When metabolism demands escalate as it is in physicalexercise, cells may en- dure relative hypoksia though bloodstream is normal in several organs including kid- ney. Hypoksia on tubule cell of kidney can generate the emergence of apoptosis on cell (Nangaku, 2006). Okolow et al., (2006) found that intensive physicalexercise could induce apoptosis in distal tubule cell of mice that undergo physicalexercise which was treadmill until they were exhausted for the whole ninety minutes. After the phy- sical exercise finished, the blood would rapidly go back to kidney and along with it big amount of oxidant was released (Daniel et al., 2010). Oxidative stress and relative hypoksia may cause damage to kidney cell.
Background: Physicalexercise can improve antioxidant defense system of organis. But long and heavy exercise can disrupt the balance of oxidant-antioxidant. Low glutathione peroxidase is associated with free radicals. Plant purplesweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain anthocyanins high enough that act as antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the effect of extracts of tubers of purplesweetpotato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) on the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) liver of mice (Mus Musculus) treated with maximal physicalexercise.
Abstract: Purplesweet potatoes contain anthocyanins which could function as a natural food colorant, and an antioxidant. One of the problems in handling the fresh roots is their susceptibility during storage, and to extend their uses, fresh purplesweetpotato could be processed into flour. However, during flouring process, the properties of the purplesweetpotato may undergo some changes such as partial gelatinization of the starch and discolorization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-heating treatment during flouring process on degree of gelatinization, the anthocyanin content, the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of heat treated purplesweetpotato flour. Other objectives were to observed the changes in the starch properties such as rheological properties, granular appearance of the heat treated- purplesweetpotato flour. Pre-heating treatment of purplesweetpotato flour was prepared by heating grated purplesweetpotato in a single rotary drum cooker at 90°C for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 min, followed by drying in a cabinet dryer at 60°C for 8 h. The results showed the longer pre-heating time at 90°C had caused increase in the degree of gelatinization, increase in total phenolic and anthocyanin retention. In addition, differences in gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity, paste stability and retrogradation, and differences in scanning electron microscope (SEM) of granular appearance were also observed. The overall results indicated that pre-heating treatment can be used for modifying the physical, chemical and rheological properties to suit various applications and preserving functional properties of purplesweetpotato flour.
However, when the effect of the liquid-to-solid ratio was plotted against the extraction temperature, a significant increase in phenolic recovery was found when the tempera- ture was higher (Fig. 2b). The degradation of thermolabile and easily oxidizable polyphenols at prolonged ultrasonic treatment time may be compensated by additional extrac- tion of other phenolic compounds. It should be noted that the effect of ultrasonic treatment time seems weaker than extraction temperature and liquid/solid ratio. Moreover, like previously reported by Wong et al. (2015), the liquid- to-solid ratio had a significant influence on the recovery of phenolic compounds (Fig. 2c), giving the highest values when the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20. In this line, Spigno et al. (2007) and Cacace and Mazza (2003) also observed a significant increase in extracted compounds when higher liquid-to-solid ratios were used. For instance, the ultra- sound-assisted extraction technology may be combined with other emerging purification technologies eg mem- brane filtration, to purify the phenolic compounds in the extracts (Galanakis et al., 2013).
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the diabetes complications attacking kidney lead- ing to kidney damage. Hyperglycemia accompanying DM causes the increase of Advanced Glycation End-Product (AGE) and Receptor Advanced Glycation End- Product (RAGE) activity, then develop kidney damage and other diabetes compli- cations. The study aimed to investigate the effect of black soybean, purplesweetpotato, or their combination on the expression of AGE, RAGE, and kidney necro- sis T2DM model rats. The rats were given with high-calorie diet for five weeks and then injected with a low dose of streptozotocin (30 m/kg Body Weight) in intraperitoneal. DM rats were divided into: normal, K- (T2DM), K+ (T2DM + glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg body weight), P1 (T2DM + black soybean), P2 (T2DM + purplesweetpotato), and P3-5 Combination 1-3 (T2DM + combination of black soybean and purplesweetpotato in ratio of 1 : 3, 2 : 2, and 3 : 1). DM rats were then given the treatments for thirty days. The effect of black soybean, purplesweetpotato, or the combination of both was evaluated through the expression of AGE, RAGE, and necrosis of renal tubules. The changes in renal tubules histological characteristics were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Immuno- histochemistry analysis of renal tubules was to evaluate AGE-RAGE expression after the treatments. The research results indicated that there was a significant dif- ference from the combination of black soybean and purplesweetpotato in reduc- ing AGE, RAGE, and renal tubules necrosis. The BSB and PSP combination ratio of 1:1 was able to improve renal tubules, decrease the expression of AGE and RAGE towards near normal. The combination of black soybean and purplesweetpotato could be used as one of the alternatives to improve kidney damage in dia- betic nephropathy.
