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The Study of Waste Water Treatment of CETP

The Study of Waste Water Treatment of CETP

IJSRR, 8(1) Jan. – Mar., 2019 Page 3022 ferric (iron) salts, which bond to the suspended particles, making them less stable in suspension, i.e., more likely to settle out. Flocculation is the binding or physical enmeshment of these destabilized particles, and results in flocks that is heavier than water, which settles out in a clarifier. 10 The Concept of CETP is different from STP in two aspects: homogeneity and biodegradability. Composition of effluents from different industries varies widely depending on process and products. When mixed effluent from different industries the nature of effluent becomes heterogeneous and treatment process becomes challenge. The organic compounds present in industrial effluent are hard to biodegrade compared to domestic waste water. 11 The use of constructed wetlands is now being recognized as an efficient technology for wastewater treatment. Compared to the conventional treatment systems, constructed wetlands need lesser material and energy, are easily operated, have no sludge disposal problems and can be maintained by untrained personnel. 12 An estimated 38354 million liters per day (MLD) sewage is generated in major cities of India, but the sewage treatment capacity is only of 11786 MLD. In Delhi around 3296 MLD (Million Liters per day) of sewage is dumped in the River. 13 The treatment methods adapted in these plants are dissolved air floatation, dual media filter, activated carbon filter, sand filtration and tank stabilization, flash mixer, clariflocculator, secondary clarifiers and Sludge drying beds, etc. Coarse material and settable solids are removed during primary treatments by screening, grit removal and sedimentation. Treated industrial waste water from CETPs mixed disposed in rivers. One of the major problems with waste water treatment methods is that none of the available technologies has a direct economic return. Due to no economic return, local authorities are generally not interested in taking up waste water treatment. 14
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International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews The Study of Waste Water Treatment of CETP

International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews The Study of Waste Water Treatment of CETP

IJSRR, 8(1) Jan. – Mar., 2019 Page 3022 ferric (iron) salts, which bond to the suspended particles, making them less stable in suspension, i.e., more likely to settle out. Flocculation is the binding or physical enmeshment of these destabilized particles, and results in flocks that is heavier than water, which settles out in a clarifier. 10 The Concept of CETP is different from STP in two aspects: homogeneity and biodegradability. Composition of effluents from different industries varies widely depending on process and products. When mixed effluent from different industries the nature of effluent becomes heterogeneous and treatment process becomes challenge. The organic compounds present in industrial effluent are hard to biodegrade compared to domestic waste water. 11 The use of constructed wetlands is now being recognized as an efficient technology for wastewater treatment. Compared to the conventional treatment systems, constructed wetlands need lesser material and energy, are easily operated, have no sludge disposal problems and can be maintained by untrained personnel. 12 An estimated 38354 million liters per day (MLD) sewage is generated in major cities of India, but the sewage treatment capacity is only of 11786 MLD. In Delhi around 3296 MLD (Million Liters per day) of sewage is dumped in the River. 13 The treatment methods adapted in these plants are dissolved air floatation, dual media filter, activated carbon filter, sand filtration and tank stabilization, flash mixer, clariflocculator, secondary clarifiers and Sludge drying beds, etc. Coarse material and settable solids are removed during primary treatments by screening, grit removal and sedimentation. Treated industrial waste water from CETPs mixed disposed in rivers. One of the major problems with waste water treatment methods is that none of the available technologies has a direct economic return. Due to no economic return, local authorities are generally not interested in taking up waste water treatment. 14
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Design of Water Treatment Plant

Design of Water Treatment Plant

The design of water treatment plant for Peelarmozhi village has been completed. Water quality analysis showed excess amount of iron and MPN value .They can be mitigated by aeration , sedimentation, and filtration and disinfection. All other chemical parameters were within the limits. Design of treatment plant consist of pump house , cascade aerator, flash mixer, clariflocculator, rapid sand filter ,water storage tanks ( ground level & overhead tank) . A working model of treatment unit in SCADA software marked the end of the project.
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A REVIEW ON WATER AND SEWAGE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS

A REVIEW ON WATER AND SEWAGE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS

In ancient Greek and Sanskrit (India) writings dating back to 2000 BC, water treatment methods were recommended. People back than knew that heating water might purify it, and they were also educated in sand and gravel filtration, boiling, and straining. After 1500 BC, the Egyptians first discovered the principle of coagulation. They applied the chemical alum for suspended particle settlement.After 500 BC, Hippocrates discovered the healing powers of water. He invented the practice of sieving water, and obtained the first bag filter. In 300-200 BC, Rome built its first aqueducts. Archimedes invented his water screw.During the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD). In 1627 the water treatment history continued as Sir Francis Bacon started experimenting with seawater desalination. He attempted to remove salt particles by means of an unsophisticated form of sand filtration. In the 1700s the first water filters for domestic application were applied. These were made of wool, sponge and charcoal. In 1804 the first actual municipal water treatment plant designed by Robert Thom, was built in Scotland. In 1854 it was discovered that a cholera epidemic spread through water. The
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Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

There is a significant need for novel advanced water technolo- gies, in particular to ensure a high quality of drinking water, eliminate micropollutants, and intensify industrial production processes by the use of flexibly adjustable water treatment systems. Nanoengineered materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts, offer the potential for novel water technologies that can be easily adapted to customer-specific applications. Most of them are compatible with existing treatment technologies and can be integrated simply in conventional modules. One of the most important advantages of nanomaterials when compared with conventional water technologies is their ability to integrate various properties, resulting in multifunctional systems such as nanocomposite membranes that enable both particle reten- tion and elimination of contaminants. Further, nanomaterials enable higher process efficiency due to their unique characteristics, such as a high reaction rate.
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A review: waste water treatment

A review: waste water treatment

The quality of water is vital concern for mankind since it is directly linked with human health. It is a matter of history that pollution of drinking water cause water born dieses which wipe out the entire population of cities. Polluted water is one of the issue with all of the chemical industries because it is discharge directly to the river and sea. So it is required to do the treatment of waste water which is generated in chemical industry and discharge it in specification given by pollution control board. One of the major aspects in the treated water is necessity of oxygen. The concentration of oxygen in water should be optimum. For this major oxygen demand is divided in to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. For maintaining the oxygen content in water as well as some other nutrient and elements, the waste water treatment is required. Waste water treatment is divided in the three distinguished treatments. (1) Primary treatments (2) Secondary treatments (3). Tertiary treatments.
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Modelling and development of laboratory based portable water treatment plant

Modelling and development of laboratory based portable water treatment plant

State space equations were developed from mass balance equations [10]. The state space equations for coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes are given in equations 8, 9 and 10. The state and the output equation for the laboratory based water treatment plant are given in equation 11 and 12 respectively. In the three unit processes detention time is considered as an important parameter.

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Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

The trend observed in the concentrations of both Uranium-235 and Radium-226 radionuclides from waste water entering the treatment plant ( 235 U = 9.75 Bq/L and 226 Ra = 5.44 Bq/L) to the effluent ( 235 U = 16 Bq/L and 226 Ra = 5.56 Bq/L) in Table 3 may be an indication of poor efficiency of the employed water treatment method in re- moving the radionuclides. This could cause the respective radionuclides which naturally have long half-lives ( 235 U = 700 million and 226 Ra = 1600 years) to accumulate in the system over time leading to further contamina- tion of water during processing. Furthermore, it was previously noted that effluents delivered into the Setumo dam (source of water for domestic use) are of poor quality, and which eventually reduces the efficiency of the final water treatment at Mmbatho water treatment plant [11]. This could be a contributing factor to the excee- dingly high concentrations of the radionuclides in the community water ( 235 U = 73.8 Bq/L and 226 Ra = 47 Bq/L). This is in addition to probable contamination of the community water delivery system as a result of previous ra- dionuclide accumulations, which in turn may contaminate the delivered water. It has been reported that most water treatment methods generate waste products containing concentrated radionuclides which if not properly handled or treated, become a source of radiation in itself [12]. However, the studies of [3] in South India showed that water treatment by reverse osmosis reduced the concentrations of natural radionuclides in drinking water. The high activity concentration of uranium and radium nuclides observed in this study agrees with reports of [13], who also noted high dose contributions of radium (48.0% ± 27.9%) and uranium (20.3% ± 14.1%) in drinking water in Italy. Evaluation of activity concentration of 226 Ra in drinking waters from oil fields and host communities in Nigeria revealed average concentration that was well above the WHO permissible levels [6]. Uranium and radium are natural radionuclides of practical importance in terms of drinking water due to their ef- fects on health. Radium tends to accumulate in the bony skeleton leading to increased risk of bone cancer par- ticularly when the activity concentration is above 0.42 Bq/L. Uranium has affinity for kidneys and liver making its chemical toxicity to be of greater concern than the radiological cancer risk. Short term risk of renal damage may occur with activity concentration of uranium greater than 18 Bq/L of drinking water [8]. The estimated an- nual intake dose and the total annual radiation dose ( μSv∙yr −1 ) resulting from consumption of 235 U and 226 Ra in drinking water are presented in Table 4.
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Waste Water Treatment by Algae

