Virtue Ethics

Top PDF Virtue Ethics:

Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice

Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice

highly criticized for relativity and it is not accepted in the field of ethics philosophy. As a result of this, the appropriateness of using general ethics rules to deal with physicians’ ethical problems has been questioned (56) and resulted in an approach named casuistry ethics which is a modified form of particularism (57) and does not completely deny ethical principles (58). There is not a consensus on the extent to which virtue ethics can be regarded as casuistry ethics (59); however, virtue ethics is more consistent with the feature that medical ethics requires to focus on details and specific cases. Another group of particularistic ethicists support care ethics and believe that, in the field of medical ethics, it is necessary to follow the approach which is based on care ethics since there is a strong relationship between medicine and caring (60). The theory of care ethics that was presented by Carol Gilligan for the first time is one of the new versions of virtue ethics (61). It is based on love, connection, and care for judgment and dealing with ethical issues in comparison to the dominant masculine approach in ethics which is rational and based on concepts such as justice, autonomy, and rights (61, 62). Teaching virtue and creating ethical character There are various challenges in the field of medicine regarding the issue of teaching virtue ethics and this can result in the viewpoint that the goal of teaching medical ethics cannot be the training of virtuous physicians when it is sufficient to make the physicians skilled enough to solve ethical problems. The ability to solve problems is as necessary as other medical skills, but it would be more appropriate to conduct studies to clarify how and to what extent teaching virtue is possible and how students’ ethical progress can be evaluated (63).
Show more

12 Read more

Using a virtue ethics lens to develop a socially accountable community placement programme for medical students

Using a virtue ethics lens to develop a socially accountable community placement programme for medical students

The primary analysis did not produce new insights into the practice of CBE. The researchers felt strongly that the data contained richer insights, leading to further reading and discussion. We came across the theory of virtue ethics and proceeded with a secondary thematic analysis of the data using MacIntyre’s theory of virtue ethics’ concepts as guiding themes: the internal goods inherent in the practice of CBE, and the virtues needed to sustain them [24]. In selecting virtue ethics as a framework we accepted that there may be other frame- works (e.g. ‘human rights’) which also provide valuable insights into the practice of CBE. MBK, MCM, MSM and DRP analysed the data. We selected and reviewed one transcript to familiarize ourselves with the data [27], then each coded the same transcript independently and discussed the codes to ensure that our understanding Table 1 Socially accountable CBE interview guide: summary of relevant questions posed
Show more

10 Read more

From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

has not destroyed the human’s rational faculties, and because God’s common grace operates through the presence of the Spirit and the natural law in creation, the moral structure of things are accessible to all human beings who possess a divinely imprinted sense of right and wrong. Secondly, in response to Gregory’s notion that the Reformation prepared the way for an individualist notion of selfhood, it was argued that the Reformation deliberately developed a theocentric grounding of selfhood precisely in order to avoid the kind of ills that later on emanated from Enlightenment thinking. The Reformation attempted to prevent communitarianism on the one hand, and individualism on the other, by developing an anthropology of symbiotic relationships based on the concepts of God creational ordinances and covenant. Seeing as the notion of autonomous selfhood was regarded as an anathema in Reformed thinking, it would be incorrect to suggest that the Reformation developed a concept of selfhood that unintentionally paved the way for autonomous secular ethics. Lastly, this article challenges Gregory’s depiction of the Reformed era’s ethics as a rule-based, moralistic ethics that deliberately dispensed with virtue ethics. It is argued that the distinction between virtue ethics and rights ethics is superficial and of little practical import because virtue does not exclude duty, and duty does not exclude virtue. Although the Reformation regarded virtue, first of all, as fruit of the regenerative work of the Spirit, it also considered the attainment of virtue as possible by non-believers, because love is the foundational principle of the natural law, which is accessible to all people.
Show more

