Different sources and triggers of tacitknowledge were explored with the interview participants. Sources of tacitknowledge acquisition included education, training, colleagues, repositories, and prior experiences, whilst new challenges and first time experiences were cited as main triggers for tacitknowledge generation. Directors and managers had sufficient educational background or extensive prior experience to fall back on when faced with problems. Further, they had the greatest opportunity to undergo training programmes and directors mainly participated in external seminars, workshops and training programmes. Hence, they interacted with external peers and maintained a good network, through which they could acquire tacitknowledge. However, for operational level employees, colleagues and peer groups were considered as the major source for acquiring tacitknowledge within the company. Despite the contextual differences of problems, the tacitknowledge acquired from colleagues was considered as highly beneficial to overcome such problems. Moreover, operational level employees relied on their past experiences and rarely on repositories such as company manuals, documents and intranet. An analysis of tacitknowledge sources is given in Figure 2 based on individual and organisational level considerations.
However, despite the interest and the effort put into KM by many leading companies, the discipline is still in its infancy in the constructionindustry and is at an embryonic stage in UK construction (Robinson et al., 2001; Carrillo, 2004). This is evident with dearth of academic research and inadequate empirical studies done on KM in constructionindustry and even the limited number of studies that have been conducted, focused heavily or solely on explicit knowledge (Egbu et al, 2003) and on the role of IT (Carrillo et al, 2000). However, any KM approach that is purely based on IT is bound to be less successful because people issues, which are not readily solved by IT systems, would need to be resolved (Kamara et al, 2002). Further, in the context of the knowledge economy, what people do with their knowledge, termed as tacitknowledge, is considered to be the real driver for the performance of the industry (Quintas, 2005). As such, the people-centred view of KM is increasingly being viewed as of critical importance for organisations wishing to retain competitive advantage and to achieve better performance. Hence, as a labour intensive knowledge based industry, there is an emerging importance placed on effectively managing the constructionknowledge worker and their tacitknowledge to achieve best value for the industry.
As Herrgard (2000) and Empson (1999, 2001) contended, organisations' knowledge resources can be described as an iceberg. The structured, explicit knowledge is the visible top of the iceberg, which is easy to find and recognise and therefore also easier to share. Beneath the surface, invisible and hard to express, is the momentous part of the iceberg. This hidden part applies to tacitknowledge resources in organisations. It cannot be managed and taught in the same manner as explicit knowledge. Even if coded knowledge is easier to diffuse, the role of tacitknowledge is often essential for being able to use coded knowledge. In the context of the knowledge economy, the generation and utilisation of tacitknowledge is considered to be the real driver for performance enhancement (Quintas, 2005). Tacitknowledge could further be classified into two dimensions knowingly: the technical and the cognitive dimension (Herrgard, 2000). The technical dimension encompasses information and expertise in relation to ‘know- how’ and the cognitive dimension consists of mental models, beliefs and values (Gore and Gore, 1999), in short, conception of reality. Therefore, it is imperative to examine the cognitive human process to understand better tacitknowledge, and how it is generated and utilised, before managing it.
According to Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) report, the UK constructionindustry has suffered from performance problems and has been in transition to overcome this issue. In order to improve overall performance of constructionindustry, two core factors, knowledge and learning, should be considered more (CRISP, 1995; OST, 1995). The term ‘knowledge management’ and the way in which to achieve it are a new category and essential in knowledge-based industries like construction (Carrillo et al., 2000; Hari et al., 2005). KM has a vital role in improving the efficiency of project delivery and competitiveness of organisations (Egbu, 2005; Sheehan et al., 2005; Fong, 2005). Therefore, the implementing KM in construction organisations is confronted with challenges such as capturing, sharing, and transferring information and knowledge across projects, due to the fact that construction projects are likely to be short-term, project-based or task-oriented. Furthermore, Egbu and Botterill (2002) claim that the rate of developing and generating new ideas and knowledge are very low because the technical knowledge that was achieved from one project is usually lost or will not be used in the next project (Figure 2.5). In essence, for being competitive and improving project performance it is necessary to capture, share, and transfer knowledge and experiences that are achieved from previous projects (Lee & Egbu, 2005).