Results revealed that SPPE have a high antioxidant potential and inhibitory ac- tion against lipid oxidation SPPE is rich in phenolic compounds however, great genetic variability was reported for sweet potatoes  , and the highest concentrations are usually observed in purplesweetpotato. Therefore, sweetpotato peel is a good source of bioactive compounds, with high antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and tannins that were found in the plant are phenolic compounds that act as primary antioxidants or free radical scavengers . Ethanol extract of SPP showed good antioxidant activities. In the present study, SPPE showed a significant variability in their inhibitory activity against DPPH radical that ranged from 22.29 to 28.57 µmole TE/100 g DW. However, regarding the antioxidant capacity, a wide variation was reported among the sweetpotato geno-types, it was noticed that purple are considered the best in this respect. 
Mean frequency of seizure in initiation of study was 12.14 times/2 weeks in intervention group and 10.26 times/2 weeks in control group and no significant different statistically. After administered of purplesweetpotato water extract at the end of second week, there was a decreased in seizure frequency of 1.499 times greater in treatment group compared to control, but this did not differ significantly. Additionally, other result showed decreased in seizure frequency 2.3 times higher in intervention group than in control at the end of fourth week and was statistically significant. Outcome at the end of sixth week particularly demonstrated that subject given with supplementation therapy compared to control experienced greater decreased in seizure frequency with difference margin of 4.5 times in bivariate analysis and 3.972 times in multivariate analysis, respectively. It is important to be noted that at the end of this study, we found 17 (46%) subjects with seizure free condition in intervention group and 5 (14.3%) subjects in control group. This in turn showed that supplementation with purplesweetpotato water extract gave good impact in aiding DRFE patient aged 1-5 years to achieve remission compared to control. Until now, there are no any publications that report effect of purplesweetpotato water extract on decreasing seizure frequency in DRFE children aged 1-5 years.26-27 The only available study is the used of oil extract of Rosa Damascena, Nigella sativa L, Ginkobiloba that were proven to decrease seizure frequency in DRE children, however additional dose of Rosa Damascena extract for refractory epileptic child could reduce seizure frequency, administration of Citrus Auranturium L extract for epileptic child increased latent period in tonic convulsion, treatment of Chaiu-longu-muli-tang extract in refractory epilepsy could reduce seizure frequency, treatment of herbal formulation capsule in 930 epilepsy children could decrease seizure frequency and duration. 28-30
12. Sulastri S, Erlidawati E, Syahrial S, Nazar M, Andayani T. Antioxidant activity on purplesweetpotato leaves ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas l.) result of Saree Aceh Besar regional cultivation. Jurnal Chemical and Environment Engineering Journal. 2013;9(3):125-130 13. Nijveldt RJ, Van Nood EL, Van Hoorn DE,
In-vivo studies also demonstrated that potential ethanol extract of purplesweetpotato tubers in preventing the influence of ultraviolet rays on the skin is better than the aqueous extract . Aqueous extract of purplesweetpotato tubers have antioxidant potential in animal and human vascular endothelial, through increased expression of superoxide dismutase. This study aims to prove the comparison between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of purplesweetpotato tubers increasing the expression of superoxide dismutase -2, superoxide dismutase -3, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human vascular endothelium. This study was an experimental study of the vascular endothelial cells which underwent oxidative stress in vitro, which is protected by ethanol extract or aqueous extract of purplesweetpotato tuber at various concentrations. Observation of the superoxide dismutase -2, superoxide dismutase -3, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells is done using the method immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies. The results showed an increase in superoxide dismutase - 2, superoxide dismutase -3, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was significantly (p < 0.05) in endothelium protected by ethanol extract or aqueous extract of purplesweetpotato tubers. The ethanol extract only showed its effect at concentration of 1.5625 µg/ml for superoxide dismutase -2 and superoxide dismutase -3. The effect of aqueous extract were at a concentration of 1.5625–3.125µg/ml. From these results it can be concluded that the ethanol extract or aqueous extract of purplesweetpotato tubers can protect endothelial cells from oxidative stress through increased expression of superoxide dismutase -2 and superoxide dismutase -3. The ethanol extract requires much lower concentrations to show its effect compared with aqueous extracts.
