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NATIONAL TOURISM POLICY REVIEW REPUBLIC OF KOREA

NATIONAL TOURISM POLICY REVIEW REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Since the inauguration of the new administration in 1998, the Korean government has responded to the growing significance of tourism for the economy by making reforms in tourism policy and changing the name of the ministry responsible for tourism to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. In the course of these reforms, the Tourism Vision 21 (1999-2003) and the second Tourism Development Plan (2002-2011) were implemented. South-North Korea tourism exchanges were initiated in 2000, opening a new era for the Korean Peninsula. Moreover, co-hosting the 2002 FIFA World Cup has largely improved tourism facilities and infrastructure, and the upcoming Asian Games scheduled for September 2002, are expected to contribute further to the development of the tourism industry.
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Barriers to implementing Sustainable Tourism Policy in Mass Tourism Destinations

Barriers to implementing Sustainable Tourism Policy in Mass Tourism Destinations

One of the key issues inevitably resolves around who, or what level of decision-making should implement and control such policies. UNEP/ICLEI (2003) suggest that local authorities are the best placed agencies to manage tourism in a destination. Usually National Tourism Organisations (NTO) are responsible for policy advice and implementation and often unite policy and promotion (Hall, 1994). It is also these offices or administrations that manage and implement tourism responsibilities. Most provinces or territories have a tourism board or agency which is involved with both policy formulation and implementation. In addition, most cities or destinations also have a tourism organisation, but its role is usually that of a Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) or Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB), and it is not involved in policy even though it is the most ‘grass roots’ of the three dimensions. Lickorish (1991) and Krippendorf (1982) propose a more integrated role is needed for tourism policy, and other authors (Inskeep, 1991, Eber, 1992, Krippendorf, 1982, Hall, 1994, Crosby, 1996, Vera & Rippin, 1996, Aynsley, 1997, Jackson & Morpeth, 1999, Briassoulis, 2002) also support the view that the key to successful policy implementation is more emphasis on local participation Pridham (1999) declares that there has been a problem with tourism as a policy priority for numerous reasons, including differences between member states and or ambiguity or irrelevance of higher level policies to local levels. For this reason, local involvement is fundamental to the planning and management of destinations (Coccossis, 1996, Meetham, 1998, Middleton & Hawkins, 1998, Ryan, 2002). Jackson and Morpeth (1999: 39) suggest the need for local involvement and that “local government needs to actualise the concept of community empowerment”). The focus of policies at the international and national levels will change as they are reinterpreted and implemented at a local level and each country or destination should establish an operational definition for sustainable development so a bottom-up and top-down consensus approach can be achieved. This paper now proceeds to examine problems with policy implementation in two field study areas and compares the results with barriers to implementation identified in the literature.
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Evaluating the Need for Effective Tourism Policy as a Remedy for Sustainable Tourism Growth in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria

Evaluating the Need for Effective Tourism Policy as a Remedy for Sustainable Tourism Growth in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria

government to review the policies of tourism industries to encourage more private investors which supports [6] that unless economic policies to promote tourism remains a focus in developing countries, tourism will not be a potential source of economic growth. The result deduced from the table reveals that there is a non-involvement of relevant stakeholders in tourism development which correlates with Munzali who asserted that there is minimal participation of stakeholders in tourism development in the country [13]. This also supports the [15] which stated that the lack of professionalism in the tourism sector is a significant weakness. The public-private relationship is non-existent; there is a lack of an enabling government for the private sector involvement in the tourism sector. The federal ministry of culture and tourism needs strengthening and professional personnel. The commercial sector lacks a strong unified voice [15]. It equally revealed that tourism is not well represented at local level structures. The information available according to [16] revealed that as of 1992 when Decree 81 was promulgated, only two (2) LGAs had a tourism committee. However, as at the time of this study, none of the LGAs has a tourism committee as provided in the national tourism policy and Decree 81 0f 1992. Furthermore, the result of the afore-mentioned research h of tourism policy. The result from table 7 agrees with the above observation [4] that says tourism is not being considered a priority sector of the nation's economy. On the challenges of tourism policy and policies, [4] listed possible barriers to the implementation of sustainable tourism policy as economic priority; lack of planning; lack of stakeholders' involvement; lack of integration with regional and national frameworks and policies; lack of accountability of politicians
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European tourism policy: Its evolution and structure

