The needs of learners who want to learn out of area was also touched on in an April 2019 article by Susan Pember of Holex on lessons from the
devolution of the AEB:
Devolution hasn’t considered student needs or travel patterns, and originally made no provision for those who wanted to learn out of area. In this group of learners, there are some of the most vulnerable young adults who need specialist support, and others who are trying to get away from the gang culture of their local area. Arrangements for managing boundaries need to be sorted before devolution is even granted. 26
following devolution (2019-20 and 2020-21), certain providers delivering residential provision will, however, continue to be funded nationally by the ESFA. 36
The Government has issued illustrative AEB allocations for 2018-19 to MCAs and the GLA in order to provide an indication of the AEB that these areas can expect to receive in 2019-20. It is expected that the final AEB to be delegated in 2018-19 will be confirmed in early 2019. 37 Funding has also been provided by the Government to MCAs and the GLA in 2017-18 to “support preparation for devolution of the adulteducationbudget.” A total of £914.5 million will be paid to the seven authorities in 2017-18. 38
The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
3.1 Staff numbers Academic staff
Between 1994/95 and 2002/03 the number of full-time academic staff at UK HEIs increased by 18% and the number of part time staff by almost 120%. The total headcount increased by 28% and there were above average increases in the number of academics working in research only (not teaching) and in the number of professors, and (non senior) researchers. However, full-timers and academics involved in teaching at least part of the time were still in the majority in 2002/03. More detail is given in Table 4 at the end of this note. The headcount number can obscure some trends in the balance between full- and part-time staff, but it was all that was published at the time. The increase in academic staff headcount over this period was slightly higher than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers, 29 but much of the growth in staff numbers was in part-timers.
Department for Education advice on the Registration of independent schools provides more information. In particular, on the registration process, it states:
The Secretary of State must decide whether the independent school standards are likely to be met before a school can be registered. Once an application for registration has been received, the Secretary of State must notify Ofsted of it and Ofsted must then inspect the institution and make a report to the Secretary of State on the extent to which the school is likely to meet the independent school standards upon registration. […] The Secretary of State will consider the report from Ofsted and any other evidence relating to the independent school standards which is available in coming to a decision. If the Secretary of State decides that the standards are likely to be met once the institution becomes registered as an independent school then it must be registered as such. 2
This paper retains the distinction between the terms for two reasons.
First the education and training series only goes back to the late 1980s, while the education series goes back much further, even with some breaks in the series the concept remains the same. Second the education and training series is more consistent over the period it is available for. The spending data are regularly revised. These revisions can change the total figure, or move items of expenditure from one sub-function to another. The detailed breakdown by sub-function is only revised back five years. This presents a problem with consistency when trying to compile long-term series based on sub-functions and the authors warn against simply splicing one set of data with another pre and post-revision. The education and training series in this paper is therefore consistent for its entire length, other than the break in 2011-12 detailed below. The education series is not and although revisions are generally quite small, readers should be careful when drawing conclusions from this data, especially those based on small differences.
Education Act 1996 they do have a duty to make arrangements to identify children in their area who are not receiving a suitable education. 21
The DfE’s guidance for local authorities explains that, while the law does not assume that a child is not being suitably educated if they are not attending school full-time, it does require local authorities to enquire what education is being provided. 22 There are no detailed requirements as to how a system of oversight should work, and it is for each local authority to decide its approach. However, the guidance emphasises that a proportional approach needs to be taken and local authorities should not exert more oversight than is actually needed when parents are providing a suitable education. It recommends that an authority should ordinarily make contact with home educating parents on at least an annual basis so that it can reasonably inform itself of the suitability of the education provided. 23
The Scottish Government guide to Choosing a School states that:
If you have a child who is due to start primary school or who will be transferring to secondary school soon, your council will probably suggest that you should use the local school designated by them. Of course most people are happy to do so, but the council must also tell you of your right to choose a different school. It can give you a contact address where you can get information to help in making up your mind. If you write to a council and request a place in a particular school, this is known as a placing request. The council has a duty to grant such a request wherever possible. However, the size of the school, the current roll and number of children who already live in the catchment area and other factors will affect the council's ability to grant a placing request. 7
• CBP 8419, School funding in England: FAQs
• CBP 8106, Implementation of the national funding formula for schools in England.
