By looking more closely at motorcyclesafety where we typically think engineered solutions create the most logical results, you discover that the industry is really based on arbitrary standards that were put into effect many years ago because of one method that worked well at the time. Unfortunately, solutions like these can become doctrine and lock us into designing within a system until a point is reached where that system can no longer be sustained. By maintaining that construct we are forcing ourselves to come up with novel solutions to a problem that we cannot accurately see. A lot of time is wasted trying to dig ourselves out of these holes only to force a new solution because it worked for this one situation. By taking a step back and really evaluating a system or system of products the bigger picture begins to reveal itself. This method of thinking is performed by designers every day, but do the constructs of society currently set in place allow designers and engineers the freedom to pull back far enough to design for the best solution?
4.3.6 Based on a study of injuries sustained by motorcyclists in the Strathclyde region of Scotland 25 , the Transport Research Laboratory estimated that improvements in helmet design could reduce motorcyclist fatalities in Great Britain by 20%. The UK has led a European research project to improve the minimum standards of helmets and visors. Further studies support this, and indicate that head injuries would have been much more frequent if helmets had not been worn 26 .
treatments; and protective gear. A number of emerging countermeasures have demonstrated crash and or injury reduction benefits in specific circumstances but the results need to be verified by further research. These countermeasures were: motorcycle airbags, alcohol interlocks, and traction/stability control. Countermeasures associated with the design of other vehicles including truck under-run protection, blind spot mirrors, lane change/warning systems, better A-pillar design and collision avoidance systems are likely to be effective but have not yet been evaluated. Although some road user behaviour measures including licensing and training have shown mixed results or in some cases negative results, there is potential for these to be effective if designed and implemented and/or enforced appropriately. The small number of road side safety barrier evaluations have demonstrated a significant reduction in the relative risk of serious injury to motorcyclists compared to collisions with other roadside hazards (such as trees, poles or the ground). However measures to reduce the severity of injuries to riders impacting the steel posts of some types of barrier (such as the installation of padding on WRSB) are urgently needed to ensure that motorcyclists are not seriously injured following collisions with barriers.
One of the strategies currently being adopted by the Malaysian government to minimize death toll among motorcyclists and pillion riders is the construction of dedicated motorcycle lanes on all new highways (Sittamparam, 2003). Malaysia is the first country in the world to build a dedicated motorcycle lane. Funded by the World Bank in the early seventies, a motorcycle lane was built parallel to the Federal Highway Route 2. It was later extended by the Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan (PLUS) in 1992 and reopened in November 1993. The implications of the separate track on motorcyclesafety were revealed by a study (Radin et al., 1995), which showed that incidence of motorcycle accidents had been significantly reduced by 39 % nine months after it was reopen to traffic. Among the reasons given for the decrease in motorcycle accidents were the elimination of motorcycle to vehicle conflicts and the reduction of speed differentials with faster vehicles. The study also highlighted the need for a standard guideline for motorcycle track design, which is lacking at the moment. At present, the design parameters for a motorcycle lane (Radin et al., 1995) are based on the design requirements of a bicycle track (Public Works Department, 1986) and those of a standard highway.
Even if they wear them, they usually don’t fasten the chin strap properly because lack of knowledge about the importance of doing so. Other problem is Malaysian who rides motorcycles do not know how to choose a proper motorcyclesafety helmets that follow the SIRIM standards. It is important to choose helmets that are specifically design for motorcyclist. Although they are many motorcycle helmets sold in the markets, but not all of them pass the SIRIM standards. So, this study is conducted to analyse the motorcyclesafety helmets performance and how this safety helmets works when it is subjected to impact.