SPPE. Adipocyte tissue secretes several mediators named adipokines, such as adiponectin, leptin, and resistin (Graf et al., 2013). Anthocyanin is commonly found in plants such as cherry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, red corn, eggplant, tomato, purplesweetpotato, red yam, and others (Oancea & Oprean, 2011). Anthocyanin itself has several biological activities, for example as antioxidants (Kähkönen & Heinonen, 2003), anti-inflammatory (Wang & Mazza, 2002; Youdim et al., 2002), anti- atherosclerosis (Fuhrman et al., 2005; Xia et al., 2005), anti-diabetic (Grace et al., 2009; Nizamutdinova et al., 2009; Rojo et al., 2012; Jang et al., 2013), and anti-obesity (Lee et al., 2014). Consuming these substances may normalize adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat foods because of the increase of lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle, the decrease of visceral adipose tissue, and the suppress of lipid accumulation in adipocytes by extensive inhibition of transcription factors that regulate lipogenesis (Kim et al., 2012; Tsuda et al., 2004). Zebrafish are increasingly used as models of human diseases because their organs and tissues show similarities in terms of structure and functions. Moreover, they are easy to manipulate genetically and easy to breed and test. In lipid metabolism research, zebrafish has similarities to those of human in lipid metabolism by validating the anti-obesity effects of natural products (Hasumura et al., 2012; Hölttä-Vuori et al., 2010; Meguro et al., 2015; Oka et al., 2010, 2010; Stewart et al., 2012, 2010; Tainaka et al., 2011). The aim of this research is to examine the effects of ethanolic extract from sweetpurple potatoes on zebrafish induced by a diet of obesity.
Purplesweetpotato is one among many types of potatoes that maintain a lot of vitamins and minerals such as vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, calcium, phosphorus and anthocyanin that are useful in our body. The use of sodium nitrite as a food preservative affects the ability of erythrocytes for carrying oxygen, that cause anemia. This study has been carried out by measurement of blood components (hematology), especially for the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit of mice that were previously induced by Sodium nitrite roomat causing of blood components of mice become abnormal and then were induced by pollen purplesweetpotato (Ipomea batatas var. Ayamurasaki) with variations of volume of 0.4 ml and 0.2 ml for normalizing of blood components of mice. The obtaining data showed pollen purplesweetpotato can normalize blood components of mice, but for given volume variation did not show any different effect.
This paper reports the effect of anthocyanin from purplesweetpotato in the cerebellum of ischemic stroke rats model by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) technique. This technique was carried out by ligating the blood flow in External Carotid Artery (ECA), Common Carotid Artery (CCA) and Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) for 3 hours, followed by reperfusion. The MCAO technique proved a technique for preparing ischemic stroke rats. This technique induces releasing of Brain-Derived Nuclear Factor (BDNF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in the cerebellum of ischemic stroke rats. The levels of BDNF measured by ELISA technique and VEGF expression used immunohistochemistry technique. The results showed that anthocyanin from purplesweetpotato increases the level of both BDNF and VEGF expression in the cerebellum of ischemic stroke rats. It is suggested that anthocyanin could be used as a therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke.
The study about effect meals with a varying glycemic index on blood glucose response in type 2 diabetes mellitus concluded that plasma glucose shows a positive response to high GI foods and may aggravate the hyperglycemia already present in type 2 DM . In Italian food, from the 141 commercial foods, there were 13 food categories with the composition of 80% carbohydrate that usually consumed such as fermented milk, juice, soft drink, biscuit, bread, sugar and sweetener, pizza, etc. . Reducing carbohydrate by increasing calories from protein and fat also increased glomerulus filtrate rate (GFR). Future study on GI should examine the long-term effect of this increase in GFR on kidney failure patients . Another study about GI demonstrated that glycemic index of potatoes varies depending on their method of preparation. To minimize GI are advised to precook potatoes and consume them cold or reheat . On the other hand, there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value that is unlikely to be a guidance in selecting food .
Figure 3 presented an increase in MDA levels were significantly higher after cholesterol feeding without purplesweetpotato extract or honey or the combination of both (P <0.05).Groups of rats that were given high-cholesterol feed simultaneously with the purplesweetpotato extract have no change in MDA after one month of treatment (p>0.05). In the group given a water extract of purplesweetpotato tuber rose significantly (P <0.05). The group that received purplesweetpotato extract turns out to have significantly lower level of MDA (P <0.05). At the beginning of the experiment, the MDA level does not differ in all four experimental groups (p> 0.05). Based on this study, sweetpurplepotato extract, natural honey and a combination of both seems to have an antioxidant effect on rats that were given high-cholesterol diet.
The influence of different cooking methods on TAC of PFSP samples was evaluated on a dry matter basis in Table 5. The current result showed that the content of TAC of cooked PFSP increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all of the treatments with a range of 173.68 to 234.18 mg/100g DW as compared with the fresh PFSP (111.56 mg/100g DW). Steaming resulted in the greatest increase (243.18 mg/100g DW), followed by skin-on frying (217.1418 mg/100g DW), roasting (208.11mg/100g DW), baking (195.25 mg/100g DW) and skin-off frying (173.68 mg/100g DW). In common with other polyphenols, anthocyanins are enzymatically degraded in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and glycosidase in plant tissue. These enzymes can be inactivated by mild heating and can have a positive effect on anthocyanin retention. Therefore, cooking process inactivated these indigenous enzymes in fresh PFSP, retaining anthocyanins in cooked samples .
