A method for convertingfreefattyacids in acid oil or acid fat into fattyacidmethylesters is disclosed. The method involves adding a small amount of methanol and an acid catalyst to the acid oil or acid fat and subjecting the mixture to conditions that allow the fattyacidmethylesters to form. A lipid phase containing the fattyacidmethylesters and triglycerides can from and be separated from the rest of the reaction mixture. The lipid phase can then be subjected to conditions suitable for converting the triglycerides into fattyacidmethylesters. The method of present invention is especially useful for a process of generating biodiesel using a starting material of vegetable and animal oils and fats that contain a relatively high level of freefattyacids.
FAMEs used for the study was produced from rubber seed oil of high acid value 46.41mgKOHg -1 by adopting the two step protocol – transesterification via acid esterification because of its high acid value  (Acid value – 46.41 mgKOHg -1 ). All the chemicals used were of analytical grade. The reaction was monitored by 1 H-NMR also using Brucker FT AC-200 and MSL 300 MHz instruments, apart from GC-MS technique and further characterization was done by GC-MS hyphenated technique using Shimadzu, QP-2010. Possibility of monitoring the transesterification for producing FAMEs from RSO, by FT-IR (Thermo Nicolet, Avatar 370) and NIR (Elico SL 153) techniques was also analysed. Fuel properties were also tested as per ASTM standard to meet ASTM standard D6751. Acid value, peroxide value and induction period (120 o C) were recorded at regular intervals for samples maintained in six different environments viz. light (open), light (closed), dark (open), dark (closed), metal container (open-dark) and metal container (closed-dark). Transition metal analysis was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) using Perkin Elmer - Optima 2100 DV. Induction period (120 o C) was measured by following IP 306 method explained by Mittelbach and Gangl , storing the FAMEs samples at 30 o C.
The antibacterial activity of the fattyacidmethylesters from synthesis of Sesbania rostrata Seed by In-Situ Transesterification reaction was evaluated at two different concentrations by the agar well diffusion method. The synthesis of fattyacidmethylesters Sesbania rostrata Seed was most active against Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. The synthesis of fattyacidmethylesters Sesbania rostrata Seed was more active against Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Gram-positive. The results obtained indicated that fattyacidmethylesters Sesbania rostrata Seed different antimicrobial activity.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all the obtained spectra for the mixtures of methyl oleate standard and refined soybean oil was spectra was performed to verify the capability of the multivariate analysis approach to discriminate the different samples with different contents of FAME. The 15 samples of mixtures were divided in 4 groups, taking as a reference the percentage of methyl oleate in each sample: 0 to 30%; 31 to 60%; 61 to 90%; and 91 to 100%. Partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses of the average ATR-FTIR spectra of the samples were carried out using MATLAB software, V. 7.13 (The MathWorks, Natick, Massachusetts, USA) and the PLS Toolbox (Eigenvector Technologies, Manson, USA). Cross-validation by a leave-one-out procedure was performed during the validation step to define the optimal number of parameters that should be kept in the model to detect outliers. The data were pre-processed by Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Multiplicative Signal Correction (MSC) . In addition, mean-centering and autoscaling methods were employed. Mean-centering method
To produce FAME derived from fat from ren- dering plant the method of acid transesterifica- tion reaction was used (Prošková et al. 2009). This method was chosen because of high acidity of starting fat (31.14 mg KOH/g of oil). Waste oils and fats with high content of freefattyacids can- not be transesterified only by an alcalic catalysis which is satisfactorily used for plant oils. In the case of waste oils and fats with a high acidity value it comes to saponification at reaction with freefattyacids during alcalic catalysis. Soaps remove the cat- alyst from the reaction and impede the separation of glycerins and esters. The produced biofuel was tested with chemical analyses and stoichiometric and heat characteristics were identified.
Starting materials and product solutions were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID by diluting 2 μl of recovered product with 1 ml of hexane. The GC method uses an HP-INNOWAX column in an Agilent 7890A GC coupled to a 5975C MS. A carrier gas flow of 1 std. ml min -1 , an inlet temperature of 250 °C and an injection volume of 1 μl were used. The oven temperature was initially held at 40 °C for 5 minutes, then ramped at 10 °C per minute to 220 °C and held at this temperature for a further 20 minutes. Masses were scanned from 20 to 500 Da.
Abstract—Biodiesel is a fuel commonly produced through the process of transesterification or alcoholysis. In this reaction, triglycerides react with short chain alcohols, producing a mixture of fattyacidesters (biodiesel) and glycerol. Esters of fattyacids and glycerol are partially miscible, forming two liquid phases in the separation of these products. The determination of equilibrium data for liquid-liquid (ELL) for these systems is essential to a better understanding of the reaction process, improving the reaction rate, selectivity, and simulation and optimization of the reactor and the system of separation of products. In this paper we experimentally measured data for ELL pseudo-ternary systems of fattyacidmethylesters (FAME)/methanol/glycerol and fattyacid ethyl esters (FAEE)/ethanol/glycerol at 30, 45 and 60 ° C. The biodiesel used in this work was produced by transesterification of cottonseed oil. The measured experimental data were used to evaluate the prediction of the UNIFAC method for such systems.
