Avoid segregation, selection and streaming / setting: The OECD is clear that policy makers should seek to limit both selection by ability and the negative consequences of school choice. Both policies have the effect of increasing segregation or stratification between schools, with disadvantaged pupils more likely to be found in less popular schools. Not only does this tend to have an impact on a school’s ability to recruit good teachers, the OECD also finds that, in countries where schools tend to be more segregated, the impact of the school’s socio-economic intake is higher. This means that schools which serve disproportionate numbers of disadvantaged students are less able to counter the effects of that disadvantage than schools with a more balanced, comprehensive intake. The English system remains comprehensive to a large extent and does not generally allow tracking by ability until age 16, but there is emerging evidence that the system has become more segregated since 2010, while recent structural changes, such as the proposal to let grammar schools expand, could accelerate this shift. 2
These recommendations do, however, come with important caveats. Firstly, although it is true that most of East Asia’s modern educational systems ‘were strongly and deliberately modelled after the Western educational rubric (Jeynes, 2008: 900)’ the identification of successful policies in some countries does not necessarily ensure the success of their implementation in others. Even when policies and teaching methods have been proven to be effective in East Asia, culture and context potentially limits the extent to which such initiatives can be successfully transferred to other countries (Cowen, 2006). Secondly, it is worth underlining that cultural and social factors might be behind these countries strong PISA and TIMSS test performance. In East Asian cultures, education has historically been considered a highly valued good and the main legitimate method for social mobility. This can be seen not only in the East Asian teachers’ high salaries, but also by the heavy investment of families in private tutoring services. Family and social commitment to education is also reflected in the large number of weekly hours East Asian students spend in self-study activities and, as Zhu and Leung (2011) argue, the great impact extrinsic motivation has on their mathematics test performance (much more so than their Western peers). Consequently, the implementation of some of the characteristics of the East Asian educational model may imply the need for a cultural shift towards greater belief in the value of education amongst all and the importance of a hard work ethic. Indeed, it is important for academics and policymakers to recognise that East Asian children vastly out-perform their English peers even when they have been through the English schooling system 19 . This is perhaps the clearest indication that it is actually what happens outside of school that is driving these countries superior PISA and TIMSS math test performance. We recognise, of course, that such cultural shifts cannot be expected to take place in England in the short run, as it is notoriously difficult to modify people’s attitudes and beliefs. Similarly, although such policies can lead to higher academic performance, they have well known side effects, such as the pressure which students (physical and psychological) and parents (financial) must put up with (Bray 2003). Yet, in an increasingly competitive world, such a cultural shift may be necessary to ensure England’s future prosperity and long-run economic success.
Further investigation is required to understand the underlying causes of the patterns seen and to bring out the very different circumstances that pupils with the same characteristics may experience. Whilst pupils with English as an additional language (EAL) make more progress and achieve higher outcomes, on average, than others, there are still significant numbers who have low attainment. The analysis here does not take into account the different levels of English proficiency that different ‘EAL pupils’ have, nor the time that they have spent in England’s school system – just over 40 per cent of the Key Stage 4 EAL cohort joined an English state-school at some point after the foundation stage. In conclusion, we find that, while there has been some small improvement in closing the gap between disadvantaged pupil and their peers, it is taking far too long. If we carry on at this pace, we will lose at least a further 3 generations before equality of outcomes is realised through our
Abstract. Government and researchers use school performance measures such as contextual value-added to claim that giving schools autonomy from local authority control produces superior pupil performance in GCSE exami- nations. This paper explores the extent to which inferring causality between autonomy and pupil achievement is reasonable given that pupils are not ran- domly assigned to schools and schools do not randomly acquire autonomous status. Rich administrative data and the Longitudinal Survey of Young Peo- ple in England are used to evaluate whether CVA-style inferences are con- founded by pupil characteristics that explain both the chances of attending an autonomous school and academic achievement. The assignment of grant- maintained (and thus now foundation) status through a vote of parents is used to compare school that just did, and just did not, gain autonomy over a decade ago. These alternative estimation strategies suggest there is little evidence that foundation status casually yields superior school performance.