European tourism policy: Its evolution and structure

Parallel events raised awareness of the desirability of having a tourism policy. In 1985 the EC published the White Paper on the Internal Market (EC, 1985) and the first important reform of the Treaty of Rome came into force with the Single European Act (SEA, 1985), then in 1986 Spain and Portugal joined the European Economic Community. The SEA established the basis for further EU integration, envisaging an area without internal frontiers, with guaranteed free movement of goods, people, services and capital, under the provisions of the Treaty, to be established before the end of 1992 (Ehlermann, 1987). Consumer protection was prominent within the Act and today remains one of its pillars, and partnership (understood as an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate and advance their mutual interests) was introduced into Community jargon (Tömmel, 1998). The years between the SEA and the 1992 deadline saw the convergence of all Community policies, which provided common objectives, strategies and legislation for all Member States (Aykin, 2012). Tourism grew in importance and was seen as key to the successful delivery, and acceptance by Member States, of the Internal Market. A Communication set out how Community action was to be understood in the context of tourism (EC, 1986a), suggesting to the Council a set of new actions to be considered and, where appropriate, adopted as legislation. Both the EP by Resolution (EP, 1986) and the ESC by Opinion (ESC, 1986) were favourable to all the proposals contained in that Communication; with the ESC containing a specific reference to ‘consumer momentum’, in which it encouraged the EC to organise a ministerial meeting and prepare a detailed action programme to contribute to the completion of the Internal Market from the perspective of tourism.
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A Review on Factors Effecting on Tourism Policy Implementation: A tool on the Development of the Tourism Industry in Islamic Republic of Iran

A Review on Factors Effecting on Tourism Policy Implementation: A tool on the Development of the Tourism Industry in Islamic Republic of Iran

After the Islamic Revolution in Iran the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization has extensive variations first, it was subset of the Ministry of Culture that this ministry also found itself in changes and then switched to the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance as name Iran Touring and Tourism Organization (National Tourism Organization of central monitoring and facilitating tourism development) And now, this organization have adopted a series of policies for tourism development. One of the most important problems in the developing of tourism is unclear division of authorities and responsibilities for policy formulation to this industry moreover obstacles to the implementation of tourism such as foreign propaganda and cultural barriers are usually neglected or disregard by officials. Due to these problems it seems that development of cultural heritage organizations can enable the tourism industry in order to implement stronger policies and empowering in this area. Even though tourism is important from an economic point of view, it still remains relatively neglected as a major policy issue. One assumption underpinning the present paper is that a tourism policy must take into account community commitment and a focus on the environment, examining the relationship between contextual aspects of the tourism rather than only considering the techniques and methods involved in preparing a plan. “Management decisions are not worth the paper they are written on unless the policies and decisions are implemented” (Elliot, 1997).
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The Tourism Policy Puzzle:  Pieces and Precepts Discovered Through Qualitative Investigation of Federal Public Policy Preferences and Advocacy Activities of Tourism Associations in the United States

The Tourism Policy Puzzle: Pieces and Precepts Discovered Through Qualitative Investigation of Federal Public Policy Preferences and Advocacy Activities of Tourism Associations in the United States

In addition to leaders and members, tourism policy actors can also take the role of experts. As one interviewee stated, ―There‘s so many issues that we lobby on. You can‘t be an expert on all of the issues, so people (or groups) have their expertise.‖ Some organizations were willing to assist a coalition by providing expertise even if the expert organization did not fully agree with what the coalition stood for. For example, one interviewee claimed, ―We become more of an advisor to that coalition, lending our support. But not necessarily completely signing off on everything that the coalition does.‖ Within a coalition, experts were highly valued and respected, as illustrated by a quote from a government affairs executive about a particular individual: ―There‘s a gentleman who works for one of the coalition members who‘s a tax expert. And none of us are tax experts. And he‘s great. It‘s like whenever he comes to a meeting, it‘s just like, whoa!‖
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Tourism planning and a nation's vision: a review of the tourism policy of Sri Lanka