In July 2017, Education Secretary Justine Greening announced £1.3 billion additional funding for schools and high needs, across 2018-19 and 2019-20. This, she said, would allow per-pupil funding to be maintained in real terms for the final two years of the Spending Review period. The money, she said, would come from making efficiency savings in the existing DfE budget, including from the free schools programme:
We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technical education. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy,
The governing bodies of higher and further education institutions are public authorities for the purposes of the PSED. Universities and colleges must therefore have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and harassment and the need to foster good relationships between different groups when they formulate policies and practices in areas such as: sexual harassment, governance of student societies and sports teams, campus security, housing, bars and social spaces. The duty applies to decisions on individual cases, as well as to policy decisions.
and Advanced Learner Loans declined from £2.48 billion in 2010-11 to
£1.82 billion in 2015-16 – a reduction of 26% in cash terms and 31%
in real terms. 26
The other major components of the adult FE teaching and learning budget saw little change in cash terms over the period. Funding for community learning was held at £211 million per year until 2014-15, before increasing slightly to £216 million in 2015-16 in order to provide an additional £5 million for pilot courses to help adults recover from mild to moderate mental illness. 27 Funding for the Offender Learning and Skills Service decreased slightly from the 2010-11 baseline of
The Government made estimates of the percentage RAB rate on new loans from 2012 when it published proposals for changes to funding.
These are discussed in some detail in Changes to higher education funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment
funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment threshold uprating, lower assumed repayments from the extra students who start higher education because the numbers cap is lifted 30 and improvements to the Governments loan repayment model which is used to forecast repayments and hence calculate the resource costs of
The fall in full-time undergraduate entrants between 2010/11 and 2012/13 was concentrated in courses other than first degrees. Entrants to these courses fell by 35%. Just over half of the fall was due to changes in nursing qualifications, which shifted from diplomas to degrees. Among other courses taught at higher education institutions the largest absolute fall was almost 8,000 in foundation degrees. 6 These trends have continued and in 2014 they said that “Higher education institutions appear to be existing the market for study below degree level and focussing their undergraduate provision around degree courses.” There has been an increase to these courses at further
Terms of reference
The terms of reference for the Review stated that it aimed to ensure joined up system that delivers the technical skills needed by the economy:
This review will look further at how we can ensure our post-18 education system is joined up and supported by a funding system that works for students and taxpayers. For example, in recent years the system has encouraged growth in three-year degrees for 18 year- olds, but does not offer a comprehensive range of high quality alternative routes for the many young people who pursue a technical or vocational path at this age. The majority of universities charge the maximum possible fees for at least some of their courses and three- year courses remain the norm. Average levels of graduate debt have increased, but this has not always led to higher wage returns for all graduates. And the system does not comprehensively deliver the advanced technical skills that our economy needs. 64
After emphasising the importance of the reforms to technical education, including the additional funding to implement them, the Minster then addressed the funding of the sector in general. She stated:
The additional funding [for technical education] will benefit FE colleges, which provide most of the technical programmes, but many sixth-form colleges and some school sixth forms will also benefit. At a time when public finances are under considerable pressure, that represents a significant commitment to the 16-to- 19 age group, in the context of the wider pressures on finances. I will not spill out political rhetoric, but a strong economy is important and we have had some difficult decisions to make. Our commitment to maintain the 16-to-19 base rate for all types of advisers at current levels until 2020 is important. We have done that, but the Government will keep funding under consideration.
• A growth in the overall child population. 33
• Additional new duties from legislation and policy. 34 The report explained the role of wider societal determinants:
These wider societal determinants, such as poverty driven by the cumulative impacts of welfare reform, insecure work and lack of affordable housing, lead to an increased risk of strained, poor- quality family relationship, which in turn increases the risk of poor-quality parenting, parental mental ill-health and emotional distress. The cumulative impacts of these factors affect children’s wellbeing, which in turn affect their outcomes and life chances. If these factors are not addressed, and taking into account the projected continued growth in population, then we can expect the number of children and families who require support to continue to grow, unabated. 35
The Bill was presented to Parliament on 24 June 2015. The debate on Second Reading began on Friday 4 December 2015. Caroline Ansell explained why she had introduced the Bill:
In that light, a whole host of questions have been put to Departments. They ask the Minister how many of his or her Department’s policies have been assessed against the family test and what steps have been taken to publish the outcome of such an assessment. I regret to say that the answers to those questions have been rather limited. In many instances, the response was that the guidance urges only a consideration of publication, and therefore no publication had followed. There have been good examples of the assessment in relation to the Childcare Bill and the Education and Adoption Bill. However, the potential within the family test is as yet unrealised. 14
4. Under-represented groups 9
For most of the last two decades both Oxford and Cambridge have taken more than half of their entrants from state schools. The latest rates are 59% for Oxford and 61% for Cambridge, or somewhat higher if overseas students at UK schools are excluded. These rates have generally increased over the past few decades, but the historical data shows that progress has been slow. At the end of the 1930s 24% of entrants to Oxford and 19% to Cambridge started their education at a state school. By the early 1950s these rates had increased to 43% and 34% respectively. In the early 1960s 34% of students at Oxford and 27% at Cambridge came from state secondary schools