OECD state that the relationship between pupils’ socio-economic background and performance is a key measure of how equitably a country’s education system distributes educational opportunities. This note aims to summarise the OECD’s findings and relate them to our own understanding of the social attainment gaps in England. The note covers:
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this is a value added model, we interpret the estimates as e¤ects on the change in test score performance between the ages of 10 and 12. The estimates indi- cate that indigenous students educational attainment continues to diverge from ESB students over this period, although the value of the z-scores are substan- tially lower than for Model I, ranging from -0.12 of a standard deviation for male Torres Strait Islanders in numeracy to -0.34 of a standard deviation for female Torres Strait islanders in literacy. This re‡ects the extent to which in- digenous students are falling behind the average student’s improvement in test scores over the period. Furthermore, there is some divergence in educational performance between indigenous groups, namely Aboriginal males literacy per- formance declines relative to Torres Strait Islander boys (F-Test = 4.85, p-value = 0.03). Educational performance is, however, cumulative for all groups of stu- dents, insofar as there is a positive coe¢ cient on the lagged test score variable. 7
Less immediate, but perhaps more important, is the cumulative effect of these factors on individual and groups of students. While the data provided by ACARA on My School do not allow cumulative comparisons, it is worth noting that each of these factors shared in this chapter are common in NAPLAN data reporting and ICSEA calculation. However, what is missing is the nuanced public discussion of what it means to address educationaldisadvantage in Australia, when the policy and media discourse focus so intently on improving teaching quality and school accountability. Educationaldisadvantage is a complex phenomenon and any proposed simple solution will not be able to address the wide range of different contexts.
Roof support systems are necessary to provide stable mine openings and much research has been conducted to design a variety of roof support systems that will function in various manners to ensure that stable ground conditions are achieved. Despite these advancements in technology, mistakes continue to be made in the evaluation and/or installation that significantly degrade the support capability or lead to erroneous determinations of support expectations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss misconceptions about how roof supports perform and factors that impact their performance. The goal is to present practical information that will assist mine operators and engineers in selecting, installing, and evaluating roof support systems properly, and help them to avoid mistakes that can lead to erroneous expectations and potentially catastrophic results that may lead to roof falls. The paper is limited to a discussion of secondary roof support systems and powered roof supports such as longwall shields.
The database used to estimate education production functions for the five East Asian countries draws from a large-scale cross-country comparative test of student achievement, the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). It combines individual student-level performance data with information from student, teacher, and school-principal background questionnaires for nationally representative samples of students in each of the countries. TIMSS was conducted in 1995 under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), an independent cooperation of national research institutes and governmental research agencies. The target population of middle school students to which each participating country administered the test was defined as those students enrolled in the two adjacent grades that contained the largest proportion of 13-year-old students at the time of testing. These are the first two grades of secondary school in all the East Asian countries, representing the seventh and eighth year of formal education.
source of information on nursing home quality (Grabowski & Town, 2011; Office of Inspector General, 2004). Today, the site publicly rates nursing homes on a five-star scale based on data related to staffing, performance on quality indicators taken from Minimum Data Set (MDS) infor- mation, and information gathered through health inspec- tions (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS], 2010). Although these measures include important elements of nursing home quality, two crucial pieces of information missing are data on family and resident satisfaction. Little research has been done to study how the CMS star ratings compare to the satisfaction scores of residents and family
tions for the sector “Transport equipment” could be biased because product classifications in international trade data do not closely map products as perceived by the consumers. How- ever, our results are similar to those reported by Blonigen and Soderbery (2010), who apply the Broda and Weinstein (2006) methodology to the US automobile market considering two different definitions of variety: one is the usual Armington definition based on trade data at the 10-digit HS level and the other is a “market-based” definition of variety, which corre- sponds to specific car models. In both cases, the authors obtain relatively high estimates of import demand elasticities (average of around 11 per cent), suggesting that the estimation of elasticities in this sector is not very affected by the definition of variety used.
Background: The EQ-5D is a brief, generic measure of health status that can be easily incorporated into population health surveys. There are two versions of the EQ-5D for use in adult populations, one with 3 response levels in each of the instrument ’ s 5 dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) and one with 5 levels in each dimension (EQ-5D-5L). We compared the two versions as measures of self-reported health status in representative samples of the English general population. Methods: EQ-5D-5L data were available from 996 respondents selected at random from residential postcodes who took part in the EQ-5D-5L value set for England study. EQ-5D-3L data were available from 7294 participants included in the 2012 Health Survey for England. Responses on the 3L and 5L versions of EQ-5D were compared by examining score distributions on the two versions, both in terms of the profile (dimensions) and the EQ-VAS. To determine the extent of variations in score according to respondent characteristics, we analysed health status reporting on the descriptive profile, EQ-5D Index, and EQ-VAS of both versions of EQ-5D by age, sex, and educational background. We used X 2 to test for differences between respondent categories when analyzing EQ-5D profile data and the t test when analyzing EQ-5D Index and VAS scores.
