According to Kridan and Goulding (2006), “knowledge management (KM) is seen as a significant component of a business strategy that has the ability to provide an organization with opportunities to manage new market challenges”. The number of firms allegedly working with KM has grown increasingly and this interest in managing “knowledge stems from several reasons”. Furthermore, the purpose and goal of utilizing knowledge management are numerous. For example, knowledge management can be perceived as a way to improve jobperformance, improved effective sharing and usage of information within organizations, and an overall better way for organizations to become more innovative (Kridan & Goulding, 2006). In essence, it is a process by which an organization creates, share, and control knowledge for specific business advantages. Therefore, understanding the various types of critical information can help businesses analyze and utilize that information most effectively. In addition, it can provide a more accurate evaluation of jobperformance (Forbes, 2017). Accurate and consistent data is essential to business success. If data is managed effectively, it can help organizations improve customer satisfaction and operations (Forbes, 2017).
Innovation in the other hands, is important in education within the context of global trends; education is fundamental in individual, be it personal or social development (Kishan, 2007). Kishan (2007) stated that, teachers have to adapt the environmental changes due to globalization as it will assure quality service in delivering education to the students. In additional, Kishan (2007) added that, globalization challenged education in the way of it adaptation of fast paced of technology and ICT (Karen, 2006), which he described that yesterday's skills may not be appropriate in tomorrow's teaching, integrated innovation in technology have to be added into the teaching of globalized era (Cox & Graham, 2009; Hazell, 2005; Karen, 2006; Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Liang et al., 2013; Schmidt et al., 2009). This is supported by Griffin, et. al in Griffin, McGaw, & Care (2012) that pedagogical in school have to be integrated with digital networks and technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2009) which they emphasized on collaborative teaching (Oplatka & Stundi, 2011), that will bring out the importance of knowledgesharing among teachers, which triggered innovation and anticipate performance (Wabwezi, 2011).
One of the main measures of the knowledge management process is knowledgesharing that has the crucial impact on promoting innovation ability and as a result success and the competitiveness of knowledge-based organizations. Effectively sharingknowledge, especially tacitknowledge requires employees to have desire and special empowerments. Thus, the present study examines this issue that how and to what extend the dimensions of psychological empowerment can facilitate tacitknowledgesharing in organization. Research method is descriptive and correlational. The population includes 1958 managers and experts of a Bank in Tehran where 332 subjects were selected using random sampling. Results suggest that all aspects of psychological empowerment have positive and significant impact on tacitknowledgesharing in organization.
OCB is a voluntary act and performed because it makes people feel satisfied and happy by helping others. Sharing of tacitknowledge may be considered as a noble act as it allows knowledge workers such software developers, network administrators, database experts to help their colleagues to do their jobs better. Many studies explored the role of OCB i.e. (‘enjoyment helping others') in knowledgesharing , , , , , . H. Lin  found that enjoyment in helping others was positively correlated to both donating and collecting of knowledge while A. Kankanhalli, B. C. Y. Tan, and K.-K. Wei  also reported positive relationship between enjoyment helping others and knowledge submissions to an electronic knowledge repository. But in some cases, the relation was not clearly established such as in the study by  who reported a low significant relationship between enjoy helping others and the helpfulness of contributions to an electronic network of practice, on the other hand, the relationship between enjoyment helping others and the number of submissions was non-significant, further analysis revealed that altruism dimension was not a significant factor in knowledgesharing . In another study the role of OCB was also studied in Taiwanese organizations and the relationship between OCB dimensions and knowledgesharing behavior was conducted and the findings of the study showed that all the components (i.e. altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness) had a positive and significant impact on knowledgesharing behavior . OCB does influence the intentions to share knowledge  and the study by A. Amin, M. F. B. Hassan, and M. B. M.