Out of the 100 households interviewed 90 responded which translate to 90% reported to be planting local landraces namely; Nyakowino, Abiro Nenywol, Rachar, Nyathi odiewo, Kuny kibuonjo and Amina which they obtained from their own farms while 10% indicated that they obtained their planting material from neighbor’s farm. None of the farmers obtain their planting materials from research stations (Table 1). This result is similar to finding from Abidin  which pointed out that by the time of the official release, the two cultivars namely; SPK004 and Ejumulla, they were spreading quickly through farmer–to- farmer exchange or purchase of planting materials and promotions. Tairo et al.  also found out that sweetpotato cultivation is largely depended on locally available materials that are reserved in home gardens as source of planting materials for the next season. Thus farmers keep on sharing landraces that are similar but under different names due to poor record keeping.
3.4 Costs and Net Income Shares of Major Actors The cost and net income shares of four players (farmer, agent-trader, wholesaler and retailer) involved along the marketing channels of Bataan-Divisoria and Tarlac-Tanauan in handling sweetpotato roots were determined and summarized in Table 6. In terms of net income, the farmer-producer is the top earning actor (4.76 PhP kg -1 ) but considered as the most vulnerable to price fluctuation (as the selling price is dependent on the agent-trader’s decision) and to production-related factors such as deterioration in quality brought about by insect pest infestation and losses during harvesting. In all the players, the trader has the lowest net income (2.02 PhP kg -1 ) but can generally be assumed as the safest player from price fluctuation and quantity loss as the selling price to wholesaler is set first before setting the buying price from the farmer. The retailer is the second top earner with 4.28 PhP kg -1 and net income share of 14.83% next to farmer (16.50%). Retailer shares the risk of higher postharvest loss being at the end of the chain and has the second highest cost share (15.67%).
Sweetpotato plays a significant role in increasing food security and income for the poor farmers of Bangladesh. Sweetpotato is mostly grown in the marginal lands of Bangladesh during the period of October to February. It is consumed in different forms e.g. boiled, fries and roasted. Sometimes it is also eaten as a vegetable in curry. The value chain of sweetpotato is not well organized in Bangladesh. This study was carried out to analyze the existing value chain of sweetpotato in two selected districts of Bangladesh. Quota sampling technique was used to select the samples and primary data were collected through Individual Interview (II), Key Informant Interview (KII) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) by using structured, open and close ended Questionnaires and check list. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analysis the data. Core value chain actors in sweetpotato value chain are input seller, farmers, local trader, retailer and consumers. Mostly farmer cultivates local variety of sweetpotato and get a profit around BDT (Bangladesh currency) 30,000 per acre of land. Local trader collects sweetpotato both from farmer’s field and local market. There are no fixed traders or retailers of sweetpotato in the study area. They mostly sell sweetpotato along with other vegetables in both urban and local big market. Analysis found that both the trader and retailer gets BDT 3 profit margin by selling 1 kg of sweetpotato. No sweetpotato processing company was found in Bangladesh though there are huge possibilities and potentials of it in both rural and urban market.
In the present study, the IGFBP-3 level in the OT group is lower than in the A-Ex group. This finding suggests that exercise program given to the rats in this group leads to the overtraining syndrome. However, when the overtraining exercise program is accompanied by the provision of H. sabdariffa extract the rats do not experience the overtraining syndrome. The IGFBP-3 levels in the OT-Hib group are even higher than in A-Ex and OT groups. It seems that H. sabdariffa works more effectively in overtraining animals compared to animals in normal condition. The higher level of IGFBP-3 in the OT-Hib group are likely caused by combination of physicalexercise with the antioxidant role of H. sabdariffa.
(where ‘r’ is radius of artery) As per WHO, increased intake of processed food as well as increased amount of salt in diet results in rise in blood pressure. High blood pressure is not a dis- ease but is the primary sign which if ignored can lead to various major diseases like Stroke, MI, Heart failure, CAD, and peripheral artery disease and kid- ney diseases etc. In recent era, Hypertension and Heart diseases had become global health concern. Rise in blood pressure causes symptoms like Head- ache, Palpitation, Sweating, Anxiety, Insomnia, and Blushing etc. In majority of cases, it doesn’t show any symptom so it is also called as “Silent Killer”. Various physical as well as psychological factors are responsible for rise in blood pressure like irregular exercise, excessive smoking, excessive alcohol in- take, sedentary life style, depression, stress, anxiety, fear etc.  . According to World Health Report 2002,