Tourism planning and a nation's vision: a review of the tourism policy of Sri Lanka

According to Chaudhary (2009), the development of a sector is influenced by the political system of a country, its socio-economic environment and the policy framework. Tourism policy has been discussed and defined by many authors as a statement of intent of a set course of action agreed upon by public body or agency such as the government or a private organization such as airlines or travel operators with regards to aspects of tourism, which

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Actor perspectives and tourism policy networks in Hangzhou, China

Actor perspectives and tourism policy networks in Hangzhou, China

Two approaches to agency and structure are relevant here: Marsh and Smith’s (2000) dialectical approach, and Bramwell and Meyer’s (2007) relational approach. Both sets of researchers apply agency and structure theories to evaluate policy issues. The dialectical approach considers the dialectical relations within policy-making processes, while the relational approach uses the same dialectical approach, but also stresses the importance of ‘contingent openness’ for complex social relationships (Bramwell and Pomfret, 2007). Three kinds of relationships are highlighted in their relational and dialectical approach to policy networks. First, there are dialectical relationships between policy networks and the contexts within which they operate. Second, there are similar flexible and interactive relationships between the policy network structures and the actors that operate within them. Third, the outcomes of the debates and policy decisions arising from policy networks have dialectical implications for the subsequent shape of that network (Bramwell and Meyer, 2007). Overall, the relational and dialectical approach to policy networks means that “context and activity, structure and action, are treated as co-constitutive and co-generative” (Gonzalez and Healey, 2005:2057). The relational approach was applied to a study of an island in former East Germany and the power, policymaking and policy debates associated with tourism development there (Bramwell and Meyer, 2007). This is the closest related study to the research here because it uses some elements of both the actor-oriented approach and policy network theory. However, these examples are more focused on power and tensions within tourism development, while the present research puts more emphasis on developing a conceptual framework for assessing both internal and external influences on tourism policy-making processes.
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Tourism policy implementation in the developing world : The case of Phuket, Thailand

Tourism policy implementation in the developing world : The case of Phuket, Thailand

Influenced by the discussions in earlier sections, the conceptual framework is applied to this study in various ways. Firstly, it directs the study into a wide range of information consistent with the research aim and objectives and influences the type of data to be searched and explored. Secondly, it assists in selecting methodological approaches in terms of collecting appropriate information concerning tourism policy implementation. Rich information obtained from qualitative methods provides a more comprehensive picture and understanding of policy implementation opportunities and problems in a developing world context. Third, under this structured, yet interactive and flexible framework, the interview questions are derived. The questions reflect the detailed elements of each area, and each question is also cross-checked, referenced and compared to avoid unnecessary duplication. Fourth, it provides guidance for data analysis as it requires the identification of significant themes for critical discussion and analysis. With the use of this conceptual framework, ten broad themes are developed to generate and categorise data to be interpreted, analysed and subsequently reported in the results chapters. Fifth, the title of each results chapter is also drawn from the theoretical framework. As a result, five results chapters are developed to elucidate critical analysis. These include the respondents and the policies, structural and political dimensions of policy implementation, institutional issues in implementing policies, policy clarity and policy resources and public attitudes, culture and policy implementation. Finally, in the conclusion chapter, the framework helps with understanding tourism policy
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Tourism policy and legal framework of rural tourism in Macedonia