The presented model explains the mechanism of how TacitKnowledgeSharing mediated by Personal Branding influences Project Performance. The aim of this study, which was successfully achieved, was to prove that tacitknowledgesharing is a tool that builds a personal brand of knowledge workers in a project environment. However, a surprising result of the presented study is the lack of direct influence of tacitknowledge on project performance - a fact which denies our theoretical assumptions. Perhaps the specifics of project management, which before going to work requires precisely defined goals, tools, risk register and methods, does not allow much space for tacitknowledgesharing and that is why the assumptions are wrong. What’s more, it’s claimed that tacitknowledge is generally difficult to measure . On the other hand, perhaps it is the tacitknowledge itself that justifies such subtle impact on project performance as presented in our study. It is worth noting that the presented model (Figure 2) explains the construct of TacitKnowledgeSharing in 23%, whereas Project Performance in 33%, which has been presented in Appendix 2, Squared Multiple Correlations. The situation gives basis to thinking that there are other factors, not included in the presented model, which affect TacitKnowledgeSharing, which have a significant intermediary significance for the TacitKnowledgeSharing and Project Performance relationship, and which could be further analysed in order to explain the relation . In view of the above, the presented model should be extended. Special attention should be paid to the intermediary role of personal branding in the relationship of tacitknowledgesharing and project performance. The conclusion related to the importance of soft skills
Tacitknowledge is a rich area in knowledge management whose concern is how the unwritten, unspoken and hidden store of knowledge owned by individuals, and which is derived from emotions, experiences, insights, in- tuitions, observations and exposure, can be shared. The main drivers of this rich area of knowledge management are partnering, close associations with people, shared activities, common interests, interactions and communica- tion . It is regarded as the hidden iceberg that makes generation of explicit knowledge possible and is also seen as a force behind many innovative ventures experienced in knowledge rich economies. Many experts have written on knowledge management but little is recorded on tacitknowledge, the probable reason being that it is found difficult to separate tacitknowledge from knowledge management or better still to distinguish or draw a line between tacit and explicit knowledge. This study may not be able to segregate tacitknowledge from the other constituents of knowledge management since tacitknowledgesharing is only one of the various compo- nents between knowledge creation and knowledge use and that they all play complementary role. It is also im- practical to isolate tacitknowledgesharing from knowledge management since shedding light on one of the components means also viewing the others.
A study was conducted which consisted of 310 Spanish organizations and structural equations modeling to study the impact of two KM strategies (codification and personalization) on innovation . They concluded that KM is an important mechanism for companies to be more innovative, efficient and effective. It was proposed to have an integrated approach of KM to foster innovation in design . The basis of their model is a systemic model of knowledge and a hierarchical model composed by the macro process and meta-model of KM. Their model provides an effective means of integrating different perspectives of KM and its activities that can enable designers to innovate more easily and efficiently. A good literature survey on KM and Innovation that examines the relationship between their processes is presented in . The issue of developing and implementing an effective system of knowledge management in the modern enterprises for innovativeness was also proposed . They emphasized that knowledge management affects better utilization of enterprises’ resources for creating innovations and increasing their absorptive capacity. They presented the most important roles that knowledge management plays in improving innovation capability of an enterprise, which are codifying and sharingtacitknowledge, acquiring and sharing explicit knowledge, enabling cooperation within and outside the enterprise, knowledge integration, knowledge availability, and creating organizational culture based on knowledge and innovation.
Organizational culture is considered to be the beginning and the beliefs and behavior of a routine in the organization, but not fixed. For this reason, the environment and the situation in the organization with only one culture will not change, then the organization should be slowly changing the culture of which is suitable for the organization. So presented that organizational culture are the values of assembly, hypotheses, confidence, awareness and ideas as well as the real value of mental perception. And knowledge management fully mediated the impact of organizational culture on organizational effectiveness, and partially mediated the impact of the structure and organization of the effectiveness of the organization. Organizational culture is said to be the number of inhabitants and the organization of ideas and shared values, beliefs, behavioral criteria, morality is formed in the long term activities among members of the organization and management style and organizational impressions generated from the values of the organization, so that members will put into action to achieve the organization, after having organization (Chun, 2011). By Raquel Sanz et al (2011) say that organizational culture can be defined as the values, beliefs and hidden assumptions that members of the organization have in common. Islam et al (2011) said the organization's culture can be defined as a shared basic assumptions learned in the face of environmental organizations and solve problems of external adaptation and internal integration is taught to new employees as the right way to resolve the issue. In the study Ehtesham et al (2011),
