Voluntary Exercise

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Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Motor Function in Parkinson's disease Model of Rats

Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Motor Function in Parkinson's disease Model of Rats

Background. Previous surveys have shown that motor deficits precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on PD. Objectives. Here, we evaluated the potential of voluntary exercise to improve motor deficit in experimentally -induced Parkinson’s disease (6-OHDA) rats. Methods. Forty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) untrained-vehicle (2) untrained-Parkinson’s (3) running wheel (RW)-vehicle and (4) RW-Parkinson’s. Exercise groups were given free nocturnal access for over four weeks. The motor function, balance and strength were respectively measured by Rotarod and hanging test. Results. The data showed that voluntary exercise groups had a significant increase in balance (p<0.05) and strength (p<0.05), when compared to control groups. Running wheel improved motor function in animals induced by 6 -OHDA. Conclusion. Thus, our results reinforce the potential of voluntary exercise as a useful tool for reducing motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease.
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Tracking of voluntary exercise behaviour over the lifespan

Tracking of voluntary exercise behaviour over the lifespan

In conclusion, voluntary exercise behaviour in leisure time decreases over age, although this depends on sex, and the type of exercise. Team-based competitive exer- cise activities appear more prone to decay than solitary, non-competitive activities. Tracking coefficients show voluntary exercise behaviour to be a moderate to highly stable behaviour, although this too depends on the age and domain of exercise. Comparing domains over the lifespan non-competitive and internally paced exercise proved to be the most stable domains, in particular in late adulthood. Stability decreases as the distance to follow-up increases, resulting in less carry-over from ex- ercise at young ages to late adulthood. Team-based exer- cise in particular appears to be a poor predictor of the total volume of exercise behaviour in late adulthood. The varying results we found for age-effects, sex-effects, and the longitudinal tracking between the exercise do- mains substantiates the need to examine voluntary exer- cise behaviour as a function of age and sex, and split the activities across the various domains in favour of using a single score summarizing across all domains. For exer- cise interventionists, our results signal that the glass is half full. The substantial stability of this important health behaviour reinforces the existing evidence that exercise habits are hard to change, but at the same time suggests that any successful intervention that leads to the adop- tion of exercise habits stands a good chance to last.
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Functional Genomic Architecture of Predisposition to Voluntary Exercise in Mice: Expression QTL in the Brain

Functional Genomic Architecture of Predisposition to Voluntary Exercise in Mice: Expression QTL in the Brain

In addition to voluntary exercise, dopamine and endo- cannabinoid signaling, among other central nervous system processes, have also been linked to aspects of eating behavior and obesity (Cagniard et al. 2006; Davis et al. 2008; Garland et al. 2011b). The interactions of these re- dundant neural systems are currently poorly understood (Lenard and Berthoud 2008), but it has been demonstrated in mice (Kumar et al. 2010) and humans (Cai et al. 2006) that food intake and physical activity, both components of energy balance, may be governed by a similar underlying genetic architecture. For example, Mathes et al. (2010) ob- served significant differential gene expression, with associ- ated changes in the dopamine pathway (D1 and D2 receptors), G-proteins, and adenylate cyclase in mice selec- tively bred for either high running or obesity relative to a nonselected outbred strain of mice.
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The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress

The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress

Exercised rats used in the present study displayed sig- nificantly increased levels of anxiety compared to seden- tary controls [30]. This was, however, attributed to the stress of being removed from the running wheels on the same day that the OF and EPM tests were performed [30]. Although no effects of stress or exercise on RTL were observed in the present study, an exploratory post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference in RTL in the VH between rats in the MSnR and nMSnR groups, while the RTLs of the MSR and nMSR were virtually indistinguish- able. MSnR rats were found to possess significantly longer telomeres when compared to nMSnR rats. These results are interesting in light of those obtained by Hulshof et al. [41] who found that, although the maternal separation protocol resulted in no overt differences in anxiety-like behaviour between maternally separated and control Wistar rats, maternally separated rats exhibited signifi- cantly reduced cell proliferation in the VH, which the authors suggest could interfere with the normal dev- elopment of the hippocampus. The results from Hulshof et al. [41] corroborated those obtained in previous studies [42,43]. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division; therefore, the lower the proliferative capabilities of the tissue, the longer the telomeres will be. The increase in RTL in MSnR in the present study may thus be indica- tive of reduced cellular proliferation in the VH of those rats, which could indicate alterations in normal develop- ment of this brain region. Although the functional impli- cations of reduced proliferative ability in the VH are currently unknown, the results suggest that voluntary exercise could serve as a buffer against the progressive changes in RTL caused by alterations in maternal care early in life. One way in which exercise may buffer changes in RTL is by moderating the overall burden of oxidative stress on the body, and specifically in the VH, through the upregulation of genes that encode powerful antioxidant enzymes [44]. Indeed, regular, moderate ex- ercise has been shown to increase the body’s endogenous antioxidant activity and its resistance to oxidation [45]. Table 1 PCR efficiencies and correlation coefficients for
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Long-term voluntary exercise, representing habitual exercise, lowers visceral fat and alters plasma amino acid levels in mice

