; in a surrounding area of protected areas, villages or regions that have distinctive values for future generations. For example, tourism development along the southern island of Java has been a policy direction of acceleration of the rural development.
The strengthening of disincentives of poaching is an important factor in response to IWT (Challender & MacMillan, 2014). The first pathway includes increasing the social stigma of poaching and strengthening law enforcement and penalties. Communities are key to the strengthening of disincentives for poaching by applying social sanctions against poachers, or, by employing them as game guards and scouts (Biggs et.al, 2016: 5). The second pathway of the TOC focuses on increasing incentives for stewardship of wildlife. The mechanisms in pathway two aim to support enterprise development that generates benefits from wildlife conservation (Biggs et.al, 2016: 6). This entails the development of eco-tourism enterprise and the training of locals to work as guides or in hospitality. The outcome of developing an industry that is dependent on wildlife is that communities will value wildlife more and have greater incentives to protect it (Biggs et.al, 2016: 6, Frost & Bond, 2008). Creating a sense of ownership and developing mechanisms by which communities can benefit from wildlife are considered by some scholars as key to community engagement in wildlife protection (Roe, 2015). The third pathway in the TOC entails decreasing of costs of living with wildlife. Living in areas with great biodiversity can generate a variety of costs, especially when wildlife penetrates community land, raids crops and attacks people, fueling human-wildlife conflict (Biggs et.al, 2016: 7, Woodroffe et.al, 2007). According to the theory, decreasing the costs of living with wildlife is therefore a critical element to discourage communities from engaging in poaching (Biggs et.al, 2016: 7). Lastly, the fourth pathway highlights the necessity of creating alternative livelihoods. According to Biggs (2016), by creating alternative sources of income the need to poach is reduced (Biggs et.al, 2016: 8). This can be achieved through the development of small enterprise and micro-financing schemes (Roe et.al, 2015).
With the rapid growth of the global economy, energy consumption and carbon dioxide release generate a huge impact on the environment of human life. In 2009, the Copenhagen Climate Conference raised the issue of global climate change again, and the confer- ence indicated that the low-carbon economy would be a choice to deal with climate warming. The State Council’s Suggestions on Accelerating the Develop- ment of Tourism clearly puts forward that, in order to advocate the low-carbon travel mode, implement the water-saving, energy-conservation and emis- sion-reduction projects, promote the energy conversa- tion and environmental protection and implement the energy performance contracting, the amount of water and electricity consumption in star hotels and scenic spots will be reduced by 20% in five years. The re- search shows that, in one year, a medium-scale three-star hotel consumes about 1,400 tons of coal and releases at least 70 tons of soot, 28 tons of sulfur di- oxide and 4,200 tons of carbon dioxide into the air; in one year, a large-scale hotel with the building area of approximately 90,000 square meters consumes about 130,000 to 180,000 tons of standard coal  . Thus, the hotel industry has a very high dependence on the en- ergy and bears responsibility for emission of 5% of the global greenhouse gas. As an international tourism