The prepared calcium oxide supported catalyst from carbide slurry waste was explored in transesterification of waste cooking oil to biodiesel and obtained a high biodiesel yield of 92.2 ± 0.31% with the prepared catalyst, 90.2 ±0.57 with ACl3 and, 89.7± 0.16 with NaOH at high amount of reacting alcohol, this implies that the sufficient amount of alcohol enabled efficient transfer of alkyl moieties between triglycerides and alcohol and prevented any back reaction. Similarly Ghiasi M. & Malekzadeh A. , in his study on producing CaO as a solid base catalyst, the authors reported that besides the fact that the presence of water in the process has little effect on the catalyst, the use of CaO as a catalyst could provide many advantages such as: high activity, lengthened catalyst life and moderate condition of reaction. Catarino et al.  prepared biodiesel from waste cooking oils using waste foods as source for calcium oxide (CaO) as catalyst. A 65% yield was obtained mainly due to formation of soap from freefattyacids, proper esterification would have reduced these effect. Also Puna et al.  suggested that a little water is essential in enhancing the catalytic activity of prepared CaO, in his use of calcium oxide as a catalyst, it was discovered that a sigmoid curve denotes the reaction, with the initial slow reaction enhanced with a liitle hydration of the catalyst and a faster kinetic rate observed with the catalyst in the mothoxide phase before
et al. 2008a; USDA 2010) (Table 1). Therefore, it was not surprising that the concentration of free 3-CPD in raw potatoes was not detected (< 3 µg/kg) and the amount of bound 3-CPD reached only 2 µg/kg (Doležal et al. 2008a). Somewhat higher concentrations of 3-CPD were found in the potato products processed at relatively low temperatures. For example, potato flakes contained free 3-CPD at the level of 37 µg/kg and bound 3-CPD at the level of 18 µg/kg. Free 3-CPD concentrations in instant mashed potato and potato dumpling were under the limit of detection (< 3 µg/kg), but the content of bound 3-CPD in these products was 38 µg/kg and 10–13 µg/kg, respectively (Doležal et al. 2008b). It seems that the bound 3-CPD in potato flakes can form during drying and its increased level in mashed potato could be ascribed to the addition of vegetable fat.
The previous identification of a membrane fattyacid binding protein (MFABP) in brush border plasma membranes of the jejunum suggested that mucosal cell uptake of fattyacids might represent a carrier-mediated transport system. For evaluation of this hypothesis cellular influx kinetics (V0) of [3H]-oleate were examined in isolated rat jejunal mucosal cells. With increasing unbound oleate concentration in the medium V0 was saturable (Km = 93 nM; Vmax = 2.1 nmol X min-1 per 10(6) cells) and temperature dependent with an
This study reports the presence of ACC, SCD and D6d immunoreactive bands in cattle longisimmus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. ACC is the key enzyme con- trolling de novo biosynthesis of SFAs (Hardie, 1989). SCD is the enzyme catalysing two types of reactions: (i) biosynthesis of MUFA through the insertion of a double bound in SFAs between carbon C9 and C10 and (ii) the tissue biosynthesis of cis -9, trans -11 CLA from trans -vaccenic acid (Enoch et al ., 1976). D6d is involved in a complex process of biosynthesis of longer chain n-3 and n-6 fattyacids through conversion of linoleic and linolenic acids to their products (Stoffel et al ., 2008). The molecular weights of ACC, SCD and D6d immu- noreactive bands detected in this study were 150, 37 and 50 kDa respectively, which is consistent with the molecular weights of ACC, SCD and D6d proteins reported for other species (Tanabe et al ., 1975; Cho et al ., 1999; Moreau et al ., 2006). In a case of the SCD protein expression (in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue) and muscle D6d, the two closely positioned immunoreactive bands were observed. One possible explanation for the two bands could be exis- tence of more than one SCD (Lengi and Corl, 2007) and D6d isoforms in cattle tissues. More than one isoform of D6d were found in Mucor rouxii by Na-Ranong et al . (2006) and in rats by Skrzypski et al . (2009). The presence of several SCD isoforms, their tissue-specific distribution and regulation also has been previously reported in mice and rats (Thiede et al ., 1986; Miyazaki et al ., 2003). The number of D6d isoforms in ruminants remains unclear.