Waste Water Treatment by Algae

Waste water treatment is gaining much importance in recent years with the intension of reusing it. For the treatment of wastewater large amount of materials are to be supplemented. Nutrient rich wastewater instead of discharging into environment is supplemented for the growth of algae in the wastewater treatment. Thus nutrients can be reused and wastewater can be treated and thus reducing the negative impacts. As the algae takes up N and P, the wastewater can be treated with algae. This paper explains wastewater treatment by macroalgal species.
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ASSESSMENT OF GARBAGE ENZYME’S EFFICIENCY FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

ASSESSMENT OF GARBAGE ENZYME’S EFFICIENCY FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

Domestic sewageis one of the major point source pollution specially in Indian society. The waste water from households are directly discharged in to rivers or any natural streams which pollutes the river and the natural streams. According to a survey in India there is not sufficient WTP( Waste water treatment plant) as per requirement. So the use of garbage is an alternative solution for treatment of waste water. Garbage enzyme are protein molecule which catalyse the chemical reaction which are taking place in waste water. Garbage enzyme used for treatment of waste water is a very eco-friendly and sustainable way treatment of waste water because organic wastes are used in the making of garbage enzyme which catalyse the rate of chemical reaction in waste water. So organic wastes which disposed in open area causes nuisance to the environment are used in making the garbage enzyme to treat the waste water.Garbage enzyme solution was developed by Dr.Rosukon from Thailand. She has been actively involved in enzyme research for more than 30 years and encourages people to make garbage enzyme at home to ease global warming. It is a mind boggling natural substance of protein chains and mineral salts and adolescent hormones. The elements of Garbage is to determine (break down), (change), and catalyze the responses. The treatment of waste water with trash chemical is in minimal effort when contrasted with the traditional waste water treatment since natural squanders are accessible in bounty and molasses or dark colored sugar are effectively accessible in ease. The main disservices of trash chemical is that its takes approx. a quarter of a year for getting ready.
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Study of the Magnetic Water Treatment Mechanism

Study of the Magnetic Water Treatment Mechanism

The main problem of widespread introduction of magnetic water treatment (MWT) in the processes of water and wastewater treatment is the lack of modern research aimed at studying the mechanisms of MWT effects, in particular the influence on the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions. This study explains the effect of MWT taking into account the physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions due to the presence of the quantum differences in water molecules. All of the MWT effects are related to the change in the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions. It is due to the presence of two types of water molecule isomers and their libra- tional oscillations. The result of MWT is a violation of the synchronism of para-isomers vibrations, with the sub- sequent destruction of ice-like structures due to the receiving of energy from collisions with other water molecules (ortho-isomers). One of the most important MWT effects includes the change in the nature and speed of the physi- cochemical processes in aqueous solutions by increasing the number of more physically and chemically active ortho-isomers. The MWT parameters specified in the work allow explaining the nature of most MWT effects and require developing the scientific and methodological principles for the implementation of the MWT process and mathematical modeling of the MWT process in the water and wastewater treatment. It can be used in the design of the MWT devices taking into account the constructive and mode parameters of MWT devices.
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Waste Water Treatment (Treatment and Re Use of Waste Water)