8 Read more

Virtue ethics, Kantian ethics, and the 'one thought too many' objection

Virtue ethics, Kantian ethics, and the 'one thought too many' objection

what she calls the “Impartialist Insight.” The Impartialist Insight is “the claim that all persons are equally deserving of well-being and respect.” Impartialism is “the position that a moral person is one who recognizes and appreciates the Impartialist Insight and integrates it into her life.” 32 Although Wolf did not intend this as a slap in the face to partialists – indeed, she expresses a strong sympathy for their views – the character- ization might well offend. Partialists might protest that they too recognize that all persons are equally deserving of well-being and respect, and that they too hold that a moral person recognizes and appreciates this insight. Depending on what is meant by “integrating the insight into one’s life,” aren’t virtually all of us impartialists? I’ll set aside this concern and consider how her very inclusive characterization can help locate disagree- ment about the value of impartiality and its place in our lives. Lest this seem offensive or, if not that, simply bizarre, I should explain that as I see it, the division between impartialists and partialists, and the labels “impartialist” and “partialist,” are clumsy, and thus it is not imperative that a characterization or definition of impartialism accurately capture that division. Since my concern is to locate, understand and attempt to reply to the criticisms of Kantian impartialism – criticisms that are at the heart of the motivation for virtue ethics – rather than to find a characterization of impartialism that does justice to the labels “imparti- alists” and “partialists,” Wolf ’s characterization is useful for my purposes. And while it has the result that some who would usually be called “partialists” become, on her terminology, “moderate impartialists,” it does provide for a wide range of views regarding the proper role or place of impartiality in our lives.
Show more

34 Read more

Virtue ethics and the commitment to learn: overcoming disparities faced by transgender individuals

Virtue ethics and the commitment to learn: overcoming disparities faced by transgender individuals

It is possible to envisage a transgender individual gain- ing access to health care after surmounting the barriers to care and encountering a provider who not only lacks the knowledge to provide compassionate care but also claims an inability to treat the individual based on the provider’s moral agency and belief. Basic health needs cannot refuse to be met by providers. “For example, one patient sought care for chronic kidney infections but was denied by multiple urologists once they realized the patient was trans. Providers typically cited ignorance about trans healthcare as the reason for denying care, re- gardless of whether or not patients’ concerns pertained to gender-affirming care” [11]. I will examine this narra- tive to illustrate how virtue ethics can approach the individual.
Show more

6 Read more

A Return to Objective Ethics in Business Education: A Faith Based Argument for  Plato’s Virtue Ethics

A Return to Objective Ethics in Business Education: A Faith Based Argument for Plato’s Virtue Ethics

Moreover, the underlying motivations that are created from a subconscious level are the same emotions that correspond with the main virtues identified in the largest world religions. Virtue ethics affirms that qualities such as wisdom, temperance, justice and prudence are learned over time and are the product of these motivations. For instance, wisdom is a character trait that is most likely linked to reason, as the search for wisdom is directly linked to reason and truth. Reason and truth come from many different sources, but in this case study, consider that approximately 65% of all mutual fund managers have their MBA [21]. Similarly, multiple studies conclude that an equal percentage also have their CFA designation, which allows one to determine that the majority of mutual fund managers have adequate education and the ability to generate additional wisdom through reasoning [22]. The industry is top-heavy with highly educated white males, as only 12% of all mutual fund managers are women and according to Highbeam Research only 16 mutual fund managers were African-Americans in 1997. As a result, the quest for knowledge and reasoning in the mutual fund industry is really nothing more than the same tired avenues of research and interpretation of “noise” in a similar fashion to their counterparts at the next money management firm. This is supported by the various studies confirming herding tendencies of mutual fund managers in an attempt to not look bad compared to their peers, instead of seeking optimal investment choices for the investors of the fund [23].
Show more

7 Read more

Developing A Virtue Ethics Scale: Exploratory Survey of Philippine Managers

Developing A Virtue Ethics Scale: Exploratory Survey of Philippine Managers

On Table 1 there is a summarised version of the virtue scale items found in the empirical virtue ethics literature. The Virtue Ethical Character Scale (VECS) of Chun (2005) resulted in 6 virtue dimensions and 24 items. However, the VECS is an organizational virtue scale: it assumed that a personal ethical system can be transferred or attributed to organizations. Since the current study’s premise is that the virtues perspective allows us to discuss the strengths or weaknesses of the character of the individual person, then the scale of Shanahan and Hyman (2003) was selected for purposes of this paper. Their study resulted in an initial listing of 34 virtues of individuals in firms (see Appendix 1) as a result of focus group discussions and questionnaire pretests. They based themselves on Solomon (1999) who provides a workable listing of business virtues. After submitting responses to factor analysis, the six resulting factors were: empathy, Protestant work ethic, piety, respect, reliability, and incorruptibility. It is this listing by Shanahan and Hyman (2003) that is utilised for the current study, by subjecting the survey responses of Philippine managers to factor analysis.
Show more

