Women participation in politics in Nigeria and many parts of Africais lower compared to men. Inrecent times, women consciousness of politics, campaigning and contesting elective positions are improving. These roles have enjoyed scant attention among existing literature. This paper, therefore, investigates language use on posters of selected female politicians towards elections so as to identify their context, themes, linguistic features, and strategies. Data were collected from fourteen campaign posters of selected female politicians from Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, and Osun between 2007 and 2015. Six campaign posters of three female political leaders from Liberia, America, and Germany were also used. Analysis was carried out in line with Van Dyke‟s (1999) model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).The Nigerian female politicians appealed to religious sentiments, family heritage and gender-based emotion, unlike their counterparts, whose emphases were intellectual and technical competence, purposeful agenda, and experience which promotes their suitability or otherwise for the positions aspired. Nigerian women need to de-emphasise the sentiments of gender, family affiliation and emotion as campaign‟s strategies through which they can secure election victory and significantly contribute towards building a technologically, economically, and ideally democratically developed society.
Abstract- This study examines women- versus-womenlanguage use to underscore the fact that women languages are never neutral but embody ideologies and power relations. Literature is filled with men versus women discourses with more of stereotypical conclusions about womenlanguage use, leading to voicelessness in respect of women versus women subjugation. Using the tool of Critical Discourse Analysis, this study examined some excerpts from a Nigerian film titled A Little Lie to underscore some systems of bias and subjugation in some women’s language against their sisters. The analysis of the womenlanguage use showed evidences of superiority/inferiority and domination of some women by other women as a result of childlessness The study recommends that the identity of a woman among her peers should not be determined by whether she has a child or not. In addition, an intentional effort be made to throw in voices into this voiceless area by feminists’ proponents, in order to liberate some of these women who are treated as less than a human by other women.
The course of life of women and men has been continuing differently in almost all societies and all fields for ages. The different functions, positions and perspectives of women and men have developed in the societies in which life style bases on male domination, and this situation paves the way for negative results for women. Considering the fact that it is not easy to change the woman perception in the developed and developing societies, we have put some emphasis on the improvements in which men and women will be equal in the field of language at least with small changes in this study. We limited our study with German language and the way of addressing in German. In the first section of the study, we have addressed the issues of language and culture, the relationship between thinking and identity and the humiliation for women in language. After that, we try to reflect the emphasis suggestions as a table which can provide equality in the way of addressing in the second section.
This article discusses ways in which middle school mathematics teachers can assist their students, and particularly ELLs, in a two-for-one learning experience learning both mathematics and the discourse skills needed to successfully participate in reform oriented mathematics classrooms. English is the international communication language. The objectives of this study are to discuss the challenges language has on the teaching and learning mathematics when both academia and students are confronted to teach and learn through the medium of a new language. The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science. The achievement of students in mathematics and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Study observes teaching and learning in few aspects such as the readiness of lecturers to teach in English, the inclination and perception of students to learn in English and students proficiency in the language. The focus on the unique characteristics of common mathematical discourse, the challenges it can pose to ELLs, and strategies that can help students learn to “talk mathematics.”
to interrupt, dispute their interlocutor, ignore their interlocutor, control the topic, and make direct declarations. Cultural Difference heavily influenced sociolinguistic approaches to gender over the next two decades. Tannen (1991, 1994) documented many of the patterns posited by Maltz and Borker, observing women’s linguistic interactions in professional and in-home settings. Holmes (1993) proposed multiple “universals” related to language and gender: women and men develop different patterns of language use; women tend to focus on the affective (i.e., emotional, relational) function of an interaction more often than men do; and women tend to use linguistic devices that stress solidarity, while men tend to interact in ways which will maintain and increase their power and status. Claims from Cultural Difference, even when not empirically supported, spread in popular culture. Books like Gray's (1992) Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus and Tannen’s (1994) You Just Don’t Understand—which attributed conflict between men and women to communication differences (and offered solutions)—were on bestsellers lists for multiple years. The popularity of these books aided in public dissemination of Cultural Difference and associated language and gender stereotypes (Cameron 2009).
