Top PDF Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

All the concepts of tacit knowledge based on the definitions given are tabulated. Nine concepts, personal, context bounded, informal, experientially acquired, practical, action oriented, goal attainment values, individual and collective, are extracted. Table 1 shows the elements/concepts of tacit knowledge based on the definitions of tacit knowledge given by respective writers. The concepts of personal, experientially acquired, goal attainment values and collective have been quoted more often than the other concepts by the respective writers. Looking deeper in the concept of contextual bounded, Aager (1991) argues that all knowledge is contextualised by its historical and culture nature. Therefore it is not uniquely associated with tacit knowledge. The concept of informal and practical/action-oriented can be incorporated in the concept of experientially acquired. Therefore, the only contradiction is whether tacit knowledge is personal/individual or is it collective.
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Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

Dehghani (2014) Research in the early importance of tacit knowledge in the creative process, the role of tacit knowledge in innovation management has identified and mentioned some of the problems it is creating and sharing. Then, based on the latest research in this field, an integrative model to illustrate the effect of tacit knowledge on the successful management of innovation described and presented, at the end of the key levers identified tacit knowledge management and positive effects on innovation success will be analyzed. Strategic knowledge management occurs when a group responsible thing rarely happens, an exceptional project, and will be responsible to do the same from the experience of others within the organization did not used. In this mechanism, often upper management Partnership and determine the type of knowledge needed to do the job. Kind of knowledge that is transmitted can be both hidden and obvious. Transmission occur expert in public knowledge of an expert resource within and outside the organization in order to enable the group to solve new problems with methods and new knowledge is transferred. This knowledge is useful when you are doing something special and uniform group and with an unusual technical issue beyond the scope of their knowledge error. Knowledge that is usually requested cannot be found in a guide or standard documents.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

V OLUME N O . 6 (2016), I SSUE N O . 07 (J ULY ) ISSN 2231-5756 Tacit knowledge exists randomly in society and relates to the context of a specific problem and access is mainly through Social networks. The tacit dimensions of individual knowledge are not publicly available except as embodied in people to be hired, and the tacit dimensions of collective knowledge are woven into the very fabric of an organization. Tacit knowledge can be activated by generating new scientific knowledge, (learning-to-learn), by incorporating new knowledge in the design of a new product, when learning new production methods and improving existing technology through minor improvements based on Learning-by- doing, and based on learning by-using once the new product or process is being used internally in the organisation or by external consumers. Even Confucius has mentioned the importance of LBD by saying, ‘‘i hear and i forget; i see and i remember; i do and i understand’. Tacit knowledge is a source of competitive advantage. The creativity necessary for innovation derives not only from obvious and visible expertise, but from invisible Reservoirs of experience which need to get vitalized first, before using these in the innovation process. Tacit knowledge can be gained both in and outside the organization. Inside the organisation, by deciding what existing tacit knowledge capabilities the members in the organisation carry themselves and what improvement could be made to build up the accumulated learning of the individuals and, therefore, enhance the tacit know-how competence. Outside the organisation, by trying to gain tacit knowledge and skills from other firms, through recruiting the right individuals with the requisite education or work experience, or by acquiring parts of or whole new companies, or by engaging appro- priate consultants or by building networks with other companies. It is made clear that tacit knowledge is gained and vitalised throughout all functions
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The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