23 Read more

Virtue Ethics in Marketing FMCGs in East African Common Market

Virtue Ethics in Marketing FMCGs in East African Common Market

This requirement of practicing ethical behavior applies to buyers, sellers, intermediaries and facilitators. The practice of temperance, for instance, behooves every participant in the distribution chain from production to consumption. Virtue ethics in international business has attracted a lot of attention since 2000 onwards, particularly in its contribution to the understanding of evaluating and guiding business consumption practices (Hanley, 2009. The practice of good business ethics can ease the conduct of cross border trade throughout the world. Ethics can bring together firms as well as neighboring countries, and by extension, unite nations. International business virtue ethics focuses more on the integrity of all officers dealing with inter border trade rather than the morality of their decisions or behavior. Although virtue ethics as a philosophical tradition had been relegated to back events, business and other contemporary ethicists have brought it to the forefront of business ethical thinking.
Show more

6 Read more

The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre, Virtue Ethics, and the Historiography of Science

The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre, Virtue Ethics, and the Historiography of Science

accountable. Nonetheless, my success as a community member (one who frequently applies the rules or principles in the right way) depends upon my having come to embody the sensibilities and ways of reasoning common to that community, a process that differs substantively from memorizing formal rules. Nor is it clear that we gain much by claiming that such training is equivalent to learning “tacit” rules that somehow teach me to interpret and apply the explicit rules. Better, in our view and the view of virtue ethics, to insist that memorizing rules and learning to interpret them are two different kinds of processes, and that the latter is far more holistic and dependent on internalizing a wide range of sensibilities and cognitive strategies that are more aptly characterized as dispositions rather than rules. For an example of this perspective, see Rosalind Hursthouse, “Virtue Theory and Abortion,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 20, no. 3 (1991): 223–46.
Show more

27 Read more

The reality of relationships with young people in caring professions: A qualitative approach to professional boundaries rooted in virtue ethics

The reality of relationships with young people in caring professions: A qualitative approach to professional boundaries rooted in virtue ethics

The rigidity of professional boundaries have been critiqued in previous work and alternative models and metaphors have been offered, however few are rooted in empirical research that highlights normative practices. In this article, professional boundaries are examined in light of an ethnographic study into youth work practice in the UK. The quasi- quantitative language around boundaries (e.g. someone is ‘too close’ to a client) can be considered unhelpful and fail to reflect the complex reality of youth workers’ practice (and those of wider caring professions), where relationships between youth worker and young person are based on multiple interrelated aspects. It is suggested, therefore, that a qualitative approach to boundaries is adopted based on interactions that differ in kind rather than quantity. This approach to boundaries is then rooted in virtue ethics to provide a framework that makes the adoption of qualitative professional boundaries plausible.
Show more

27 Read more

Critical Virtue Ethics

Critical Virtue Ethics

The infamous Stanford prison experiment and the Milgram experiment have shaken the faith of those who too optimistically believed in the goodness and moral capacity of human beings. Numerous studies on man‘s propensity to fall prey to manipulation have followed (Milgram 2009). When these studies are discussed today, scholars often also refer to the so called ―Samaritans Experiment‖, which evaluated the degree of helpfulness shown by theology students at the Princeton center of Theological Inquiry when confronted with someone who was in need of support (Darley and Batson 1973). The result of the Samaritans Experiment was that the amount of time pressure that the test subjects were exposed to was the overwhelming factor for predicting their behavior; time pressure influenced the readiness of the test subjects to help far more than any other situational factor or personal trait. When it comes to the question of what one should conclude from these observations, there seem to be three options. First, one could conclude that there simply are no virtues, that is, that there are no morally good character traits and that the renaissance of virtue ethics aims to rehabilitate an ultimately empty concept. This is the conclusion that Gilbert Harman and John Doris have drawn (Doris 2005; Harman 2000; Merrit, Doris, and Harman 2010). Second, one could work towards a defense of virtue ethics, as Christine Swanton and others have done (Swanton 2005). People who argue along these lines have emphasized that virtues are more than character traits that allow one to predict how someone will act. 3 Instead, virtues enable people to respond to the world in an excellent or good enough way, as argued by Christine Swanton. 4 This would include emotional reactions and thus exceed actions that can be observed and measured, and then virtue ethics would not rely on the assumption that virtuous people were immune to extrinsic motivational factors that threaten their virtuousness. Third, one could respond to the critique against virtue ethics by refining the very concept of virtue ethics itself, and indeed this is what I intend to do as I work towards what I would like to call critical virtue ethics. The majority of my article will show how the contemporary critique of
Show more