, knowledge creation, knowledge retention as well as knowledge transfer. Although these forms are interrelated and similar to some degree, and are interrelated cyclically, they can be differentiated separately due to their different focal points. Furthermore, there were two forms of information listed by Polanyi (1966), such as tacit and explicit. These are the two forms of information that are widely recognized. Tacit information is characterized as abstract (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995), inexpressible (Polanyi, 1966), and qualitative in nature, evolving with the accumulated experience of an individual over time (Dooley et al., 1998). It is difficult to communicate and connect with others, embedded in the beliefs or feelings or ideals of a person (Debowski, 2006). Though implicit information is challenging to register, categorize and communicate, rational decisions and successful decision-making is considered vital for an enterprise (Baumard, 1999). Studies reveal that successful business owners have accumulated experience before starting their own businesses (Luk, 1996); especially in small businesses, such experience becomes a key source of tacitknowledge. Outside competence compensates for the comparative lack of skills and abilities of the founders in other situations (McAulayet al., 1997). By contrast, explicit knowledge is objective in nature, which is communicable in formal, systematic language, according to Polanyi (1966) and Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995). Several researchers have identified this knowledge as the awareness based on facts and hypotheses (Berman et al., 2002; Grant, 1996), can be clearly articulated (McAulayet al., 1997) and can be codified, repeated and conveyed as data to others (Debowski, 2006). Also known as objective knowledge or declarative knowledge (Kogut and Zander, 1992), it is preserved in past records and
Knowledgesharing is at the heart of the concept of KM and it is all about sharingknowledge and not owning or hoarding it (Milne, 2001). Knowledge is ultimately what one knows. Dudley (2006)’s perspective about sharingknowledge is that when knowledge is applied and shared, those using it advance to new levels of understanding. He explains that “knowledge flows from one person to another and in that flow it becomes richer in meaning and gains in usefulness. Ultimately, as knowledge is used, results are shared, and understanding is multiplied, the knowledge becomes tacit. This eventually allows those who possess the knowledge to address new challenges successfully, and it results in wisdom”. Theodore (2006) defines knowledgesharing as a commitment of collaboration to inform, translate and educate the peers. It involves active listening and learning. “The information shared involves visions, aims, supports, feelings, opinion and questions besides the work aspects that will increase the jobperformance and increase the quality of work in the department” (Grey, 1996). Knowledgesharing across the organization is increasingly used as a “strategic tool, to boost customer service, decrease product development times, and to share best practice” (Skyrme, 1997). Effective knowledgesharing practices enables reuse and regeneration of knowledge at individual and organizational level (Chaudhry, 2005). Specialist Library (2005) stated that effective sharing of best practices can help organizations to replace ineffective practices, improve employee performance, avoid reinventing the wheel of process, reduce rejects, save cost through improved productivity and efficiency and improve service delivery.
this, the researcher does not deny that the research on KSP would be meaningful to academicians in higher education institutions, in order for them to be able to research any problems pertinent to the topic such as the extent to which sharing of knowledge is needed among the staff members themselves. This research report will also await at the KSP in depth, and its significance to academician in institutions of higher learning (Khan et al., 2014). Mentioned by Ipe (2003), KS is vital, to assure that knowledge grows and Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) have added to this that knowledge increases when it is dealt.
Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacitknowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacitknowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacitknowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacitknowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacitknowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacitknowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacitknowledge in some detailed.
Importance of privacy concern is highlighted by Mukherji  as he believes that why customers would spend the time to provide information to the organization while customers deem solicitation of such information as invasion of privacy. However, organizations need to train their employees such that they can elicit information from customers through meaningful interaction. Socialization is the predominant vehicle for sharingtacit and complex knowledge is premised on depth of relationships between individuals . The challenge would be to develop such relationships with the customers within a time period that is long enough to create meaningful interaction and yet not so long as to make a customer uncomfortable. Organizations also need to act on the information collected and show visible impact of such interactions to the customers in order to motivate the customers to share information multiple times.
Management some factors have to be taken in consideration, having an effective knowledgesharing in the organization leads to increase the accumulation of organizational knowledge where that, result in higher productivity of the employees and improve the project performance . Explicit and tacit individual knowledge held by the employees can increase the value to the product, customers and benefits the organization . Individual knowledge is one of the sources of organizational knowledge, employees and organizations can obtain more knowledge by knowledgesharing process among individuals . The lack of communication among the individuals within an organization will limit the knowledgesharing . Knowledge shared between employees is related to maximize the benefit of knowledge asset of the organization. Knowledge asset of the organization can be greatly reduced when employees are not sharing their individual knowledge .