Long-term voluntary exercise, representing habitual exercise, lowers visceral fat and alters plasma amino acid levels in mice

Several biological markers were analyzed, including body weight, food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, organ weight, and blood amino acids. Rodents using a running wheel for short periods are reported to show a suppressed body weight gain and increased food intake [16, 17]. In our study, Ex-mice did show a lower body weight gain than Se-mice; however, they also showed a higher food consumption per body weight than Se-mice during the entire period, suggesting that the energy expenditure of Ex- mice was greater due to exercise. As shown in Table 2, Ex- mice had less visceral adipose tissue and a lower liver weight, consistent with results reported for rats using a running wheel for a shorter period [17]. The weight of the soleus muscle increased after long-term exercise (Table 2), which is in agreement with previous findings [31, 32]. Qualitative muscular change was also examined in this model [31, 32]. Hepatic TG content, but not cholesterol, was significantly reduced in Ex-mice compared to Se-mice (Table 2). Gollisch et al. [17] consistently showed a lower content of hepatic TG in rats using a running wheel for a shorter period, suggesting that voluntary exercise Table 4 Concentrations of
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Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day) plasma triglycerides were lower (p < 0.05), while otherwise lipid and lipoprotein levels did not change. Macrophage cholesterol efflux towards plasma was significantly increased in running (n = 8) compared to sedentary (n = 6) mice (14.93 ± 1.40 vs. 12.33 ± 2.60%, p < 0.05). In addition, fecal excretion of bile acids (3.86 ± 0.50 vs. 2.90 ± 0.51 nmol/d, p = 0.001) and neutral sterols (2.75 ± 0.43 vs. 1.94 ± 0.22 nmol/d, p < 0.01) was significantly higher in running mice. However, RCT from macrophages to feces remained essentially unchanged in running mice compared with sedentary controls (bile acids: 3.2 ± 1.0 vs. 2.9 ± 1.1 % of injected dose, n.s.; neutral sterols: 1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5 % injected dose, n.s.). Judged by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, endogenous cholesterol synthesis was increased in exercising mice (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.11 ± 0.02, p < 0.05), while the hepatic mRNA expression of key transporters for biliary cholesterol (Abcg5/g8, Sr-bI) as well as bile acid (Abcb11) and phospholipd (Abcb4) excretion did not change. These data indicate that the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular health include increased cholesterol efflux, but do not extend to other components of RCT. The increased fecal cholesterol excretion observed in running mice is likely explained by higher endogenous cholesterol synthesis, however, it does not reflect increased RCT in the face of unchanged expression of key transporters for biliary sterol secretion.
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Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel running

Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel running

Performance during voluntary exercise was measured using the protocol and equipment reported in Chappell et al. (2004), which also provides figures and URLs for photographs of the setup. Briefly, we enclosed one of the wheels (circumference 1.12·m) and its attached standard plastic mouse cage, as used in the routine selection protocol, within an airtight Lucite housing. Mice could enter and exit the wheel at will through an access port cut into the side of the mouse cage. The mouse cage contained bedding (wood shavings), a food hopper and a drinking tube. Food and water were available ad libitum during measurements.
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Regional effects of voluntary exercise on cell size and contraction frequency responses in rat cardiac myocytes

Regional effects of voluntary exercise on cell size and contraction frequency responses in rat cardiac myocytes