Textbooks have always been a very important tool for teachers because they converge a range of knowledge, structures, principles, ideas etc. They undoubtedly facilitate the work of teachers and, consequently, student’s learning process as he or she is able to return to the classroom content through textbooks anytime they wish to do so. The book also identifies its reader or even speaks for him or her. You can identify the type of student the person is by the book he or she carries. It is for these and many other considerations that this object of desire and disgust that inspires, guides and teaches has been the focus of studies. As for the textbook that is object of this research, it is divided into 5 units, each one with 5 sessions with various activities. The first session is called Language in Context and, among other activities, has one that is a listening practice in which students listen, via CD, a conversation between husband and wife over household chores like washing the dishes, studying with the children, taking them to school etc. Students listen and have to answer questions related to the dialogue. The purpose of this session is to contextualize the topic of the unit, and the activities to be worked and the discussions will relate to it and, in the case of the 1 st one, it is entitled Changing Roles. The second session is called Communicative Goals. Students have the opportunity to, in different activities, discuss the differences between men and women, expressing an opinion, agreeing and disagreeing politely. The teacher has the task of being a facilitator of the language acquisition process, presenting the expressions they are supposed to use in order to perform each task. In the session called Language Work, students practice the use of the passive voice, of someone/anyone/no one, of looking forward to/have difficulty in (or with), the Could/shouldn’t have + past participle. With these linguistic items, they are prepared to talk about something that, although it was possible to perform, actually did not happen; express regret; say that someone has done something wrong and had the opportunity to do something but did not. In Lexical Fields, it is announced the kind of vocabulary being presented in the unit, in that case, unit 1, words and expressions related to tasks performed at home, as well as the use of make and do in different situations. Finally, there is the Make your Point session that aims to bring to the student the opportunity to discuss topics related to the theme of unit: differences between men and women, the responsibilities and roles of men and women. They are
Assia Djebar, Algerian novelist, noted for her feminist stance was the only Muslim student in high school who later became the first Algerian woman to be accepted into the École Normale Supérieure. At the age of twenty, Djebar joined the Algerian student strikes in support of Algeria’s struggle for independence from France, a cause that became more personal to her when her brother was held in a French prison and French soldiers ransacked her mother’s home. In her novels Djebar turned the language of the colonizer into language of resistance. She used the language of the Others for her autobiographical works. In this paper I would like to show how the female body becomes an écriture of resistance in her collection of short stories called Women of Algiers in their Apartments.
using a sex-specific pronoun, that pronoun is a masculine. The use of ‘he’ and ‘man’ for both sexes consequently only visualize men alone leaving out the women. From the above discussion, it could be noted that the usage of these terms to represent both sexes depicts some form of gender inequality language in the Ghanaian print media. This could be buttressed with some text from the literature that our everyday speech reflects the “superiority” of the male and “inferiority” of the female resulting in master-subject relationship. The words associated with men have very different connotations while those of women are negative or demeaning. The male words connote power, authority or a positively valued status (Purnell, 1982). However, inclusive generic terms such as person, people, chairperson, humankind and human being were used to a very large extent in both newspapers reviewed. A word like ‘people’ was used in almost all instances to refer to the entire citizenry as well as person, humankind and human being. The word ‘chairperson’ was also used to define positions of individuals that could be filled by a male or female occupant. It should also be emphasized that though ‘chairperson’ was used, it was only in the instance where the occupant of the position is a female but if the occupant is a male, the word ‘chairman’ was most often used.