In this paper, I am concerned exclusively with the kind of comparative disadvantage an individual suffers in having less valuable opportunities than another individual, and that may entitle her to corrective action, such that we ought to regulate the risk of this disadvantage and/or consider compensating her if she suffers disadvantage. The dominant approach in both political philosophy and public policy to identifying this kind of disadvantage is to employ one or another kind of metric. By this, I mean that we identify an individual as disadvantaged by virtue of the fact that she enjoys less than others of some specified good or goods. On this view, we should treat an individual as disadvantaged if and only if her opportunities afford her an objectively lower level of well- being, a lower level of welfare, or fewer social primary goods, say. 1
We would like to point out that the quality of a tagset does not depend on the quantity of tags. For this purpose, we build up the minimum tagset necessary to parse sen- tence whatever the domains are. The first idea is to use a tagset with one tag per structure. Suppose we want to parse only NP and VP. We simply need three tags: NP and VP and O (other, for elements which do not belong to NP or VP). Words belonging to the NP structure are tagged NP and similarly for VP. But this tagset is not enough. The fol- lowing example illustrates the problem: a sequence of ad- jacent NP tags can correspond to a sequence of structures.
Looking first at some of the missing data, it is clear that any data missing on pupil characteristics are linked to poorer attainment outcomes (Table 1). This is true for any year, and the link is strongest when pupils are in Year 10 (2014). The “effect” sizes, especially for FSM and SEN, are large. In fact, they are among the largest found in the data. There are sev- eral possible reasons for this. It is partly that NPD returns are sometimes less complete in special schools. But the gaps remain even if only mainstream schools are included in the analysis (pupils missing FSM data attain 204.21 KS4 points on average, for example). It is partly about moving to a new school. But the gap remains even if those listed as moving to their KS4 school in the last 2 years are ignored. Pupils miss- ing data may be from particular ethnic groups such as Travellers (not disaggregated in this data set). They may be recent immigrants or refugees without relevant documenta- tion. However, even combined, these explanations are not sufficient for the scale of the difference. Pupils’ missing data represent a kind of disadvantage (Gorard, 2012). Ignoring them or making them invisible through imputation or similar is both invalid and unfair. Missing data are used as an extra Table 1. Comparison of Means for Missing Data, Year 10.
Physiotherapy (any tendon rehabilitation regime admin- istered regularly aiming to strengthen the affected tendon includes ‘supervised exercises’ and ‘eccentric training’; does NOT include standard postoperative rehabilita- tion); sham surgery (a faked surgical intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary); ORI-TETS (the Orthopaedic Research Institute Tennis Elbow Testing System); OSS (Oxford Shoulder Score); SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score); VAS (Visual Analogue Scale); EQ VAS (EuroQoL VAS); EQ-5D-3L (EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 3 Level index); PRIM (Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work); QoL (Quality of Life); UCLA (University of California Los Angeles score); VISA (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment); ROM: range of movement; 15D (15-dimen- sional).
Improved biomonitoring of mosquitoes requires an in-depth understanding on occurrences of both vector and non-vector species, in larval, and adult stages. Accurate descriptions of the ecological context in which mosquitoes thrive remain limited, particularly for larval stages. The aim of this study was to develop a mixed-amplicon eDNA approach to assess (i) whether mosquito larval communities of stagnant fresh-water bodies can be detected using a Culicidae-specific primer and (ii) how these results compare to traditional trapping of adult mosquitoes. Results from 32 ponds inside and outside Kruger National Park, South Africa show that our primer detected mosquito eDNA. However, it yielded only a subset of the species found using adult trapping methods. Particularly the less frequent and container-breeding species were not found. Our approach provides the first steps toward an eDNA-based method to assess the entire community of larval-stage mosquitoes. It may thereby overcome current taxonomic hurdles presented by morphological identification of larvae. As such, it holds great promise for biomonitoring and ecological studies of mosquitoes.