Top PDF All Along the Pacific

All Along the Pacific

All Along the Pacific

home to St. Cloud to tell her parents that one night, when the monkeys burned, she waded in the Pacific, by herself. No Long John with his hands around her waist. No car matron checking on her or chorus girls fawning over her as they would a china doll. Two more steps and the sand became wet beneath her feet. Two more steps and the first live water tripped up and wrapped around her ankles. Betty‟s feet froze. Cramps crawled up her legs. She stepped out farther, feeling the surge and pull of the waves around her calves. Up above on the bluffs, she heard the train whistle again. If they came looking for her, could they pick her out in the darkness? Would her white dressing gown, floating around her, look like sea foam on a wave? To her knees now. Now thighs. Another step and Betty let her knees fold, and she submerged, her head below the icy water. It roared in her ears. She felt herself lift and sink with the waves as they sped at the sand. Unidentifiable matter swept past her, brushing tendrils of goose bumps across her body. Betty thought of sideshow mermaids in jars of brine and dried shark specimens and the anchors and swallows on the tattooed man.
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Aphotic N2 fixation along an oligotrophic to ultraoligotrophic transect in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

Aphotic N2 fixation along an oligotrophic to ultraoligotrophic transect in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

. The indexed products were purified again with mag- netic beads, then quantified with a plate reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) using PicoGreen (Thermo Fisher). The indexed samples were adjusted to equal con- centrations and pooled for multiplexing during sequencing. The pooled sample was shipped to the Tufts University se- quencing center (Boston, MA, USA) for paired end sequenc- ing (2 × 300 bp). The quality of the pooled sample and se- lect individual samples was checked with a bioanalyzer be- fore the run. The resulting sequences were paired within mothur (Schloss et al., 2009), and reads containing ambi- guities or more than eight homopolymers were discarded. The sequences were assigned to OTUs (at 97 % cutoff) us- ing the UCLUST denovo picking method (Edgar, 2010) im- plemented in MacQIIME v1.9.1 (Caporaso et al., 2010). Low-abundance OTUs consisting of fewer than 15 sequences across all samples were discarded from further processing. A representative sequence of each OTU was extracted from the data and quality processed in ARB (Ludwig et al., 2004), removing sequences that did not conceptually translate or
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Experiments based on blue intensity for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

Experiments based on blue intensity for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

EWB contains a weak response to summer temperature variability with almost no late summer temperature signal (Fig. 2) although some significant correlations (r = ∼ 0.3– 0.4) are found with May and previous October–November temperatures (Fig. S2 in the Supplement). Correlations with seasonal temperatures, after first differencing, identifies no significant response (Fig. S3 in the Supplement). In agree- ment with previous work (Wilson et al., 2007; Wiles et al., 2014), RW correlates well with a broad range of summer seasons (Fig. 2), showing positive correlations for nearly all months from January through to September (Fig. S2 in the Supplement) with June returning the strongest cor- relation. Correlations do weaken when the data are first differenced (Fig. S3 in the Supplement), but the Wiles et al. (2014) RW composite still retains a strong response with February–August temperatures, although for the other RW- based time series, the summer season shows the strongest coherence. LWB inv and DB show a weaker response with the
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An approach to seasonal forecasting of summer rainfall in Buenos Aires, Argentina

An approach to seasonal forecasting of summer rainfall in Buenos Aires, Argentina