Knowledge (80); Individuals (50); Organisational domain (46); Skill (35); Non- Codification (28); Non-verbal (27); Experience (26); Context specific (24); Intuition (20); Learned (16); Know how (15); Not formal (13); Action (12); Expertise (11); Culture (10); Contingency based (9); Environment (9); Externalisation (9); Knowing (9); Not easily communicated (9); Practical (9); Sub-consciousness (9); Understanding (9); Cognitive (8), Internalisation (8); Mental models (8); Not directly taught (8); Not easily transmitted (8); Process (8); Abilities (7); Apprenticeship (7); Low environmental support (7); Management (7); Practice (7); Society (7); Two dimensional (7); Behaviour (6); Beliefs (6); Conscious (6); Direct contact (6); Face to face transfer (6); Goal attainment (6); Inferences (6); Learning by doing (6); Maxims (6); Non-awareness (6); Pattern recognition (6); Perceptions (6); Procedural in nature (6); Routine (6); Subjectivity (6); Tasks (6); Technology (6); Values (6); Common sense (5); Decision making (5); Embodied (5); Implicit (5); Implied (5); Information (5); Judgement (5); No idea (5); Not easily codifiable (5); Sharing (5); Taken for granted (5); Unconscious (5); Everyday situations (4); Interaction (4); Job knowledge (4); Know more than we can tell (4); Not easily formalised (4); Not formal instruction (4); Others (4); Physical control (4); Riding a bicycle (4); Rule (4); Schema (4); Time (4); Touch sensitivity (4); Wisdom (4); Abstraction (3); Access constraints (3); Awareness (3); Communal (3); Competitive advantage (3); Embedded (3); Emotions (3); Experientially established cognitive structures (3); Focal awareness (3); Groups (3); Holism (3); Ideals (3); Importance of language (3); Information retrieval (3); Insight (3); Learning by using (3); Meaning (3); Mind (3); Motor skills (3); Observation (3); Oneself (3); Particular uses/particular situations (3); Performance (3); Practical intelligence (3); Procedures (3); Resistance to revelation (3); Rules of thumb (3); Selective comparison (3); Semantics (3); Sense perception (3); Transmission (3).
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Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Polanyi gave concept of tacit knowledge in facial recognition as, ‘We know a person’s face, and can recognize it among a thousand, indeed a million. Yet we usually cannot tell how we recognize a face we know, so most of this cannot be put into words’ [94]. He invented the term tacit knowledge to describe knowledge that has been embodied, embedded, and is difficult to express [80,109]. Hence, all knowledge is acquired by the knower by means of physical and mental processes [26]. Polanyi says that the physical body is the basis of our knowledge, intellectual as well as practical. Polanyi [94] views tacit knowledge as the backdrop against which actions are understood. He determined, ‘All knowing is personal knowing’ [94]. Polanyi also states that every piece of knowledge contains explicit and tacit dimensions and that they are inseparable [94].
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Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

Firstly, the issues of classifying knowledge by means of a relevant and generally accepted criterion must be addressed. We can consider this issue as already solved through the consideration of the named knowledge epistemological dimension. The extensive use of Polany's (1996) distinction between tacit or implicit knowledge and explicit knowledge has proved that knowledge tacitness can establish a two-extreme continuous typology for knowledge, by which one extreme shows characteristics quite different from the opposite.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Organizational knowledge, the most important resource in an organization, constitutes of many types of knowledge. The objective of the study is to understand the nature of organizational tacit knowledge, focusing on its manifestations in an institute of higher learning. This paper viewed organizational knowledge in taxonomy of the diffusion of knowledge and the degree of tacit ness. Both dimensions are viewed along a continuum. A conceptual organizational tacit knowledge framework is used in collecting the data for this study. Data are collected through interviews with scholars in an academic institution. This study uses the if-then-because methodology in analyzing the data. A total of twenty one items, served as indicators of tacit knowledge is identified. Seven categorizations of tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning are extracted from the indicators collection.
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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT - AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT - AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL

One of the key concept of knowledge management is learning. Learning is a complex dynamic process of interacting with many sources of information in meaningful ways to construct new knowing and understanding. Knowledge management enables a learning community to learn more effectively. Knowledge management is very important to an organization. Mission, conception, change and performance are four dimensions of knowledge management, which define the value of an organization. The most important area of knowledge management is the concept of tacit knowledge. Unlike most other management tools, knowledge management encloses every individual in the organization cutting across departments, functions and business units. The paper has tried to cover different aspects of Knowledge Management. It has been observed that KM for corporate is mainly for getting competitive advantages over the rival companies. In developed countries this culture is running for quite some time where as in developing countries especially in India it is slowly picking up. A KM initiative in different sectors of the economy in India is mentioned. Corporate in India such as TCS, ONGC, Infosys etc have established their in-house knowledge management systems. Different types of KM initiatives such as external structure initiatives, internal structure initiatives and competence initiatives with examples find mention in the paper. The paper has touched upon the challenges of Knowledge management.
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Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