The acute elevation of plasma freefattyacid (FFA) levels by direct infusion of sodium oleate into the plasma of conscious dogs was accompanied by the rapid onset of a 2- to 12-fold increase in plasma immunoreactive insulin, and, subsequently, a marked fall in plasma glucose, even in dogs receiving intravenous glucose throughout the infusion. The
In this study, the effects of feed temperature & flow of lauric acid as a disturbance on the control structure studied for default control, single point control & two point control structure. There is no control action in case of default control structure. The response for single point control structure is sluggish. The response of two point control is quicker compared to that of single point control. The two point temperature control structure is found to be suitable for controlling the disturbances in feed temperature and flow rate.
however, the presence of obesity- induced insulin resistance may also increase measured glucose and insulin 10–14 in the absence of energy intake. A biochemical test that could be used to identify the nonfasted state among children regardless of obesity status would thus be valuable. We therefore sought a biochemical analyte whose concentrations would be expected to diverge under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Serum freefattyacid (FFA) concentrations rise in the fasted state but are decreased by food intake. 15 Circulating FFA increases when there is insuf ﬁ cient peripheral insulin action to suppress adipocyte lipolysis. 15,16 Ongoing lipolysis causes children ’ s serum FFA to increase as the length of time since food was ingested increases. 17 Serum FFA also increase in states of insulin resistance, including obesity. 10,14,17–20 However, when insulin
substantial overlap with ADHD in terms of difficulties with organizational skills and attention. Similar to the author's earlier study , the Conner's rating scale values at entry into are indicative of a study population in which the majority of participants would likely not meet the cri- teria for ADHD (quoted in the report as 69% of partici- pants). Using a double blind, placebo controlled high quality design (Jadad score = 5) children received either 558 mg EPA, 174 mg DHA and 60 mg GLA/day or placebo for 12 weeks. The fattyacid supplementation had no sig- nificant benefit over placebo upon motor function, but, notably, resulted in statistically significant improvements in reading age, spelling age and on all except one Con- ner's'subscale (opposition, cognitive problems, hyperac- tivity, anxiety, perfectionism, social problems, impulsivity, and inattention). A concern arises, however, from the fact that while the p-values for the difference between omega-3 PUFA and placebo groups reported by the authors appear impressive, the actual magnitude of the difference between the groups is much less so. For example, the change in normalised t-scores for DSM-IV Attention scales in the PUFA group was better than the placebo group by only 3.8 points (or 38% of 1 standard deviation) while the quoted statistical significance is p < 0.00001. Information provided in the report suggests two possible explanations. Firstly, the authors state  that they used non-parametric tests which, depending on how the data ranks in each group, could produce such an out- come although this is unlikely to occur. Secondly, they state  that "group comparisons were therefore per- formed by using the raw scores obtained by summing across all items." This suggests that the statistical signifi- cance quoted is for comparison of raw scores, rather than the t-scores presented in the paper. Whatever the explana- tion, it appears that the magnitude of difference between placebo
Activated carbon has also been used as a support for other acidic groups like heteropolyacids, metal complexes etc and has grown in popularity because it is easily available, inexpensive and is reliable over repeated usage. We also agree with the previous researchers about the advantages of activated carbon derived from cellulosic materials as catalyst supports. Since the overall goal of this research is to synthesize inexpensive and green catalysts from agricultural wastes, tobacco stalks were chosen to provide the support for deposition of sulfonic acid as the necessary acidic active sites. Although focus is being given to the use of discarded and waste cellulosic material for the production of ethanol, the possible
(NaOH+C 2 H 5 OH). Water was added to the saponifaction product. Then hexane was added to the mixture, which wasfurther extracted and after settling out, the lower layer was poured into the flask. Extract of unsaponified matters was repeated twice. The aqueous layer containing the saponified matters was acidified with 10% H 2 SO 4 (pH=1.0). The released fattyacids were converted into hexane. The mixture was transferred to a separating funnel. The liberated fattyacids were extracted with hexane. The hexane layer, containing freefattyacids, was washed several times with water in a separating funnel and poured into a conical flask, then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was then distilled off at 50 0 C on a 10 digital
To the best of our knowledge, no data have reported a correlation between a particular fattyacid in the blood and the liver. However, some data have revealed that NAFLD is associated with significant changes in fattyacids profiles in blood. Safaei et al. showed that NAFLD is associated with a significant increase in the oleic acid (C18:1n9) to stearic acid (C18:0) ratio, as well as the palmitoleic (C16:1) to palmitic acid (16:0) ratio. NASH patients were characterized by a decreasing ratio of DHA (C22:6) to docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5) . Our previous research also revealed similar results. We found changes in the fattyacids profiles in patients’ serum, with reductions in liver steatosis by one or two degrees. The reduction in liver steatosis by one degree caused a significant increase in the n-3 family levels: EPA (C20:5, p < 0.055), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5, p < 0.05), and DHA (p < 0.05). A reduction in liver steatosis by two degrees caused a significant decrease in serum palmitoleic acid . The next study conducted by our research team was based on fattyacid erythrocytes membrane profiles and showed that steatosis reduction is related to a significant reduction in stearic (C18:0), palmitoleic, and oleic acids, which tended to increase in polyunsaturated fattyacids (PUFAs) including eicosapentaenoic (p < 0.055) and docosahexaenoic acids (p < 0.55) . Changes in monounsaturated fattyacids (MUFAs) were also visible in children with NAFLD. Lu et al. conducted a study on 41 Chinese pediatric patients aged 4 to 17, and serum palmitoleic acid concentrations were higher in the mild and severe groups of NAFLD compared with the control .