Waste Water Treatment (Treatment and Re Use of Waste Water)

promoted the misuse of water resources. Many industries have their own tube wells to augment their PHED provided water supply to ensure that their factories continue to operate. Figure-3 Shows the sewerage network coverage in Jaipur city. There are fiv Study Area 25 The entire area under the Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) is served by the wastewater collection network and two wastewater treatment plants in the north at Brahampuri and Jaisinghpura Khor on Delhi road, and at Delwas in south Jaipur. In addition, JMC has given Man Sagar Lake on lease for a period of 99 years to the Kothari Group, a business enterprise that has established a water treatment plant for its own use, and also supports conservation of the lake. JDA also plans to increase the capacity of the Vidhyadhar Nagar STP, and proposes a new plant in Vaishali Nagar. However, the tributary areas of Bambala Pulia and Kho Nagoriyan are not served with a wastewater treatment facility. Figure - 3 Sewage Network Coverage in Jaipur City Study Area 26 Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations to remove solids, organic matter and, sometimes, nutrients from wastewater. General terms used to describe different degrees of treatment, in order of increasing treatment level, are preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment.
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Design of Water Treatment Plant

Design of Water Treatment Plant

earth. The availability of water varies among different places. In some places the quality and quantity of water obtained is not satisfactory. Due to population explosion water demand increased to its peak limit which in turn lead to scarcity of water. Many of the places in Kerala are seriously affected by these problem due to lack of an efficient water supply system. Careful examination of water sources and proper treatment of water with an efficient water supply system can overcome these problems to a great extent. In this project we have planned to design an efficient water treatment plant which makes the water useful for drinking purpose. This project deals with the design of various components of water treatment plant at Peelarmozhi , Chalakudy. The water from Kappathodu canal is directed to the pond near the site by constructing a weir across the canal and the water undergoes proper treatment before it is dispatched.
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Investigation Work Carried Out at Nidubrolu Water Treatment Plant

Investigation Work Carried Out at Nidubrolu Water Treatment Plant

exerting stress on civic authorities to provide basic necessities such as safe drinking water, sanitation and infrastructure. The rapid growth of population has exerted the portable water demand, which requires exploration of raw water sources, developing treatment and distribution systems. There is a need to study the water treatment plants for their operational status and to discover the best feasible mechanism to ensure proper drinking water production with least possible rejects and its management. This case study has been conducted to evaluate the process of treatment and to find out the problems of drinking water treatment process in the plant situated at Nidubrolu, Ponnur. In general, conventional treatment is provided having a sequence of alum addition, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation; filtration and disinfection by chlorination. Water treatment plants are playing an important role in purification and supply of pure water to the people. In this present study the operation and maintenance of water treatment plant located in Nidubrolu, Ponnur mandal Guntur(District) is carried out and the needs to be updated for the current requirements of the people is discussed.
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Waste Water Treatment (Treatment and Re Use of Waste Water)

Waste Water Treatment (Treatment and Re Use of Waste Water)

promoted the misuse of water resources. Many industries have their own tube wells to augment their PHED provided water supply to ensure that their factories continue to operate. Figure-3 Shows the sewerage network coverage in Jaipur city. There are fiv Study Area 25 The entire area under the Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) is served by the wastewater collection network and two wastewater treatment plants in the north at Brahampuri and Jaisinghpura Khor on Delhi road, and at Delwas in south Jaipur. In addition, JMC has given Man Sagar Lake on lease for a period of 99 years to the Kothari Group, a business enterprise that has established a water treatment plant for its own use, and also supports conservation of the lake. JDA also plans to increase the capacity of the Vidhyadhar Nagar STP, and proposes a new plant in Vaishali Nagar. However, the tributary areas of Bambala Pulia and Kho Nagoriyan are not served with a wastewater treatment facility. Figure - 3 Sewage Network Coverage in Jaipur City Study Area 26 Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations to remove solids, organic matter and, sometimes, nutrients from wastewater. General terms used to describe different degrees of treatment, in order of increasing treatment level, are preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment.
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Wetland Biodiversity For Water Treatment

Wetland Biodiversity For Water Treatment

Microorganisms can metabolise, absorb and adsorb pollutants in their cells/cell walls. The metabolic rates of fungi are higher (50-250 cal/kg/ hour) than that of bacteria (33 cal/kg/hour). This indicates fungi can effectively biodegrade high strength wastes better than bacteria. Bacterial extracellular capsular polysaccharides as well as metabolites can non-specifically bind metal ions. Algal metabolism causes changes in water chemistry that includes oxygenation of the water column (Van) increases in pH and decreased concentration of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (Browder). Algae contribute to wetland nutrient cycles by removing dissolved organic matter (Hall) and nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria.
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Implementation of Effluent Treatment Plants for Waste Water Treatment