By taking a different stance Stahle (1999) suggests organisations into three-dimensional system i.e. mechanistic, organic and dynamic nature, depending on the different challenges presented for management of knowledge. Mechanistic part deals more with explicit knowledge whilst organic nature helps the organisation to work flexibly with a people- centred orientation and involves the management of tacit knowledge. The dynamic nature facilitates continuous improvement and innovation. Wetherill et al’s classification reflects the organisational hierarchy and when one moves from domain knowledge to project knowledge the concentration on knowledge too moves from explicit to tacit nature, which further highlights the knowledge worker concept in construction. Stahle’s suggestion indicates both the management and the production of the knowledge. In a similar sense Moodley et al (2001) contend that the tacit knowledge is developed through the individual or project teams, while the explicit knowledge is created through process, procedures and other routines that can be codified. Whatever the classification, tacit knowledge of the workers has been highlighted in much research carried out in the construction industry. A research carried out within structural design firms (Al-Ghassani, 2003) showed that about 80% of knowledge used during concept design stage is tacit compared to about 20% of explicit knowledge. As such, managing tacit knowledge more effectively offers construction organisations a possible mechanism for improving their performance in times of greater competition. Having discussed the importance of construction knowledge worker and their tacit knowledge, succeeding section explores more into tacit knowledge and its management.
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Effect of Knowledge Conversion and Knowledge Application on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

Effect of Knowledge Conversion and Knowledge Application on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

A process model of knowledge creation presupposes that individual and organizations create and enlarge knowledge through conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and vice versa. Through knowledge conversion, the whole organization can share the explicit knowledge created and convert it into tacit knowledge for individuals Tseng (2010). Knowledge that is captured from various sources needs to be converted to organizational knowledge for effective utilization within the business (Lee and Suh, 2003). Becerra-Fernandez, Gonzales and Sabherwal (2004) noted that KM can help create knowledge, which can then contribute to improved firm’s performance. Moreover, KM activities can assist organisations in acquiring, storing and utilising knowledge for processes such as problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision-making (Takeuchi and Nonaka, 2004). Knowledge conversion is considered a critical dimension of KM comprising of the social process through which individuals with different information interact and thereby create new knowledge as well as increase the quality of both tacit and explicit knowledge (Sa’nchez and Palacios, 2008).
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Tacit Knowledge Sharing In Technology-Based Firms: Role Of Organization Citizenship Behavior And Perceived Value Of Knowledge

Tacit Knowledge Sharing In Technology-Based Firms: Role Of Organization Citizenship Behavior And Perceived Value Of Knowledge

OCB is a voluntary act and performed because it makes people feel satisfied and happy by helping others. Sharing of tacit knowledge may be considered as a noble act as it allows knowledge workers such software developers, network administrators, database experts to help their colleagues to do their jobs better. Many studies explored the role of OCB i.e. (‘enjoyment helping others') in knowledge sharing [62], [63], [64], [65], [66], [67]. H. Lin [66] found that enjoyment in helping others was positively correlated to both donating and collecting of knowledge while A. Kankanhalli, B. C. Y. Tan, and K.-K. Wei [67] also reported positive relationship between enjoyment helping others and knowledge submissions to an electronic knowledge repository. But in some cases, the relation was not clearly established such as in the study by [68] who reported a low significant relationship between enjoy helping others and the helpfulness of contributions to an electronic network of practice, on the other hand, the relationship between enjoyment helping others and the number of submissions was non-significant, further analysis revealed that altruism dimension was not a significant factor in knowledge sharing [69]. In another study the role of OCB was also studied in Taiwanese organizations and the relationship between OCB dimensions and knowledge sharing behavior was conducted and the findings of the study showed that all the components (i.e. altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness) had a positive and significant impact on knowledge sharing behavior [63]. OCB does influence the intentions to share knowledge [70] and the study by A. Amin, M. F. B. Hassan, and M. B. M.
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Maximising the impact of knowledge for innovation in gaining competitive advantage

Maximising the impact of knowledge for innovation in gaining competitive advantage

Knowledge can be defined along two dimensions: explicit or tacit. Explicit knowledge is of a rather ‘explicit’ and discrete type (Civi, 2000). It can be codified and thus is relatively easy to communicate. The other dimension to knowledge is tacit knowledge and it is this dimension that presents more problems. Tacit knowledge is highly personal and hard to formalise, difficult to communicate with others and is deeply rooted in individual actions and experience, as well as ideals, values and emotions (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). As tacit knowledge is so deeply rooted there is the danger that it can become embedded within the person instead of being put to wider use. When asked to describe how they know what they know, individuals may find this hard. This is because when things are deeply learnt they become almost second nature to the individual and therefore cannot be easily communicated. This would not present a problem if individuals lived in isolation, but as we are increasingly required to work together in a cohesive way then internalisation of knowledge is a barrier to communication and, in turn, progress.
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The Influence of Tacit knowledge on Competitive Advantage: Learning from ICT Service Providers in Nairobi

The Influence of Tacit knowledge on Competitive Advantage: Learning from ICT Service Providers in Nairobi