South America, the Andes Mountain range is one of the main features which has great influence on the climate of the region. It is the most important mountain range in America and one of the most relevant in the world. It is bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes and valleys. It is 7240 km long and crosses Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina, all along the western coast of South America. It is 200 to 700 km wide and it has a mean height of 3660 m although some peaks reach more than 6000 m. The highest peak, Aconcagua, rises to 6962 m above sea level and it is located in Argentina. Two regions can be distinguished in Argentina: the first, north of 38°S is high and solid meanwhile the southern sector is lower and less dense. Therefore, north of 38°S, the Andes range prevents the access of humidity from the Pacific Ocean, the flow is governed by the South Atlantic Height and as a consequence, winds prevail from the northeast. Therefore, the water vapor entering at low levels comes either from the tropical continent or from the Atlantic Ocean. In the first case, the easterly low-level flow at low latitudes is channeled towards the south between the Bolivian Plateau and the Brazilian forest, advecting warm and humid air to southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and subtropical Argentina and depicting a typical feature that many authors have studied (Lenters and Cook, 1995; Wang and Paegle, 1996; Barros et al., 2002; Vera et al., 2006). Intermittent eruptions of polar fronts from the south modify this picture, causing a west or a southwest flow in low levels after the frontal passage. This happens with more frequency and greater displacement to the north in winter than in summer. González and Barros (1998) analyzed the mean annual rainfall cycle in subtropical Argentina using a principal component analysis and showed a minimum in winter, which is more pronounced in the west, with dry conditions prevailing from May to September and a region in central Argentina where rainfall had two peaks, both in transition seasons. That is the case in Buenos Aires city and the surrounding areas, located along the coast of the Río de la Plata, over the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. This area has experienced a great urban center and population growth and so it conjugates the problematic of the natural rainfall variability and the influence of human activity on it.
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A SIMPLE MECHANISM FOR THE CLIMATOLOGICAL MIDSUMMER DROUGHT ALONG THE PACIFIC COAST OF CENTRAL AMERICA (edited by H. Diaz).

A SIMPLE MECHANISM FOR THE CLIMATOLOGICAL MIDSUMMER DROUGHT ALONG THE PACIFIC COAST OF CENTRAL AMERICA (edited by H. Diaz).

To explore the spatiotemporal evolution of the MSD, we present in this and the following subsections a series of analyses that view stations along the Pacific coast of Central America and southern Mexico ideally as a function of latitude. Using the high temporal resolution (daily) station precipitation records from locations indicated in Table 1 and Figure 2, shown in Figure 5 are time- latitude plots of mean climatological 31-day running mean precipitation and rainfall frequency. Despite differences in total precipitation over the year, nearly all stations in this domain experience a biannual cycle of precipitation and therefore an MSD. Total annual rainfall does not depend in an obvious linear fashion on latitude, which can be contrasted to rainfall frequency. Maximum rainfall frequency during the rainy season(s) decreases from > 25 days per month in Costa Rica (9º N) to ~15 days per month in Sinaloa, Mexico (24º N). However, based on either rainfall or rainfall frequency, it is clear that the timing and duration of the MSD is a strong function of latitude. The general rainy season arrives first in the southern latitudes, propagates northward through Central America and well into Mexico, and then southward, leaving in between a relative minimum of rainfall rate and frequency that decreases in duration with latitude. However, it can also be seen that the duration of the MSD (i.e., the time between the first and second precipitation maxima) is inversely related to latitude, approaching zero at ~23º N.
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Abyssal polychaete assemblages along latitudinal gradients of productivity in the equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans

Abyssal polychaete assemblages along latitudinal gradients of productivity in the equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans

Gray (1994), setting out to test the hypothesis of Sanders (1968), discovered the surprising fact that species diversity on the continental shelf appeared to be as high as that in the deep sea. To sum up the result as 'Gray (1994) found no evidence to support the hypothesis of Sanders (1968)' would be to ignore virtually all that is of scientific value in the paper. The interesting and useful parts of the work concerned the authors' interpretation of his observations; namely that it is the method of diversity measurement that is of importance, and that diversity may well be underestimated at shallow water sites for these reasons. In other words, the surprising fact has led to a series of observations and the erection of further explanatory hypotheses to account for them. A surprising fact may
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Longitudinal contrast in turbulence along a  ∼ 19° S section in the Pacific and its consequences for biogeochemical fluxes

Longitudinal contrast in turbulence along a  ∼ 19° S section in the Pacific and its consequences for biogeochemical fluxes