Snell Memorial Foundation has independently tested manufacturer's helmets since 1957. Its first safety standards for protective headgear were issued for auto racing in 1959. Subsequently, other specific helmet standards for motorcycling, equestrian sports, bicycling, rollerblading and skateboarding, snowboarding and skiing, and karting have been issued. These standards address performance, not specific materials or design. Periodically, utilizing specially designed test equipment, the Foundation upgrades its specifications on performance characteristics of helmets to keep pace with advances in materials, helmet technology and design. Information on the Snell Standard can be found at: http://www.smf.org/stds.html
Jig can define as a device that holds a piece of machine work and guides the tools operating on it. We can finish all processes with faster, better and more precise if we hold the workpiece on the jig. In this study, rim adjusting jig means the device that will hold the motorcycle rim during the operation process.
Ben Jose, et al  A two-wheel drive motorcycle providing economical and user friendly two-wheel drive. The use of chain drive and sprockets help in reduction of power loss during transmission of power from the engine to front and rear wheels. Under optimum traction conditions, the rear wheel is driving faster than the front wheel and the one- way clutch within the system allow the front wheel to freewheel under these conditions. At this point, the two- wheel drive system is effectively passive. Though the front drive system is turning, it is not actually transferring power to the front wheel. When the rear wheel loses traction, the drive ratio, relative to your forward speed, changes. The two-wheel drive system engages transferring power to the front wheel until traction is re-established at the rear wheel.
Abstract: Monorack arm in the motorcycle is invented for the support of external topbox. However, load-bearing of the typical monorack arm made of common engineering metals is restricted to only 3 kilograms by the manufacturer in which exceeding this load may result in failure. Therefore, alternative materials such as carbon fibre composite receives the spotlight for this project. With that being said, the project objectives were to propose several conceptual designs of monorack arm which were used to analyze with finite element methods. Next, fabrication of carbon fibre composite sample was required to perform experimental analysis. Accordingly, several conceptual designs of monorack arm in regard to design considerations under static stress application were established. Besides, 2 types of samples were fabricated for experimental analysis namely plain weave woven fabric carbon fibre and twill weave woven fabric carbon fibre. Samples of carbon fibre composites were fabricated to possess a higher fibre volume fraction than the matrix to add fibre strength in the composite. Final conceptual designs of monorack made were computed for structural analysis using ANSYS Workbench. During the simulation of conceptual models, conceptual design 2 of epoxy carbon woven (230 GPa) wet was found to show better structural results in comparison to other designs using the same material. Lastly, tensile test was performed on the fabricated test specimens of plain weave carbon fibre and twill weave carbon fibre according to ASTM standards whereby favorable results were shown to plain weave woven fabric carbon fibre.
We have extended this process to isolate the behavior of individual battery components and have begun to understand the chemical nature of the species responsible for heat evolution within the cells. This enhanced level of understanding will enable more accurate modeling of cell thermal behavior and will allow model- based design of safer, more abuse-tolerant lithium batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the future. Progress toward this goal and key information still needed to reach it are discussed Daniel H Doughty 22 August 2002.
In the development of firefighter motorcycledesign that has been conducted in previous research, the material for firefighting process such as water was not included in the calculation. It was based on the assumption that when a fire disaster occurs in a densely populated settlement, water is largely available in water tanks owned by every family near the location. Meanwhile, the choosing method of a motorcycle that is utilized and installed with a centrifugal pump for firefighter motorcycle can be done using the VDI 2221 method which is based on the needs and easiness in both design and assembling process. Steps and criteria for choosing a motorcycle model are explained in the sub-chapter below.
potential to improve automotive performance, safety and cost. The ‘‘x’’ in x-by-wire is a technological wildcard for automotive systems such as steering and braking, and means replacing conventional mechanical components by electrical ones. The project is to develop brake-by-wire system using an electromechanical brake (EMB) that employs magnetorheological(MR) fluid.