Connection between language forms and the social roles attached to men and women who use them is one of the key issues which have attracted the attention of many sociolinguists in recent years. Baron (1986) has noted that language is used as one of the means of distinguishing gender differences in almost all societies; as such, many researchers have described women’s speech as being different from the speech of men. Lakoff (1973) believes that color words like beige, lavender and adjectives like adorable, charming are more frequently used by women than men. Wardhaugh (1993) also claims that women apply their own vocabulary for creating a particular effect; they use words like such, so good, lovely, etc. The impact of one’s status on their speech style has also been investigated by researchers. Carli (1990) maintains that speech style perceptions of men and women can be result of different norms they have been entitled to. For example, low-status people, including women, which are identified as powerless speech style generally employ hesitations (well. uh), intensifiers (e.g., so, very), hedges (I think, kinda) more than men do. They resort to these linguistic devises to ensure that their social position is secure (Erickson, Lind, Johnson, and O'Barr, 1978). Additionally, intensifiers have been found to be frequently used by women while hedges are a feature of men’s speech (Carli, 1990).
Bishnah of Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir by its array of activities social mobilization, Capacity building of women, capitalization, making the women as group credit worthy and linking them with the banks to take initiatives towards initiating income generation activities in both farm and non- farm sector, which is a base to prove and analyze the quality of life for women. This is as well an endeavor to observe the nature and impact of this project on the lives of women in terms of decision making ability, gender equity, social status and social awareness. National Rural Livelihood Mission is a poverty alleviation project implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. This scheme is focused on promoting self-employment and organization of rural poor. The basic idea behind this programme is to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment. In 1999 after restructuring Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) launched Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) to focus on promoting self- employment among rural poor. SGSY is now remodeled to form NRLM thereby plugging the shortfalls of SGSY programme. This scheme was launched in 2011 and is one of the flagship programmes of Ministry of Rural Development. This is one of the world's largest initiatives to improve the livelihood of poor.
Tejaswini Rural Woman Empowerment Programme is being implemented by the Madhya Pradesh Mahila Vitta Vikas Nigam, Bhopal in the six districts of M.P, namely Balaghat, Dindori, Mandla, Panna, Chhatarpur and Tikamgarh, with the financial assistance of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The project started in the year 2007 and is to be completed during financial year 2018-19. Under the project, 205644 rural women through 16361 women SHGs were mobilized in six districts named above. Objective of the programme is to make women socially, economically and politically empowered and connect them to the mainstream of the society. These groups, as well as the group members were provided with different empowerment inputs/trainings, namely group management and accounting, decision taking and prioritizing their needs, conflicts management, gender sensitization, income enhancement inputs, legal awareness, health & hygiene and management of the group funds for improving the lives of the member women. The overall goal of the programme is to enable Tejaswini women to make use of choices, spaces and opportunities for their improved wellbeing.
Status of women in agricultural field and other allied sectors: Globally women constitute half of the world’s population and produce half of the agricultural products. It indicates the contribution of women in agriculture as a cultivator, agricultural labourers and causal helpers. Women are important economic agents particularly in the context of poverty in India. Women play a key role in the conservation of basic life support system such as land, water, flora and fauna. They protected the health of soil through organic fertilizer and crop security through varietal diversity and genetic resistance. The extent of women’s involvement in agriculture varies from region to region. India constitutes the patriarchal family system. The status of women in family is low. On that basis it is said to be that the status of women in agriculture is low. But according to the Economic survey 2017-18 the growing rural to urban migration by men which is the cause of feminisation of agricultural sector, a number of women play multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs and labourers. They are forced to work in agriculture in their village because they aren’t allowed to migrate. It is clearly seen that the gender differences in workload management. Most of the women who are landless and homeless labourers, they socially and economically depressed. The society particularly in rural area is not still ready to accept changes in women’s work, their role and position and status because of the conservative thinking in villages. Now rural women are taking responsible for the integrated management. It needs to resources like land, credit, water, seeds and markets for fulfil the needs of the women. Globally millions of women engaged in agriculture with a heterogeneous group like different realities, opportunities and challenges. Now the changing role among the women is the part of evolving social, environmental, cultural and economic context.