biological interactions (e.g., Rousselet et al., 2018) that may prove crucial in understanding biological pump functioning (e.g., Guidi et al., 2012; Ascani et al., 2013). The influence of the mesoscale and submesoscale circulations on the spa- tial distribution and transport was detailed by Rousselet et al. (2018). In particular, they showed the strong impact of fronts on the spatial distribution of bacteria and phytoplank- ton. A detailed study of an anomalous surface bloom event by de Verneil et al. (2017) revealed instead the main impact of mesoscale advection. At smaller scales three-dimensional turbulence may have a strong impact on the biological pump through the input of nutrients into the photic layer and more generally in enhancing, in the stratified ocean, vertical trans- ports through turbulent diffusion (e.g., Ledwell et al., 2008). The level of turbulence is almost unknown in the OUT- PACE area. To our knowledge, the only microstructure measurements were performed in the western part of the subtropical South Pacific during the Malaspina expedition (Fernández-Castro et al., 2014, 2015) as part of an exten- sive microstructure survey in the tropical and subtropical oceans. For the leg done in the OUTPACE region, the av- eraged below the mixed layer down to ∼ 300 m depth was ∼ 10 −8 W kg −1 , well above the typical background dissipa- tion rate for open ocean. Indirect estimates of based on ARGO floats data fall in the same range as Fernández-Castro et al. (2014) as shown by Whalen et al. (2012). This study based on the global-scale ARGO floats dataset also revealed that the southern subtropical Pacific is one of the most under- sampled areas. At the larger scale of the South Pacific Ocean, the equatorial zone is well known as a hotspot for turbulence where shear instability prevails as a result of the strongly sheared current system (e.g., Gregg et al., 1985; Sun et al., 1998; Richards et al., 2015; Smyth and Moum, 2013). At subtropical latitudes, where the background shear is lower, internal waves are expected to play a major role in the onset of turbulence in the stratified interior. Global maps of energy flux show enhanced semi-diurnal tide energy conversion in the western part of the subtropical South Pacific (Alford and Zhao, 2007a, Fig. 9b). The annual mean energy flux into in- ertial motions is enhanced at mid-latitudes in all ocean basins with also a south-east-oriented track in the Pacific from the Equator to 40 ◦ S and within ∼ 180 ◦ E–160 ◦ W longitude in the OUTPACE region (Alford and Zhao, 2007a, Fig.9a). The latter process is subject to seasonal variations, especially in subtropical regions where the generation of energetic baro- clinic near-inertial waves is favoured during the cyclone sea- son (e.g., Liu et al., 2008).
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Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific)

Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific)

As mentioned above, MTDs at C0018 do not coincide with every interglacial during the past 1 Ma. However, we have to consider that C0018 does not record all MTDs of the slope basin, as the source and deposition of MTDs might vary through time (e.g., Yamada et al. 2010). Thus, C0018 may not be fully representative of the entire basin. However, as the 3D reflection seismic data in the region around C0018 do not image any other thick MTDs (Strasser et al. 2011), C0018 might therefore be representative in terms of its ability to capture the largest MTD events, although we cannot exclude the potential for lower-volume, higher-frequency MTDs that cannot be resolved in the seismic data. If we assume that, at least for the large landslides, C0018 is representa- tive of the entire basin, the data suggest that MTDs within odd-numbered marine isotopic stages occur during three phases (MTD 1 at ~13–14.2 cal kyr, MTDs 2–5 between 0.3 and 0.5 Ma, and MTD 6 at 0.86 Ma). The first MTD (MTD 6) occurs close to the end of a period of major tectonic uplift of the forearc high between 0.9 and 1.3 Ma (Gulick et al. 2010). This uplift resulted in slope steepen- ing, thereby creating the slopes necessary for the initiation of slope failure and perhaps explaining the onset of mass transport deposition at ~0.86 Ma with MTD 6. For the period around 0.5 Ma, as inferred from the reconstructed flow directions of MTDs and bathymetric analyses (Kanamatsu et al. 2014), seamount subduction could have affected the study area (Fig. 1; Kimura et al. 2011) and resulted in a change in slope orientation from NE– SW to NW–SE (the present slope). This seamount subduction might also have been responsible for the occurrence of MTDs between 0.3 and 0.5 Ma. For the youngest MTD phase (MTD 1), which begun with the end of the last glacial, no plausible tectonic activity has yet been described, but we speculate that it may relate to the current phase of recent megasplay fault activity (Moore et al. 2007). Importantly, the reconstructed tectonic uplift phases (before 0.9 Ma and at ~0.5 Ma) would also have affected the gas hydrate stability zone and may therefore have preconditioned the slopes, making them more prone to submarine landsliding.
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Analysis of economic impact of MARPOL Annex IX on different types of ship / s by Konoplev Mikhail Alexandrovich.

Analysis of economic impact of MARPOL Annex IX on different types of ship / s by Konoplev Mikhail Alexandrovich.