The dimensions of the redesign seat (SEAT B) is calculating and final as on base of anthropometric characteristics data and from study of Royal Enfield Bullet- 350 two wheeler. In the study of dimensions for seats, it is found that the area of seat particularly area under motorcyclists buttock- cushion is quit less. Also front (rider’s) seat surface is somewhat round in shape and there are mostly bad conditions of Indian roads. Thus riders receive mechanical vibrations through seat. Because of these reasons mechanical vibration are transfers to vertebra (back side) of riders through seat and especially due to small area of buttock cushion of seat it is directly transfer to lumbar of riders. These mechanical vibrations are most hazardous to the health for musculoskeletal symptom in the lower backbone pain, degeneration of the spine, rupture and compression of lumbar and whole body vibration (WBV). Hence to overcome these problems, the buttock cushion area of seat is increases which is inversely proportional to weight (force) of riders. By increasing surface area of buttock seat, whatever the vibrations transfer to lower back and vertebra will may be reduce and hence stress and fatigue in lower back (lumbar) will be reduce. This will make comfort and safety seat for two wheeler riders. We have,
I declare that this thesis entitled incorportating flywheel hybrid module in motorcycle : a conceptual design apporach is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.
(A) Give instruction or allow a student to receive instruction in motorcyclesafety if either the instructor or student is using or exhibits any evidence of effect from an alco- holic beverage, controlled substance, or drug as defined in Revised Statutes of Missouri; or (B) Complete, issue, or validate a certifi- cate of course completion to a person who has not successfully completed the course. A period of absence for any portion of sched- uled course instruction will require that stu- dent repeat that portion of instruction prior to issuance of the certificate of completion. Course of instruction must be completed within one (1) calendar year.
The appearance of motorcycles and its riders during night and under rain is greatly reduced due to poor visibility. The motorists behind a motorcycle can’t see them under these weather conditions. Furthermore, although the usage of safety vests can be helpful, not many motorcyclists are using it.
Nowadays, there are highly competitive for automotive world, automotive manufacturers are focussing their efforts on shortening product development cycle without compromising performance and reliability Kharul R et al. (2005). This means it reduces test time by identifying failure modes early in the design process and avoid past design by optimizing their components necessary for life Singanamalli A et al. (2004). Research also indicates that a greater level of stability can be achieved by properly optimizing the design parameters without compromising ride comfort requirements Mangaraju KV et al. (2004).
All Terrain Vehicles (ATV) and dirt bikes have wide range of applications apart from motorsports due to their ability to operate easily in rough terrains. But portability of these vehicles is difficult due to their size, which limits their applications. However foldable light weight motorcycles with off road capabilities were found to overcome this limitation. Thus, the work mainly focuses on designing an innovative foldable light weight motorcycle with all-wheel drive system, so that it can be used for off road transportation. Also Portability limitation of existing vehicles can be eliminated. Initial design requirements for design of foldable all-wheel drive off-road motorcycle are found. Based on that data, four concepts are generated and concept selection has been carried out using Pugh chart and weighted matrix method.
The storage tank is function to maintain the pressurize air and supply it to the air motor by using hose as a connection between these two component. The pressurize air inside the air motor move the rotor or mechanical part inside air motor and it directly transmit the power to the wheel. The 90 percent claim that design of the air compressed system can affect the performance of the air motor. (Bonser, 2008)
From the results, higher percentages of motorcycle riders in the study were young and are in their most productive years of life. Since motorcycling is a high risk venture, young people tend to engage more in risky ventures than their old counterparts. This result is in line with the work of Cervero (2007) who showed that majority of the motorcyclists in Yola, Adamawa State were between 18 and 30 years of age. However, most of the motorcyclists are lowly educated with secondary education or less and majority of them are unemployed. According to Iribhogbe and Odai (2009), those who are less educated found themselves with few chances of getting other jobs and thus engage into commercial motorcycling business as a last resort following unemployment regardless of being a risky job. The level of education account for high level of ignorance among motorcyclists as most of them cannot interpret road traffic regulations or signs (Ngim and Udozen, 2007). Majority of the respondents are Yorubas because the study area is in Yoruba land. More than two-third of the motorcycle riders used their motorcycles for commercial purpose and they have been doing that for a period of less than 5 years.