Implementation of Effluent Treatment Plants for Waste Water Treatment

This work is aimed at giving emphasis on the present pollution scenario in Bangladesh due to textile effluent and the consequent solution of the problem by installation of effluent treatment plant. Though the medium and small-scale in- dustrial activities have a positive impact on the economy of our country, the increasing industrialization is contributing severe pollution to the environment by the toxic waste discharge. The liquid effluents from industries are causing a ma- jor havoc to the environment, ecology, agriculture, aquaculture and public health since the development of textile in- dustries in the country. So, it is time to give a pause to the pollution and phase it out gradually to protect the river sys- tem. It had become a prerequisite to set up ETP in each industrial establishment, particularly at dyeing industries that were discharging huge amount of liquid waste to the rivers every day. Since the highest number of factories is of textile category and these types of factories play a major role in polluting the nature, Government’s main focus is on the textile mills and industries related to textile. But, for the successful implementation of ETPs, industry owners will have to be socially responsible and at the same time, government should provide the factory owners with logistic supports and re- laxed timeframe to set up ETPs.
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Design And Development Of Portable Water Treatment System

Design And Development Of Portable Water Treatment System

5 The both processes and procedure are producing the desired same results [2]. Next, there is two main physical process of the system that is scrubbing action and oxidation of certain gases. The function of the scrubbing action is to mix the water and air together. Therefore, the process can be faster as the scrubbing action physically remove the gases from the any solution in water. This situation enhance them to escape into surrounding air. As this process need only the oxygen gases, the scrubbing action can remove the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Indirectly, it remove the water from taste and odour problem. Meanwhile, the oxidation process is the phase of removal of certain mineral and gases from the water. Then, the process produced the unwanted material in the water. The suspended material can be remove by the filtration process. In holistic, the efficiency of the aeration process depending on the amount of the surfaces contact between the water and air.
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Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Temperature: Among, factors affecting the efficiency of floating raft treatment, temperature are most important which play a vital role in plant’s growth and reproduction. Temperature is positively correlated with plant’s purifying capacity, when the temperature is high, floating bed plant’s growth and their metabolism is vigorous and plant’s purifying effect of water pollutants is obviously improved and as the plant become more healthy, they accumulates more pollutants in their tissues. It was observed that, when the water temperature was increased from 2°C to 29°C, canna’s removal rates of TN (Total Nitrogen) and TP (Total Phosphorus) were distinctly increased by 57% and 63%, respectively as compare to at 2°C. When the temperature was raised beyond 10°C, canna removal rate of TP and TN inform wastewater obviously in-creases; and when the temperature was lower than 10°C, canna’s growth rate was at a standstill (Zhen et al., 2008; Luo et al., 2010). In another researchit was ob-served that cress floating bed’s and water cress floating bed’s removal rates of TN and TP from eutrophic water at22°C were clearly higher than that of at 10°C and 35°C (Hu et al., 2010); Eichhorniacrassipes floating bed’s removal rates of TN and TP from eutrophic water at 25°C was higher than that of 15°C and 35°C temperature. It was also observed that, plant’s removal rates of TN and TP were not proportional to the temperature, but the temperature was very important factor that affect to the floating bed plant’s biomass and more the plant biomass, more will be accumulation of pollutants (Liu et al., 2013). As discussed in above paragraph, plant’s growth rate was different at different temperatures and the growth of plants were very good at the optimum temperature condition and its purifying effect for polluted water was obvious mare as compare to very high or low temperature conditions where plant’s growth was restrained, thereby plant’s purifying effect of polluted wastewater was influenced greatly by temperature.
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Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Rajendra B. Magar (2017) defines that the roots of Water hyacinths (WH) naturally absorb pollutants including lead, mercury, and strontium90, as well as some organic compounds which are carcinogenic and have concentrations of approximately 10,000 time that is present as in generically found water. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of WH in two different type of sewer or drainage line, one from water closet and another from bath or shower room. Further, the reading for various parameters like Potential of hydrogen (pH), Turbidity, Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride and colour has been periodically taken every 24 hrs for 5 days. The effect of WH has resulted in significant decrease in turbidity and due to which the reduction of flocs and reduction in organic matters in water have been observed.
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