We studied the effects of voluntary exercise on regional myocyte contractility. Cells were stimulated at 1–9 Hz at 37 °C to encompass the physiological heart rates of rats (Overton et al., 1986). We found no difference in cell shortening between (ENDO and EPI) left ventricular myocytes isolated from trained and sedentary rat hearts at any frequency of stimulation. This means that the exercise model employed in the present study did not affect the amplitude of myocyte contraction. These results are in agreement with those of Laughlin et al. (Laughlin et al., 1992), who demonstrated no effect of training on myocyte contractility, but are in contrast with those reported by Moore et al. (Moore et al., 1993), who demonstrated an increased cell shortening in myocytes isolated from trained rat hearts (at an external Ca 2+ concentration of
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Impact of voluntary exercise and housing conditions on hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor, miR 124 and anxiety

Impact of voluntary exercise and housing conditions on hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor, miR 124 and anxiety

Nr3c1 expression in the hippocampus [Pearson’s r (29) = −0.440, p = 0.0170] (Fig. 2b). These results suggest that exercise might increase psychological resilience in single-housed mice (via an increase in hippocampal Nr3c1 expression) while pair-housing might be more stressful than single-housing. This is the first time an increase in Nr3c1 as result of exercise is reported in the hippocampus. Moreover, our results are in agreement with previous ob- servations that exercise prevented the decrease in gluco- corticoid receptor in the hippocampus in single-housed Zucker diabetic fatty rats [35]. As Nr3c1 is a transcription factor, changes in Nr3c1 expression will probably affect expression of Nr3c1 responsive genes. Nr3c1 belongs to the family of ligand regulated nuclear receptors. Upon binding to glucocorticoids Nr3c1 becomes activated, translocates into the nucleus and binds to response ele- ments in the promoter regions of genes. While direct binding of activated Nr3c1 to the DNA stimulates gene transcription, Nr3c1 can also inhibit gene expression via transrepression of other transcription factors [36]. The course of transcriptional activation/repression by Nr3c1 is highly dynamic and varies depending on the length of glucocorticoid stimulation. Exercise produces acute in- crease in circulating glucocorticoids [37]. Acute activation of hippocampal Nr3c1 by glucocorticoids results in con- secutive waves of gene expression [38]. One hour after
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Voluntary exercise delays heart failure onset in rats with pulmonary artery hypertension.

Voluntary exercise delays heart failure onset in rats with pulmonary artery hypertension.

MCT 213 treated animals with voluntary access to exercise wheels, taken prior to the onset of failure EM 214 have values intermediate between the control SC, EC and failing SF, EF, group[r]

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Moderate Exercise Has Limited but Distinguishable Effects on the Mouse Microbiome

Moderate Exercise Has Limited but Distinguishable Effects on the Mouse Microbiome

ABSTRACT The gut microbiome is known to have a complex yet vital relationship with host health. While both exercise and the gut microbiome have been shown to impact human health independently, the direct effects of moderate exercise on the intestinal microbiota remain unclear. In this study, we compared gut microbial diver- sity and changes in inflammatory markers associated with exercise over an 8-week period in mice that performed either voluntary exercise (VE) (n ⫽ 10) or moderate forced exercise (FE) (n ⫽ 11) and mice that did not perform any exercise (n ⫽ 21). VE mice, but not FE mice, had increased food intake and lean body mass compared to sedentary mice. The levels of inflammatory markers associated with exercise were similar for mice in all three groups. Traditional microbial profiles comparing opera- tional taxonomic units (OTUs) in samples (P ⬎ 0.1) and multivariate analysis of beta diversity via Adonis testing (P ⬎ 0.1) did not identify significantly altered taxonomic profiles in the voluntary or forced exercise group compared to the sedentary con- trols. However, a random forests machine learning model, which takes into account the relationships between bacteria in a community, classified voluntary exercisers and nonexercisers with 97% accuracy at 8 weeks. The top bacteria used by the model allowed us to identify known taxa (Bacteroides, S24-7, and Lactobacillus) and novel taxa (Rikenellaceae and Lachnospiraceae) associated with exercise. Although aerobic exercise in mice did not result in significant changes of abundance in gut microbes or in host inflammatory response, more sophisticated computational meth- ods could identify some microbial shifts. More study is needed on the effects of vari- ous exercise intensities and their impact on the gut microbiome.
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Human behavioral temperature regulation : an exercise approach : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph D ), School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Human behavioral temperature regulation : an exercise approach : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph D ), School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Behavior is generally considered to be the most effective (Parsons 2003) and limitless (Benzinger 1969) form of temperature regulation. Classic examples include, but are not limited to, adding or removing clothing, changing body positions, and adjusting the thermostat in a room. Notably, voluntary exercise is also a mode of thermoregulatory behavior (Mercer 2001), with voluntary muscular work in a cold environment resulting in the attainment of thermal comfort (Caputa and Cabanac 1980). However, rarely during exercise is producing enough heat a problem; more often it is the dissipation of this metabolic heat that challenges (temperature) regulation. Accordingly, self-paced exercise in the heat has been suggested as a model to evaluate thermoregulatory behavior (Budd 2001; Flouris 2010; Chapter 6; Morante and Brotherhood 2008) (Chapter Six). This model states that the compensability of the thermal environment can be manipulated by the exerciser through self-selected adjustments in the rate of metabolic heat production, i.e. exercise intensity (Chapter Five and Chapter Six). This behavior permits successful completion of the exercise task; however as a consequence, exercise performance in the heat is reduced relative to more moderate thermal conditions (Marino et al. 2004; Marino et al. 2000; Tatterson et al. 2000; Tucker et al. 2004).
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Aerobic capacity and running performance across a 1 6 km altitude difference in two sciurid rodents