Tourism policy and legal framework of rural tourism in Macedonia

Abstract: Tourism has significant social and economic benefits for rural communities, and tourism policy and legal framework created by government on national, regional and local level are one of the primary factors for the existence and development of tourism in rural areas. The subject of this thesis is tourism policy and legislation concerning the rural tourism in Macedonia, seen through the prism of tourism development strategies and tourism legislative. The thesis provides basic data for the rural tourism in Macedonia such as: historical development, regional distribution of rural tourism, accommodation facilities, number of tourists, rural tourism activities, promotion, tourism law, European Union funds and existence of a government initiatives for rural tourism development. Charts, presenting the governmental bodies responsible for tourism, national tourism development strategies as well as tourism related to legislation, are used for preparing a basic profile of rural tourism in the country. For the purpose of this thesis, we use research methodology and secondary data sources from relevant literature, official tourism development strategies and laws. An analysis and review of tourism strategies and laws have been made, based on systematical evaluation of their actual content using the method of content analysis. The thesis concluding remarks are regarding the structure, past issues and future challenges of rural tourism in Macedonia.
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The Research of Medical Tourism Policy Network in Taiwan

The Research of Medical Tourism Policy Network in Taiwan

Recently, the concept of medical tourism is gaining eminence in the field of health and medicine. “Medi- cal Tourism” is a term involving people who travel to a different place to receive treatment for a disease, ailment, or condition, and who are seeking lower cost of care, higher quality of care, better access to care, or different care than they could receive at home. Currently, Taiwan government also declares its ambi- tions to become one of the best choices of cross-country medical care for international visitors. The gov- ernment believes that Taiwan offers excellent medical care, so can take advantage of business opportuni- ties in medical tourism as it has gained a reputation in the world and is particularly respected by the Chi- nese. A recent economic cooperation framework agreement (CEFA) between China and Taiwan will en- courage trade and tourism between two entities across Taiwan Strait. The major purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze medical tourism policy network in Taiwan. This approach emphasizes the interac- tion and outcomes between actors in policy network. The paper utilizes literature review and supplements by in-depth interviews to examine Taiwan experience of medical tourism policy from the stage model of public policy implementation. The paper finds that medical tourism policy in Taiwan is a growing indus- try with government and hospitals’ participation. Thus, efforts should be made to encourage collaboration between the government, medical care providers, and tourism industry.
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THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MARKETING IN MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY IN POINT OF VIEW OF MEDICAL TOURISM POLICY MAKERS OF SHIRAZ IN 2017

THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MARKETING IN MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY IN POINT OF VIEW OF MEDICAL TOURISM POLICY MAKERS OF SHIRAZ IN 2017

This study seeks to answer these hypotheses that: First hypothesis: there is a relation between digital marketing and medical tourism from view of Shiraz medical tourism policy makers. Regarding the correlation factor and significance level (p=0.001, r=0.810). There is a significant positive relation between digital marketing and status from viewpoint if Shiraz medical tourism policy makers. Therefore, based on the significance level, the study hypothesis is confirmed. This finding is consistent with the following studies: Hadson et al., Katler et al., Inskeep et al., Tsangand Chen et al., Esfahani et al 19,20,21 . Gholipour et al., in his study under the title of prioritizing factors effective on mixed marketing of hoteling industry by ranking method concluded that the price factor among other factors of hotel marketing has the highest priority in supplying customers' satisfaction 22 . After price, respectively individuals, process, promotion, product, physical evidences and efficiency are in the next priorities. Kazemi et al., in his study under the title of investigating organizational
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Tourism policy innovations of an Indian state (Haryana)and their implications

Tourism policy innovations of an Indian state (Haryana)and their implications

It is to be noted that private sector participation requi- res not only public sector participation (in form of development of infrastructure, promotional support and fiscal and financial incentives) but also availability of loans. As in any commercial activity, the availability of loans on suitable terms is an essential catalyst for sound tourism investment. But switching of loans away from agricultural production can lead to the displace- ment of domestic agricultural sector. Ultimately, the displacement (crowding out effect of concentrating on tourism) can lead to deindustrialization or a significant contraction in the agriculture sector that potentially reduces welfare to groups of citizens. Overenthusiastic tourism policy can alienate local residents as they begin to perceive that scarce capital resources are being spent on what they consider low priority areas like tourism. This is not to suggest that tourism brings no benefits to the residents. In fact tourism supports the creation of community facilities and services that otherwise might not have been developed. This can bring higher living standards to a destination. Benefits can include upgraded infrastructure, health and transport improve- ments, new sport and recreational facilities and restaurants as well as an influx of better-quality
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Planning for sustainable tourism development: 
an Investigation into implementing tourism policy
in the North West coast region of
Egypt