Before the beginning of the 20th century the Northern Sea Route (NSR) was known as the Northeast Passage, or Sevmorput in Russian. The NSR is a waterway from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Russian coast of Siberia, lying mostly in the Russian Arctic waters. The opening of the Northeast Passage was the vision of Peter the Great. Western parts of the NSR had been explored by Northern European countries, looking for an alternative shorter seaway to Asia. In 1619, Russia closed the Mangazeya seaway against English and Dutch invasions into Siberia. Even during the turbulent years of the Russian Revolution, pioneers such as Admiral A.V.Kolchak experimented with ways of opening the Kara Sea route between Europe and Siberia. In 1932, a Soviet expedition led by O.Y. Schmidt was the first to sail all the way from Arkhangelsk to the Bering Strait. After a couple of more trials in 1933 and 1934, the NSR was officially opened. The Administration of the Northern Sea Route was set up in 1932, and since then it has supervised navigation and built Arctic ports. This effort soon became entangled with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, and the opening of the NSR gradually took on the complexion of a strategic military project, and remained as a sea route primarily for Russian domestic shipping. (Kitagawa, 2008)
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Along dip segmentation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and comparison with other megathrust earthquakes

Along dip segmentation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and comparison with other megathrust earthquakes

which the official earthquake forecasting project of Japan has defined (e.g., http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/?lang=en). There had been no earthquakes larger than magnitude 8.0 in this area for more than 1,000 years except for a large tsunami earthquake in 1896 in Segment B and a normal- fault event in 1933 in the outer-rise area. All the earth- quakes in the past occurred within each segment, exhibiting different characteristics from one to the other. There were no earthquakes that caused serious casualties in Segment B (e.g., Kanamori, 1977), and no large earthquakes occurred in Segment D over 500 years except for a series of earth- quakes of magnitude less than 7.8 in 1938 (Abe, 1977). In contrast, there were earthquakes of magnitude of 7.5 to 7.8 in Segment C repeated with an interval of several tens of years, consistent with its plate convergence rate (about 8.6 cm/year). That is why the official earthquake forecast was released for this segment, as mentioned in the Introduction. In most subduction zones, particularly if well investi- gated, segmentation is introduced in the strike direction of the trench, for example, Segments A, B, C, and D in Fig. 1(a). The interrelation among plural segments was es- sential in the occurrence of megathrust earthquakes in the past. The distribution of segments involved in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is clearly different from such previous cases. Results of near-field tsunami records strongly sup- port anomalously large slips in Segment C (e.g., Maeda et al., 2011). During the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, segments were interrelated not only in the strike direction but also in the dip direction of the trench, such as Segments C and C . As shown above, we can define a series of segments in a shallow region up-dip, and another series of segments in a deep region down-dip. In this paper, we call this separation between shallow and deep regions “along-dip segmenta- tion”. In other subduction zones, segmentation is primarily
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Chemistry and microbial activity of forest and pasture riparian-zone soils along three Pacific Northwest streams

Chemistry and microbial activity of forest and pasture riparian-zone soils along three Pacific Northwest streams

trations were lowest in winter and spring and highest in summer. A previous study of nutrients similarly showed greater concentrations of organic P in forest litter than in grassland litter (Entry and Emmingham, 1995). Since most P is in the organic form in these forest soils (Stewart and Tiessen, 1987), it is likely that the soils are capable of storing more P in all forms than comparable pasture soils. The elevated P concen- trations in the litter and soils may reflect the capacity of riparian forests to trap P in polluted groundwaters (Lowrance et al., 1984; Pinay, 1986).

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Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

Diversity analyses on aquatic insect samples (Figure 5C), indicated that Chiapas had the highest Shannon index value (3.75), followed by the states of Oaxaca (3.63), Michoacan (3.60). Intermediate H’ values were estimated for the states of Sinaloa, Guerrero, Jalisco and Nayarit that varied between 3.34 and 3.54. The lowest index value was calculated for the state of Colima (3.22), which was significantly lower than all other values, except that calculated for the state of Nayarit. Jackknifing indicated that H’ values were underestimated by 3.34% for aquatic insects (Table 3). Cluster analysis supported the exist- ence of three diversity groups consisting of Chiapas alone (Figure 6C), the second group consisting of Oaxaca, Michoacan and Sinaloa and the third group consisting of Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit and Colima. Minor differences in the placement of states within a particular group were observed, but the overall patterns were in agreement with the calculated diversity index values.
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Distinct spatial patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and actinobacteria diversity along a transect in the ultra oligotrophic South Pacific ocean

Distinct spatial patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and actinobacteria diversity along a transect in the ultra oligotrophic South Pacific ocean