13 Read more

Virtue Ethics for Christians

Virtue Ethics for Christians

I think that adopting this idea of virtue ethics can help erase the problems that arise from utilitarianism and deontological theories. Virtue ethics is more holistic in its view of the moral agent than are the other theories. The other two theories are atomistic in nature. They take each individual action and hope that a continued series of right actions will lead to a right and moral end in life. Both categories focus on conforming to external rules, but they often miss out on the bigger picture of the overall trajectory of one’s life choices (Stewart, 2009). The ultimate end (telos) or purpose of life is just as important as the individual moments that make up our lives.
Show more

5 Read more

Strategy and virtue : developing strategy as practice through virtue ethics

Strategy and virtue : developing strategy as practice through virtue ethics

With these contributions in mind, to what problems studied by strategy-as-practice might virtue ethics apply? Strategy-as-practice researchers have been keen to show how the making of strategy is shaped by largely taken-for-granted practices (at the levels of the organization and institutional field) on which practitioners draw while ‘doing’ strategy work. What MacIntyrean virtue ethics adds is an enhanced sensitivity concerning the inherent morality of practices as well as an appreciation of the different kinds of practices to be found in organizations and institutional fields, and the implications that follow from this. From a virtue ethics perspective, human behaviors are not viewed as empty of moral content but as already morally constituted by the collective ends agents pursue in the context of practices and the particular virtues (i.e. a moral- cum-affective dispositions) agents have acquired (or not) through habituation in those practices (Park and Peterson, 2003). Thus, looking at particular instances of praxis we can see that practitioners disclose themselves through being driven by a certain conception of what is the right thing to do (i.e. what concept of “the good life” they hold onto) while enacting their practices.
Show more

54 Read more

Virtue Ethics for Relational Beings

Virtue Ethics for Relational Beings

Some of the fault for this misinterpretation lands on Hursthouse's own shoulders. There is a passage in On Virtue Ethics that is likely to mislead. It states that "the truth of [natural goodness] evaluations.... are, in the most straightforward sense of the term, 'objective'; indeed, given that botany, zoology, ethology, etc. are sciences, they are scientific." 61 Sandler is not the only one to have been misled by this passage. David Copp and David Sobel zero in on it and take issue with Hursthouse's "suggest[ion] that her account of natural evaluation has a scientific status." 62 In an earlier passage, however, she mentions that Aristotelian naturalism is not scientific "in any ordinary understanding of the term[ ]," meaning that "[i]t does not seek to establish its conclusions from 'a neutral point of view.'" 63 What Hursthouse means by calling her brand of naturalism "scientific," then, is something other than implying that ethical claims are to be reduced to findings from the natural sciences. We can begin to see why the appeal to scientific naturalism would be a misreading of her view by noting what is conspicuously absent from her claim that there is something scientific about natural goodness: she selects botany, zoology, and ethology as the sciences that best exemplify the scientific nature of natural normativity, but she leaves out biology, behavioural psychology, and neuroscience, even though these would be more evident candidates for fields of inquiry whose deliverances could give us material relevant to a reductionist ethical approach. There is, of course, the "etc." appended at the end of the list, but it is not clear that it is meant to imply a much wider range than what is presented in the list. After all, she defends the claim that natural normativity is scientific by appealing, first, to the use of Aristotelian categoricals as they are employed in "many excellent gardening and nature programmes available on
Show more

162 Read more

Where Are Our Minds and What Are We Thinking - Virtue Ethics for a Perfidious Media

Where Are Our Minds and What Are We Thinking - Virtue Ethics for a Perfidious Media

The report by outsiders on what happened in the case of Mr. Kelley indicates that the pressure for USA Today to scoop papers such as the New York Times created an [r]

69 Read more

Virtue Ethics and Abortion

Virtue Ethics and Abortion

Singer suggests that the argument of abortion has missed the point. He asserts that the debate should focus on if it is wrong to kill an innocent human being instead of arguing whether a fetus is or is not an innocent human being. The Pro-Choice arguments of when personhood begins are vague and, therefore, cannot provide a concrete moment of when personhood starts. Since reason can only go so far in its ability to determine ethics, this paper will explain that Singer also misses the point; rather, striving to be virtuous demonstrates that abortion is morally wrong.