From a contextual perspective, the current study offers fresh insights on the relevance of prior RBV theories related to tacit knowledge and competitive advantage. A number of similar studies conducted in the past focused on sports teams (Berman, Down & Hill, 2002), educational institutions (Rashid, Hassan & Al-Okaily, 2015), and state corporations (Guyo, 2012). The current study offers fresh insights in terms of competitive advantage as a driver of competitive advantage in a commercial setting. Many of the previous studies on the interplay of tacit knowledge and competitive advantage were conducted in the USA (Berman, Down & Hill, 2002; Holden & Glisby, 2010; Jackson, 2012; Tschetter & Tschetter, 2010). The current study, although not exactly mirroring earlier local studies in terms of terms of the set of study variables, is an additional building block in strategic management theory in the local Kenyan context, supplementing other closely related strategic management studies (Ambula, 2015; Awino, 2013; Cheruiyot, Jagongo and Owino, 2012; Namada, 2013; Ndegwa, 2015).
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Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Tacit knowledge transfer efficiency in the situation four is the minimum one, and both the tacit knowledge receiving link and outputting link face challenges. In this situation, the knowledge carriers are required good communication skills, at the same time, the recipient are required strong learning motivation and understanding ability. Besides that, close social relationships also need to be established between both sides. After a long time, highly frequent interaction, they could achieve enlightenment learning. During close interaction between the two sides, the knowledge receiver will observe, cognitive and imitate the knowledge carrier’s words and actions, ac- companied by a lot of face to face communication, to understand action connotation and target, and then after self-reflecting and grasping, the knowledge receiver will form a new cognition and comprehension, and then re- turn to practical work to test, cycling the “cognitive-action-cognitive” process, until the knowledge recipient trans- fer the new knowledge into individual tacit knowledge, for their use.
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Quantitative Model of Tacit Knowledge Estimation for Pharmaceutical Industry

Quantitative Model of Tacit Knowledge Estimation for Pharmaceutical Industry

There are very few articles pertaining to tacit knowledge in the field of business finance at all. There has been work done to quantify intangible assets, but there has been no attempt at trying to quantify or measure tacit knowledge; which is a subset of intangible assets and goodwill. Richard Hall identified tacit knowledge as “know-how” and listed it as one of nine types of intangible resources. This “know-how” or competency was consistently ranked as the third most important type of intangible asset by managers across all fields of business interest (Hall, 1993). Most papers written to date seem to acknowledge the great importance of tacit knowledge (Wagner & Sternberg, 1985, 1987; Wagner, 1987; Sternberg, 1997, 2002; Hsieh et al., 2007), but no one has attempted to measure tacit knowledge. The purpose of this research is to present a quantifiable model of tacit knowledge. With a quantifiable model, managers will be able to utilize more properly all of their resources, and academic researchers will be able to make more accurate models of utility theory. If tacit knowledge can be quantified, than further research can show how it might be optimized. Optimizing the utilization of assets is a key tenet of economic research, whether they are tangible assets like plant, property and equipment, or a subset of intangible assets such as tacit knowledge.
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Key success drivers in offshore software development : New Zealand and Indian vendors' perspectives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology at Massey University, Alban

Key success drivers in offshore software development : New Zealand and Indian vendors' perspectives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology at Massey University, Albany campus, New Zealand

Pettigrew (1997) describes the selection of and access to research participants as a mixture of forethought, intention, chance, expediency and environmental acceptability. Accordingly the main study started with a purposeful sampling strategy that matched the intent of the study. The pilot study helped in improving understanding of the central phenomena of the research, as a conceptual framework and units of analysis were identified. The researcher gained enough confidence to extend this study to a larger sample of cases to provide in- depth understanding of the offshore vendors’ knowledge management strategies. Semi- structured and open-ended questions were used during the interview process, though the questions had more focus than in the pilot study. Dubois and Gadde (2002) have made a distinction between two types of interview data, i.e. ‘active’ and ‘passive’. Passive data has no predetermined objective and appears through search by an active interviewer for new findings from unanticipated data, triggering new insights and this helps to generate more focussed questions on which further interviews can be based. Active data on the other hand is associated with discovery and is concerned with a passive interviewer who now has a more informed view of the phenomenon under study. This study was involved with ‘passive interview data’ during the pilot study with unstructured interview questions, and later progressed to more ‘active interview data’ during the main study with semi-structured interview questions.
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Stewart (2003) explains that the term tacit, which was originated in Latin, means “to be silent or secret”. Complimentary to explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge is the knowledge possessed by an individual that is not expressed and displayed. The word explicit also comes from Latin, meaning “to unfold”, which includes ma- nifestation, summarization, and explication. It almost implies “informatization”. In Latin literature, medieval scholars tend to write the word “explicit” at the end, expressing that this paper is intended to be shared by the public. There is a wonderful German word “fingerspitzengefuhl” that means “a feeling in the fingertips,” which works almost like the synonym of tacit knowledge”. Most high-valued knowledge workers have sound tacit knowledge partly because much tacit knowledge is replaced by automation.
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