Although, the taxonomic compositions of the HNL and GYR DCM samples appeared similar at the phylum level, there were only seven shared major OTUs, most of which were affiliated to SAR11. These significant phylogenetic differences were supported by UniFrac analysis (p < 0.001). In the surface waters of the GYR station, the Proteobacteria sequences accounted for a staggering 90% of all sequences and were comprised mainly of SAR11 and SAR86 OTUs representing 53 and 17% of the total sequences respectively. SAR11 sequences were also represented by the highest number of OTUs (45) in stark contrast to the surface upwelling station where the number was significantly lower (11 OTUs). The GYR DCM showed a lower relative abundance of Proteobacteria sequences (70%) and increases in abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deferribacteres, and Cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus). Interestingly several SAR11, SAR86, and OCS116 OTUs were either more abundant in the GYR DCM than at the other stations or appeared unique to this sample. The bacterial phylogenetic diversity in the upwelling was dramatically different from the mesotrophic stations MAR and HNL and from the hyperoligotrophic gyre (Figure 2B; Supplementary Figure S2). These bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 S1a, several Roseobacter OTUs, a single SAR86 OTU, a single Actinobacteria OTU and several OTUs attributed to Bacteroidetes. With the exception of the SAR11 S1a OTU and SAR11 IIa OTUs, the vast majority of the other OTUs were specific to the UPW station. Reduced microdiversity of the major SAR11 and SAR86 clades was observed at UPW with the majority of SAR11 sequences ( > 60%) falling into a single OTU and the presence of a single major SAR86 OTU corresponding to clade II (Suzuki et al., 2004) that was unique to UPW. Distinct distribution patterns across the transect were visible for the majority of the dominant OTUs presented (Figure 2B) notably for the SAR11, Roseobacter and SAR86 clades, and for different Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes OTUs.
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Bioclimate Vegetation Interrelations along the Pacific Rim of North America

Bioclimate Vegetation Interrelations along the Pacific Rim of North America

Before conducting fieldwork, a geographic information system (GIS) was designed using ArcMap 9.3 software and the digital terrain model (DTM) of the University of California, Davis (http://www.diva-gis.org/Data). Into this GIS, we entered all the available weather stations pro- viding climatological normals [14] for the study area. To avoid large deviations due to continentality and altitude effects, an essential criterion in the final selection process was that every station had to be less than 100 km away from the sea and 1000 m below sea level. Four hundred and fifty-seven weather stations fulfilled these require- ments (Figure 1), and climate data for each station were compiled from [15] for the US stations, and [16] for the Canadian ones.
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Petrogenesis of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along the 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise

Petrogenesis of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along the 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise

volatile nature. Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ca were also analyzed for 10 seconds each on all 281 samples. Ti, P, K, and Cl were analyzed for 20 seconds. Ni, Cr, and S were analyzed for 10 seconds on a minority of sample analyses but were often below detection limits and unmeasured on subsequent samples. Ten spots were measured on each glass and averaged. Secondary basalt standard 2392 (Perfit et al., 2012) was run approximately every 10-15 samples to account for any instrument drift. Measured standard values are provided in Table A.4. A set of 52 samples was analyzed at both labs for interlab comparison, which – based on measured standards JDF (at UF) and 2392, A99, and USNM (at USGS) – resulted in relative % corrections < 4% of SiO2, Na2O and CaO. The remaining standard major elements measured within one standard deviation and required no correction. Duplicate analyses are presented in Table A.5.
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Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste Anne-de-Bellevue QC Canada H9X 3V9

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste Anne-de-Bellevue QC Canada H9X 3V9

S9 Table S1. Relationships between log-transformed mercury (dry weight), location and stable isotope values for seabird eggs collected along the Pacific coast of Canada. All relationships represent values derived from multiple regressions with stable isotope values and location (where relevant) as explanatory variables and mercury as the dependent variable. F-values are shown for location and t-values for isotopes. P-values are in parentheses. Percent moisture was never included in any model and therefore was dropped from analyses.