Planning for sustainable tourism development: an Investigation into implementing tourism policy in the North West coast region of Egypt

These were identified in the Terms of Reference (TOR) for the Regional Planning (cited by Ilaco and Pacer 1976)... CHAPTER 1 The Case for an Inquiry into Tourism Policy Implementation i[r]

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Spread the Warmth  EUC Policy Challenge  EU ASEAN Tourism Policy Brief

Spread the Warmth EUC Policy Challenge EU ASEAN Tourism Policy Brief

them customers). This factor has several benefits which our group will discuss further in the next section. We envision strong collaboration with existing firms and even social enterprises such as Backstreet Academy to provide the potential for scale and increase their social impact. Social enterprises may be able to provide the necessary tour guide training to locals, as well as engage in joint promotion of the Free Riding Tour, appealing to the socially conscious tourist. Funding for the first batch of guides‟ training may also be made available by ASEAN; upon the take-off of the industry, our group postulate that visible profitability from such a scheme will induce others to take up the trainings at their own cost in order to enter the lucrative tourism market.
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UK Tourists, The Great Recession and Irish Tourism Policy

UK Tourists, The Great Recession and Irish Tourism Policy

Figure 3  shows the price index of  holidays  in  Ireland  and  holidays  elsewhere. Table  A1  has  the  data.  Tourism  prices  in  Ireland  roughly  track  those  in  the  rest  of  the  world,  except  in  2008 when Irish prices jumped 17% (compared to 7.9% elsewhere). After that, Ireland cut its  prices sooner and faster  (‐7.0%  per  year versus ‐6.2%) than competing  destinations. Figure  A1 in  the  appendix  shows  the  fluctuations  in  the  UK  sterling/euro exchange  rate  over  the  decade from 1999‐2009. The weakness of the pound in recent years, particularly from 2007  onwards,  may  have  contributed  to the  decline  in  visits  to  Ireland.  The  Tourism  Barometer  report (Failte Ireland  2011) warns  that Ireland has  developed a reputation as  an expensive  destination in the eyes of UK tourists and that such a label may be difficult to lose.  
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The Tourism-Development Nexus in Namibia : A Study on National Tourism Policy and Local Tourism Enterprises' Policy Knowledge

The Tourism-Development Nexus in Namibia : A Study on National Tourism Policy and Local Tourism Enterprises' Policy Knowledge

An essential part of Namibian tourism planning and policy is the emphasis provided by the government on community-based tourism (CBT), which is characterised by two major elements. The first one is the full participation of a local community in the plan- ning and management of a tourism enterprise and their ownership over it (Rogerson 2005a: 36). The second is that the tourism product being offered is based on local so- cial, environmental and cultural assets (Cornelissen 2005b: 21). The concept of com- munity can refer to a geographical community living in a certain politically defined area such as a village, town or suburb. Similarly, community may refer to the social inter- connection of a group of persons and their participation in reciprocal exchanges within the group (Hydén 2006: 53; Telfer & Sharpley 2008: 117). However, communities are seldom homogenous and cohesive, often being rather complex, open-ended and heter- ogeneous (Duim et al. 2005: 302). In this study I define community-based tourism as ‘including one or several of a variety of tourism activities which are planned and man- aged by a certain community, as defined by its members, who are the owners and direct beneficiaries of the tourism product and aim at equal distribution of the benefits within the community’. In a study that involved 218 CBTEs in southern Africa, Spenceley (2008: 288) discovered several common characteristics for communities engaged in CBT. They are often remote from national centres and constrained by poor infrastruc- ture in terms of roads, water and electricity. In addition, they are economically poor with little capital for investment in the tourism industry, and they can be characterised as inexperienced and under-skilled in engaging in tourism. However, they are rich in distinctive culture and history firmly rooted in the local area. Due to their dependence on local natural resources, they possess deep knowledge about the surrounding nature and its utilisation.
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Integrative tourism policy development based on agro tourism in the city of batu malang east java Indonesia