This experience embeds knowledge in the successor that may not be held in the firm. In one family firm (C-1 CAPMEN, HF; C-1 CAPMEN, S1), the successors had business careers and education outside the family firm. When they were identified as the likely successors, they joined the family firm in a capacity that took advantage of their past skill and education. Clearly, in this case the founder recognised the value of the knowledge and experience that the successors had acquired prior to joining the family business. In a second case (C-5 COOLWAY, HF; C-5 COOLWAY, S2), one of the identified family successors joined the firm with advanced business education and was quickly put in a position where he could capitalise on his education in contributing to the firm’s success. In one case (C-2 URBANSTUDIO, HF; C-2 URBANSTUDIO, KO; C-2 URBANSTUDIO, S1), a female successor brought professional education to the firm, allowing her to take a more senior role in the firm (although she had limited business experience). In another case (C-6-TANKIT), the female successor returned to the family firm after completing one post-secondary credential relevant to business and most of a non-related credential. The founder did not acknowledge the impact of that education, except to note that the successor was ready to ‘take on more” (C-6 TANKIT, F). However, the successor did acknowledge, in response to probing, that the education provided skills that prepared her for
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THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW FRAMEWORK: CAPABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION LEADS TO CAPABILITY OF INNOVATION OR IMITATION

THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW FRAMEWORK: CAPABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION LEADS TO CAPABILITY OF INNOVATION OR IMITATION

The central argument of this text is that, in the face of today’s knowledge intensified global business competition, knowledge-based view (KBV) framework is more constructive and instructive than that of resource-based view (RBV) framework, in explaining the mechanism of how firms (both innovators or imitators) can establish and sustain competitive capabilities and advantages. Case study (Amazon) combined with a two-staged survey methods are employed to analyze and compare Japanese, Korean and Chinese firms in IT-related industries. The results are congruent implicitly or explicitly that, knowledge-based resource (intangible asset) is more decisive than that of tangible resource in stimulating firms (both market-leaders and market-followers) to pursue an entrepreneurial oriented strategy, and to gain first-mover advantages. The concepts of knowledge integration and tacit knowledge are defined respectively, and used to rationalize that, establishing a knowledge-based human resource management (HRM) system is critical to facilitate firms’ capabilities of communicating and learning, to codify the integrated tacit knowledge into explicit instructions to guide organizational routines, to transform the codified knowledge into the innovations of product architecture, and to enhance the knowledge-based dynamic capabilities and advantages. Theoretically, this study concludes that, both innovators (market-leaders) and Shanzhai imitators (market-followers) are knowledge-driven. Although such a conclusion seems a bit of farfetched, but provides a direction for future researchers to empirically either verify or falsify.
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Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

transfer at Australian universities. Studies of other organisations (Aurum, Daneshgar & Ward 2008; Foos, Schum & Rothenberg 2006; Riege 2007) and the ministerial view (Bishop 2006) on universities reveal that there exists a research gap in understanding the enablers and inhibitors of tacit knowledge transfer. The lack of a particular mechanism for knowledge transfer, both explicit and tacit, has prompted the author to identify ways of tacit knowledge transfer by analysing knowledge management enablers, inhibitors and processes that will aid in the creation, retention and distribution of tacit knowledge. This research will explore tacit knowledge transfer characteristics through surveys of academics in four Australian universities. It will explore and expand issues of knowledge management adoption towards improving organisational processes in different universities as previous papers have limited themselves to a marginal sample and thus provide neither a comparison nor a single model for its adoption. The research will also explore how knowledge management can be helpful in support of the sharing and creation of knowledge and how it can act as a catalyst for improved organisational processes. From both a research and applied perspective, there are negligible studies that focus on this topic especially ones that focus on tacit knowledge transfer within a university. Such a study would benefit research in tacit knowledge management and also help to eliminate confusion as to where universities should focus their knowledge management efforts for optimising performance and making tacit knowledge available for reuse.
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