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Generation mechanism of large later phases of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami causing damages in Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan

Generation mechanism of large later phases of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami causing damages in Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan

The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake generated a large tsunami that caused catastrophic damage along the Pacific coast of Japan. The major portion of the damage along the Pacific coast of Tohoku in Japan was mainly caused by the first few cycles of tsunami waves. However, the largest phase of the tsunami arriving surprisingly late in Hakodate in Hokkaido, Japan; that is, approximately 9 h after the origin time of the earthquake. It is important to understand the generation mechanism of this large later phase. The tsunami was numerically computed by solving both linear shallow water equations and non-linear shallow water equations with moving boundary conditions throughout the computational area. The later tsunami phases observed on southern Hokkaido can be much better explained by tsunami waveforms computed by solving the non-linear equations than by those computed by solving the linear equations. This suggests that the later tsunami waves arrived at the Hokkaido coast after propagating along the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region with repeated inundations far inland or reflecting from the coast of Tohoku after the inundation. The spectral analysis of the observed waveform at Hakodate tide gauge shows that the later tsunami that arrived between 7.5 and 9.5 h after the earthquake mainly contains a period of 45 – 50 min. The normal modes of Hakodate Bay were also computed to obtain the eigen periods, eigenfunctions, and spatial distribution of water heights. The computed tsunami height distributions near Hakodate and the fundamental mode of Hakodate Bay indicate that the large later phases are mainly caused by the resonance of the bay, which has a period of approximately 50 min. The results also indicate that the tsunami wave heights near the Hakodate port area, the most populated area in Hakodate, are the largest in the bay because of the resonance of the fundamental mode of the bay. The results of this study suggest that large future tsunamis might excite the fundamental mode of Hakodate Bay and cause large later phases near the Hakodate port.
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Political feasibility and empirical assessments of a Pacific free trade area

Political feasibility and empirical assessments of a Pacific free trade area

In contrast, the existing institutional infrastructure in East Asia and on the Pacific Rim is markedly primitive. It is fair to say that present-day East Asia is the least “regionalized” of the world’s regions (e.g., Lloyd, 1996). Although the idea of an East Asian “community” also dates back to the interwar period, it is embodied in the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, the geopolitical masterplan to replace Western imperialism with an Asian empire ruled by Japan. Indeed, all other pre-World War II institutional antecedents aimed to foster intraregional social and cultural exchange (e.g., the Pan-Pacific Union), rather than economic integration (Yamaoka, 1996). In fact, the oldest existing regional organization, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), was formed in 1967 to address security concerns. Yet ASEAN did not produce a free trade agreement until 1992, and a common preferential tariff scheme among the seven member states will not be fully implemented until 2003 (Tan, 1997). APEC, the broadest and most ambitious regional institution on the Pacific Rim, was founded in 1989 and established a modest secretariat three years later. Even if APEC is able to keep to its current goal, the day of “free and open trade and investment” among the 18 member countries will not dawn until the year 2020. 6
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Sustainable Tourism in Costa Rica: Aligning Tourists’ Interests with Local Development

Sustainable Tourism in Costa Rica: Aligning Tourists’ Interests with Local Development

Sustainability in small communities preserves the natural environment while benefiting the lifestyles of community                             members by promoting human welfare. One quarter of Costa Rica’s export income comes from tourism, with ecotourism                                   being the most prominent form of tourism. The field research of this study was conducted in the regions of Tárcoles,                                         Carara National Park, and Jacó along the Pacific Coast in Costa Rica where tourists who visit other local attractions                                       often bypass Tárcoles. It explored which services interest tourists, what activities tourists travel to Costa Rica for, and                                     the sustainable services they are willing to pay for. Multiple surveys, semi-structured interviews, and participant                               observation were the methods for data collection. The analysis of the data suggests that there are opportunities in                                     Tárcoles for the community to take advantage of the tourists visiting nearby attractions and develop sustainable services                                   that preserve the environment and create economic benefits for locals. 
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Subspecific identification of the Great Lakes' first Brown Booby ( Sula leucogaster ) using DNA

Subspecific identification of the Great Lakes' first Brown Booby ( Sula leucogaster ) using DNA

aligned with our contig using automated alignment programs within Geneious v5.6.5 (Biomatters Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand). Muscle, Geneious and Clustal algorithms all produced the same alignment. This was checked for obvious errors using Mesquite version 2.75 (open-source software, Mesquite Project Team, 2010, http://mesquiteproject.org). Samples were from 12 widely separated populations (broadly includ- ing the Eastern Pacific, Eastern Atlantic, Caribbean, South Pacific, and the Gulf of California) and included all four recognized subspecies (Steeves et al. 2005; Morris-Pocock, Steeves et al. 2010).
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