Aerobic capacity and running performance across a 1 6 km altitude difference in two sciurid rodents

Which of the two approaches is most realistic for estimating COT in free-living animals moving over complex terrain (as is typical of our study sites) remains an open question. However, in both golden- mantled ground squirrels and least chipmunks, the running-wheel data yielded lower iCOT than an allometric equation [eqn 9 in Taylor et al. (Taylor et al., 1982)] predicting V O2 from speed and body mass (Fig. 4). Although intercepts derived from allometry tended to be less than what we observed, at all but the lowest speeds the total energy cost during running in our two species was less than predicted. In the only species for which treadmill and wheel-running COT were measured in the same individuals (Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus) (Chappell et al., 2007b), voluntary wheel- running COT was also lower than treadmill COT. However, in gerbils the low COT in voluntary exercise was due to a substantially lower intercept compared with forced exercise values instead of a reduced iCOT.
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Hippocampal TET1 and TET2 expression and DNA hydroxymethylation are affected by physical exercise in aged mice

Hippocampal TET1 and TET2 expression and DNA hydroxymethylation are affected by physical exercise in aged mice

dioxygenases (TET1, TET2, and TET3). Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to being an intermediate in active demethylation, 5hmC may also have an epigenetic role. 5hmC is enriched in the adult brain, where it has been implicated in regulating neurogenesis. The rate of adult neurogenesis decreases with age, however physical exercise has been shown to counteract this deficit. Here, we investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on the age-related changes of TET1, TET2, expression and 5hmC content in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. For this purpose, we used voluntary exercise in young adult (3 months) and aged (18 months) mice as a rodent model of healthy brain aging. We measured the levels of hippocampal and hypothalamic TET1, TET2 mRNA, and 5hmC and memory [Object Location (OL) test] in mice that either exercised for 1 month or remained sedentary. While aging was associated with decreased TET1 and TET2 expression, voluntary exercise counteracted the decline in expression. Moreover, aged mice that exercised had higher hippocampal 5hmC content in the promoter region of miR-137, an miRNA involved in adult neurogenesis. Exercise improved memory in aged mice, and there was a positive correlation between 5hmC miR-137 levels and performance in the OL test. In the hypothalamus neither exercise nor aging affected TET1 or TET2 expression. These results suggest that exercise partially restores the age-related decrease in hippocampal TET1 and TET2 expression, which may be linked to the improvement in memory. Future studies should further determine the specific genes where changes in 5hmC levels may mediate the exercise-induced improvements in memory and neurogenesis in aged animals.
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Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy

Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy

cer, and neurodegenerative disease (53). The beneficial protective effects of voluntary exercise are evident from different mouse models of neurodegenerative disease which, upon exercise, show delayed onset of neurological deficits (14), decreased amyloid load (13), and significantly decreased levels of neural amyloid deposits (15). Moreover, evidence from observational and randomized trials also demonstrates that regular exercise contributes to primary, sec- ondary, and tertiary prevention of cardiovascular disease (54, 55). In the present study, we sought to determine whether the effects of exercise and autophagic induction by ATG7 expression were additive or even synergistic. We chose the voluntary cage wheel as the exercise intervention because it avoids the physical and psycho- logical stressors associated with forced exercise paradigms (20). Voluntary exercise is relatively mild in nature, compared with more intense forced exercise models (56), and had little or no effect on LV mass across genotypes, as assessed by echocardiography (Figure 8, C–E). As we previously showed (20), long-term voluntary exercise increased the survival probability of CryAB R120G ×tTA mice to 50%,
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Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea: Gold Standard for Diagnosing Exercise Induced Bronchoconstriction in Athletes?

Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea: Gold Standard for Diagnosing Exercise Induced Bronchoconstriction in Athletes?

To achieve this aim, electronic searches were under- taken in the MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases. The registers were searched using the terms ‘eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea’, ‘eucap- nic voluntary hyperpnoea’, ‘eucapnic voluntary hyper- ventilation’, and ‘EVH’ from the date of inception to July 2015. The search strategy yielded 612 articles (PubMed 200, ISI Web of Science 359, The Cochrane Library 53). Following the removal of duplicates, two independent reviewers selected papers of potential interest on the basis of titles and abstracts for a full-text assessment. Furthermore, reference lists of included studies, recent reviews, and textbooks were hand sear- ched for relevant citations. This search resulted in 61 manuscripts that were considered relevant for the aim of this review.
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Inconsistent calculation methodology for the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test affects the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

Inconsistent calculation methodology for the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test affects the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

All participants completed an EVH challenge to screen for EIB. Since participants only mimic the breathing of a high-intensity exercise bout without actually conducting any form of exercise, some researchers refer to the EVH challenge as a tool to screen for bronchial hyper-responsiveness instead of EIB. Due to the ATS and the IOC describing the EVH challenge as a vali- dated test to screen for EIB, we will use this term for the purpose of this manuscript. A subset of 41 well-trained cyclists completed a 10 km cycle time trial (TT) on a separate test day with pre-TT and post-TT spirometry. The EVH challenge and the TT were completed in the same laboratory with a washout period of a minimum of 3 days, and a maximum of 2 weeks. Predicted spiro- metric values were obtained following Crapo et al. 20 For
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Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running

Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running

Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel-running behaviour in four replicate lines has produced mice that run almost three times more revolutions per day than four unselected control lines. Before the start of the selection experiment, it was hypothesized that the evolution of high voluntary running would entail both increases in physical capacities for exercise and changes in the brain that affect motivation, willingness to run or the reward perceived from running (e.g. Friedman et al., 1992; Garland, 2003; Swallow et al., 2009). Changes in the brain have clearly occurred and seem to indicate motivational alterations in the HR lines (e.g. Rhodes et al., 2005; Keeney et al., 2008; Rhodes and Kawecki, 2009). Previously, we reported that HR mice have elevated V O2max during forced treadmill exercise (Swallow et al., 1998b; Rezende et al., 2006a; Rezende et al., 2006b). Here, we report for the first time that HR mice of both sexes have elevated treadmill endurance-running capacity compared with C mice. Thus, the results of this mouse selection experiment are consistent with findings from a selection experiment using rats in which bidirectional selection for treadmill endurance has led to corresponding divergence between the up- and down-selected lines in both V O2max and voluntary wheel running (Waters et al., 2008). The mechanistic basis of high endurance is multifactorial (Myburgh, 2003), but in the HR lines it appears to lie partly in their elevated V O2max (Swallow et al., 1998b; Rezende et al., 2006a; Rezende et al., 2006b; Rezende et al., 2006c), increased insulin-
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Diagnosing exercise induced bronchoconstriction with eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea: is one test enough?

Diagnosing exercise induced bronchoconstriction with eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea: is one test enough?

This finding has implications for the clinical utility and application of EVH as a bronchoprovocation challenge in the diagnosis of EIB; specifically when it is utilised in a population [r]

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Using ultrasound to assess the thickness of the transversus abdominis in a sling exercise

Using ultrasound to assess the thickness of the transversus abdominis in a sling exercise

pregnancy using sling exercises. Vasseljen et al. [10] fo- cused on the correlation of the increase in TrA thickness and the level of low back pain. The pain reduction was correlated with an increased activation of the TrA and a decreased activation of the obliquus internus abdominis. Lee et al. [11] published a systematic review on the effect- iveness of sling exercise therapies for the treatment of low back pain, and reported significant differences in the acti- vation of the abdominal muscles, but no significant differ- ences in pain reduction and disability against other forms of treatment. The sling condition used in our study was intended to represent a standardized exercise to activate the TrA, bearing in mind the above evidences concerning the treatment of low back pain.
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