Both forms of knowledgesharing, either it is tacit or explicit increase the thinking capability and understanding to encourage knowledge creation and ideas that play a vital role in making critical decisions and influence the organizational performance (Reychav, 2009). The knowledgesharing gives birth to better and new innovative ideas that will enhance the quality of existing products, processes, or services that result in better performance of a firm. The tacitknowledgesharing can determine the performance of the firm as a whole (Anh, 2006). Within an organization, explicit knowledge transfer sharing improves the effectiveness and operational efficiency (Wang, 2012). In any organization, the determination of organizational learning can be the sharing of knowledge brings many advantages to an organization through the achievements of organizational goals (Down, 2001; van Woerkom & Sanders, 2010). Knowledgesharing has different dimensions and play critical roles in different ways to improve performance (Du, Ai, & Ren, 2007). Therefore based on the above study, we propose hypotheses such as.
Knowledge is regarded as a strategic factor in knowledge management implementation. It is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. Tacitknowledge is created in the human mind as individual know-how and can be expressed as innovation. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their peers in the organization. For the sustainable development of the modern global economy tacitknowledge can play an important role. Acquire and extract of tacitknowledge is not a very easy task, since it is very complex in its nature. The success and well-being of humankind is an essential issue in the twenty first century and use of tacitknowledge makes the job easier. Management of tacitknowledge effectively and efficiently is a key success factor for the organizations. The paper tries to discuss sharing of tacitknowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. It analyzes the importance and difficulties of sharingtacitknowledge. This paper also makes an effort to explore the properties and characteristic of tacitknowledge thinking for the new readers.
In order to prevent the knowledge transfer behavior or results deviate from the expected goal, enterprises need to take the appropriate method to intervene the key links in the knowledge transfer management system, making the system run in the right direction. In tacitknowledge management mechanism system, three key nodes need to be evaluated. Firstly, enterprise need to evaluate whether the tacitknowledge transfer needs are satisfied, namely whether the tacitknowledge increment and innovation make up the tacitknowledge gap. If the target is not reached, then enterprise needs to check job rotation process, and adjust target position or rotators. If the knowledge gap is made up, the next step is to assess whether the key business process performance is optimized or not, that is, whether the rotator has leant the tacitknowledge and apply it into the practical work. If this didn’t happen, the reason may be the key position has been positioned in error, and enterprise needs to redefine key positions and analysis of the tacitknowledge gaps. If to this goal is reached, the third assessment phase is to analysis whether the enterprise strategic direction is supported. If the performance changes of the core business process doesn’t align with the strategic direction, the reason may be due to mistakes are made in the core busi- ness process definition, and need to decompose the strategic target again; If the strategic development goals are supported, the tacitknowledge transfer process get successful.
In improving the performance of its employees the company will do several ways that can encourage employees to work optimally. Some of these activities include providing training, giving compensation, giving awards and so on. These activities will be closely related to the provision of compensation. Satisfaction with compensation can affect employee behavior to work more passionately and spur high performance (Handoko, 2008). Compensation is something that employees receive as a substitute for their service contribution to the company. Every employee has the desire to get compensation according to their expectations. If these expectations are met, then the employee will always be passionate about work. Every employee who provides the best ability must certainly be rewarded with the same thing. The company management must provide appropriate compensation so that permanent employees show improved performance. As Sumarno (2013) said, a good compensation system is a compensation system that is responsive to situations and systems that can motivate employees. In this case, the compensation system should satisfy the needs of employees, ensure fair treatment of them and provide compensation for their performance. If the company employees are satisfied with the compensation provided, then the employee will always fulfill their obligations by working optimally, so that the good impact for the company is to improve employee performance.
In the knowledge-based economical age, entrepreneurs who can master the information of evidence-based knowl- edge management will enhance their competitive advan- tage. This is especially important in order to ensure that new products and/or processes are innovative . Healthcare organizations are facing many challenges due to the rapidly changing global healthcare system in the 21 th century. These challenges include spiraling costs,
For the tacitknowledge that is hard to be formalized, it is hidden in the owners’ minds but hard to be expressed in oral or written communication. It needs to be brought out via dialogues between people, so as to exchange tacitknowledge, to facilitate comprehension and stimulate learning and innovation. Hence, we can provide platforms such as BBS, Instant Messaging (IM), and blogs to facilitate communications. On one hand, in the discussion forums in BBS or bulletin boards, valuable information can be found in user communications, which could be distilled and acquired through certain techniques, e.g. a knowledge transfer model for FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) format by Wang Li . On the other hand, chat rooms and IM could serve as information exchange channels for users. In a chat room, users can communicate and discuss on a particular topic, and tacitknowledge could be extracted from the discussions. Moreover, via IM, users can communicate directly with the owners of tacitknowledge in order to obtain the knowledge from them.