involved in Community Development programme meant for the upliftment of rural masses. These problems cannot be viewed in isolation as they have arisen from various social factors, in particular the prevailing socio-economic situation in rural areas, the constraints of the social structure and the bureaucratic framework in which they have to work. Stevenson, (1988), Ufuk and Őzgen, (2001) their study says, Businesswomen often suffer due to conflicts arising from the different roles they play as professionals and within their families .If they have to choose between different roles, they more often spend time on their family and work, leaving less time for themselves and relaxation. Stoltz-Loike (1992) identified four factors that influence women’s careers: the husband’s view of his wife’s job, financial prospects, household work, and the woman’s character. During their careers, both men and women can climb the corporate ladder; higher positions offer more positive opportunities for women: promotion, a sense of responsibility, self-respect, and financial independence. At the same time, such positions positively affect women’s roles in their social, economic, and private lives (U fuk Eva Boštjančič 283 and Őzgen, 2001). According to Powell and Mainiero (1992), women continuously pay attention to career building and family relations, but their focus shifts over time. However, under present circumstances lifecycles are diverging from the ones described, given that the childbearing age is increasingly shifting towards the mid- thirties. Moreover, an increasing number of women are choosing career over family, thus consciously giving up the latter.
(Chanda, S. K., Howlader, M. H., & Nahar, N, 2012)Married women level of education and their involvement in decision making process at various arenas of household. women with higher level of education 93.3% authority of getting married as compare to illiterate one, also 46.7% had high level of autonomy in purchasing in comparison to illiterate (.0%), in additional women with primary level of education no right of purchasing. ( shoaib et, al, 2013) was conducted a study on villages of Tehsil Chiniot and sample was consist on113 married women. Result demonstrates positive association between education and women empowerment at house hold level. (Rezapour, Z., & Ansari, H, 2014) There are many factors that affect the participation of married women in family decisions. In Northen Khorasan provience 389 respondents were selected from different ethnic Access to resources and women participation in decision making reveals positive and significant relationship. Positive correlation also observed between socio-economic status of women and their involvement in decision making process. (Yusof, S. A., 2015) Malaysia is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural country so this research also focuses on the influence of ethnicity on decision making in household, data is collected randomly from
Women are the key players in cassava production and processing in Nigeria. They are involved in the planting, harvesting, processing, distribution and sales. Cassava processing operations include peeling, grating, fermentation, pressing, roasting, cooking and milling. Some of the constraints women still face in cassava processing include manual peeling which is time consuming and tedious, natural fermentation process which takes a long time, inadequate processing equipment, lack of storage facilities, high transportation cost, high processing cost, lack of funds, unstable agricultural policies, ineffective linkages in the value chain, and lack or delayed technical support of extension services. Their productivity is due to low input technologies, lack of resources as a result of poverty and inadequate government support. Research technologies for small scale cassava processing have not adequately addressed the problems of women cassava processors in the gender perspective such as in the design of female- friendly tools for hydraulic pressing for ease of operation. Many of the cassava processing equipment produced by researchers are yet to be adopted by the rural processors Empowering women cassava processors effectively therefore requires gender responsive research approach, educating the women through sensitization and training and government intervention by gender mainstreaming of agricultural policies to tackle issues relating to cassava processing in the cassava value chain. Key areas in educating the women processors include training on standards for cassava products and improved food safety practices, sensitization on industrial uses of cassava in order to encourage them to diversity their products to increase income generation and use of cassava waste in generating biogas to save processing cost.
appearances with her. Her interviews with me—granted only with great reluctance—will, she says, be her last. When I asked the two women to pose together one last time (Elizabeth turned 70 last Tuesday; Hazel will in January) Elizabeth agreed; Hazel would not. Hazel was poised to vote for Obama in 2008; after all, even her own mother did. But so deep was her hurt that she found some excuse not to.