6 Read more

Normativity and Aristotelian virtue ethics: an evaluation and reconciliation

Normativity and Aristotelian virtue ethics: an evaluation and reconciliation

With a picture of human beings as analogous selves in hand, and as ones determine values, we can more clearly outline the whose nature and end between relationship values, general princi[r]

230 Read more

Collaboration in the Supply Chain Management: A Virtue-Ethics Analysis

Collaboration in the Supply Chain Management: A Virtue-Ethics Analysis

Abstract: Supply chain management have a significant role in the firms’ business. In the modern time, collaboration with supply chain partner is very important to fulfil the requirement of customers. In this research paper, we will discuss the dichotomy among the trust building and the use of power in the collaboration of supply chain. In specifically, we find a kind of supply chain interaction we have called “dictatorial collaboration.” This oxymoronic term refers to relationships of business in which one of the entities wields sufficient power “derived from its market position, size, system capabilities and strategic importance, etc.) to force over other companies in its supply chain to provide value added services or perform operational tasks that advantage the leading, dominant company without sharing the gain with the other companies. The results show that that problem of dictatorial supply chain behaviour has, to date, not been much discussed before in the ethics literature, it is our hope that our current performance of this issue gives the motivation for further research, investigation in future and grant, scholarship about the ethics of collaborative relationships in the supply chain management.
Show more

10 Read more

The Virtue of Mandatory Disclosure

The Virtue of Mandatory Disclosure

To better understand these related scholarly movements, Part I of this Article briefly surveys the rise of virtue ethics in modern moral and ethical theory as well as the emergence of the “virtue jurisprudence” movement in legal theory. Part II explores how virtue theory can enrich our understanding of mandatory disclosure laws. To make the discussion a bit more concrete, this Article uses the regulation of con- sumer credit as an example of this aretaic approach to mandatory dis- closure. In particular, this Article addresses whether mandatory disclosure laws could be used to create the conditions necessary for con- sumers to achieve “eudaimonia,” or authentic human flourishing, by fostering virtues such as temperance and prudence. Part III then dis- cusses the major objection to the use of law to inculcate virtue—the value pluralism objection. Basically, this boils down to the notion that the legislative promotion of virtue is incompatible with liberal commit- ments to individual autonomy—the right that we have to choose for ourselves what a good life entails. The Article concludes by arguing that value pluralism need not doom aretaic theories of mandatory dis- closure, at least not in the case of mandatory disclosures that are specifi- cally aimed at the promotion of virtues related to enlightened consumption, such as temperance and prudence, as opposed to more controversial virtues related to sexual and religious orthodoxy.
Show more

33 Read more

Virtue, character and situation

Virtue, character and situation

   See also his statement of this argument in ÔPersons, Situations, and Virtue EthicsÕ: Ôwe are justified in inferring the existence of an Aristotelian personality structure when a personÕs behaviour reliably conforms to the patterns expected on postulation of that structure. In the psychological lexicon, we can say that trait attribution requires substantial cross-situational consistency É If I am right about the experimental data, systematic observation typically reveals failures of cross-situational consistencyÕ (p. 507). When Sreenivasan objects that Doris mistakes evidence of flaws in our everyday trait-attributions for evidence that there are no traits as ordinarily construed (ÔErrors About ErrorsÕ, p. 54), he therefore fails to engage with the central argument Doris provides (but see also p. 56). When Kamtekar claims that such empirical arguments against Ôvirtue ethicsÕ wrongly suppose that traits must be distinctive to the individuals possessing them (ÔSituationism and Virtue Ethics on the Content of Our CharacterÕ, pp. 467-8), she similarly fails to engage with this argument.
Show more

30 Read more

Show all 2522 documents...