Integrative tourism policy development based on agro tourism in the city of batu malang east java Indonesia

The tourism is one of the most potential activities that can contribute economic development the community in kecamatan bumiaji. Type and place event tourism now includes: theme park selekta, ecotourism in a bathhouse for hot air cangar and arboretrum in the village of sumber brantas, agrotourism of stringed tourist apples and hiking in a ceremony in punten village, village sumbergondo and villages bumiaji. People living with the tourism activity are to observe the life and to participate in public activities in the agricultural sector apple. Tourism activity with people living in developed in the village punten and tulungrejo. Increasing number of a tangerine plant in the village punten di-harapkan the village administration setem-pat tourist icon image to Punten village. Besides of a tangerine, potential holtikultura now developed was plants ornamental flowers. According to the secretary Punten village, are located in the mountainous tourism is over and grace to villagers punten.Because it, ervan developing the tourism potential in one hamlet, namely hamlet kungkuk. There was initiated the concept of tourism kam-pung equipped fasili-tas as outbond tourism, home-stay, said. Punten a mountainous region located in the mountain arjuno with keting-gian 800 feet above sea level. Punten village in sub districts bumiaji city stone with total of an area of 281.935 hectares. From broad the region, 39.680 hectares is rice, about 59 hektarenya is a residential, 12.080 moor, 125 hectares forested country, and lain-lain of road and mausoleum common about 2.66 hectares
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UK Tourists, the Great Recession and Irish Tourism Policy

UK Tourists, the Great Recession and Irish Tourism Policy

In this paper, we consider the impact of recent and proposed tax reforms on the UK demand for tourism in Ireland. The UK is by far the largest source of visitors to Ireland, and Ireland is the largest tourist destination for UK tourists. Visitor numbers to Ireland have dropped sharply in recent times. The main reason is that tourism numbers have fallen everywhere, although Ireland has also lost market share in the UK holiday and visiting friends and family segments. Using a pooled travel cost model, we estimate price elasticities of UK tourism demand for various market segmentations. Short trips are more sensitive to changing prices than long trips, and holiday travel is more price sensitive than business travel. We apply these estimates to assess the impact of the abolition of the travel tax (proposed but not enacted) and the reduced VAT rate for tourism products (enacted). We find that the impact is small on total trip costs and hence on visitor numbers and expenditures. The impact of tax revenue is small too, but larger than the impact on visitor expenditures (let alone on the taxes and profits generated by that expenditure). A reduction of taxes on visitors is thus a net transfer from Ireland to the United Kingdom.
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Exploring youth perspectives on quality of life and tourism: policy and planning implications

Exploring youth perspectives on quality of life and tourism: policy and planning implications

were  offered  without  any  discussion  of  tourism  at  any  stage  of  the  research  process.   Despite  this,  images  of  tourism  were  selected  by  some  groups  as  the  core  of  their  social  representations.    These  choices  indicated  that  tourism  can  contribute  to  Qol  through  relaxation,  escape  and  stress  release  or  as  a  symbol  of  status  or  wealth.    Many  tourism  policies  are based  on assumptions  about  what different types of  tourists want, whether  or  not  certain  types  of  tourists  are  desirable,  and  how  to  manage  the  destination  to  both  attract and satisfy these desirable tourists and manage their negative impacts.  Policy based  on inaccurate assumptions in these  areas is likely to fail.  Thus mistaken assumptions about  youth  travel  have  implications  for  the  development  of  policies  in  the  areas  of  product  development  and  choices  made  about  different  tourism  development  options  at  destinations. 
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