The phrase “tacitknowledge” has been widely used in the knowledge management and organization studies areas. There are many definitions and approaches that have been used in explaining and examining tacitknowledge. This paper intends to further elaborate the nature and attributes of tacitknowledge by comparing the works done by distinguish authors on tacitknowledge. The study found that basically there are two issues concerning tacitknowledge. First, whether tacitknowledge is individually-owned or is it collectively-owned and secondly can tacitknowledge becomes explicit. Many authors seem to agree on the definition of tacitknowledge, but in conflicting views of the scope of tacitknowledge. However, three basic attributes of tacitknowledge has some agreement between the authors. The three attributes are tacitknowledge is experientially acquired, difficult to articulate and plays an important role in the attainment of goal of an individual. Tacitknowledge is potentially the most valuable asset in an organization, if it can be elicited and used efficiently and effectively in an organization. The findings for this study are the nature and attributes of tacitknowledge, categorization of tacitknowledge, and a conceptualization framework of tacitknowledge.
The mode in focus is externalisation, where tacitknowledge is articulated to explicit knowledge through dialog and listening as indicated in the SECI-model. Converting the tacitness of one’s knowing to make it explicit is not an easy task. Yet according to Polanyi (1958), who views tacitknowledge as achievable only through personal experience, diffusion seems to be impossible, where as others (Leonard & Sensiper 1998; Zack 1999; Holthouse 1998) consider sharing tacitknowledge as very difficult. It is dubious whether externalisation is really necessary and what benefits can achieve by doing so. As stated previously, value, rareness, inimitability and non- substitutability are the indicators of resource heterogeneity and immobility to become strategic assets and capabilities generated from these strategic assets, which cannot easily be copied by the rivals ultimately become the path for gaining better performance. By articulating, diffusing tacitknowledge into documents, databases or other permanent medium, hence dilute the strategic nature by making it easier to acquire or imitate. To make all knowledge explicit and eliminate the tacit personal elements in it could even be destructive to all knowledge (Polanyi 1966). It is this difficulty of diffusing tacitknowledge to other forms of codified knowledge renders the strategic nature of the tacit over the explicit knowledge. In this context, tacitknowledge gains a prominent role within the constructionindustry and its organisations due to industry’s inherent nature. Succeeding sections briefly explore
Nowadays, most businesses and enterprises, including the banking industry work in the highly competitive and dynamic environment. In such situations, successful and leading enterprises choose a wide variety of programs to guarantee survival, productivity and growth. Meanwhile, one of the important factors for success of service firms is their ability to provide high quality and appropriate speed services. This has a great impact on attracting and retaining customers, and consequently their growth and profitability. To this end, a variety of strategies and techniques have been introduced. One of the most effective and the most common ones is their efforts for providing high quality services. Provision of such services to customers continuously results in creating competitive advantage. Hence, many of successful service enterprises seek methods consistently in order to enhance the quality of their services and as a result customer satisfaction. Because satisfied customers are considered as the profitability resource of organization and improving customer satisfaction leads to increase profitability of organization.
Pharmaceutical firms frequently rely on partnerships with biotechnology firms as a primary source for scientific discoveries crucial for the development of new drugs. Because of their lack of focus on the basic scientific research, it is often difficult for managers of pharmaceutical firms to gain a tactical understanding of this type of research. Conversely, the exclusive focus on research by biotech firms enables their managers to have a deeper tacit understanding of specific types of basic scientific research. Difficulty in effective transfer of the knowledge regarding scientific discoveries made by biotech firms to pharmaceutical firms is due in large part to the contrast in scientific paradigms emphasized by each type of firm. The potential benefits associated with a successful alliance between biotech and pharmaceutical firms are substantial. Drugs produced by pharma-biotech alliances are 30 % more likely to succeed in winning Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval than those developed by a single company. In addition, nearly a third of new pharmaceutical products are now developed through alliances, compared to only 7 % a decade ago (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). In addition, the largest pharma-biotech deals have steadily increased in size in recent years, from SmithKline Beecham’s $125 million deal with Human Genome Sciences in 1993 to the $1.3 billion collaboration between Bayer and CuraGen in 2001 (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). Porter argued that industry improves and sustains its competitiveness via every well- organized activity and infrastructure in the value system. Every element in the knowledge cluster plays a particular role and creates specific value to it (Porter, 1996).
companies to have the correct strategy and method in knowing the current need of customers. Companies within this industry need to explore and find new knowledge that caters for the need of the customers. In most cases, explicit knowledge is readily available from the feedback of customers that can be attained from social networking sites and platforms. Tourists would be the best promoting tools as they would recommend the best experience when they go on holiday. As for tacitknowledge, organization would have to invest on what the tourists’ future needs are when they are on holiday. Hence, the knowledge based on the tourism industry requires tourists’ own creativity and innovation capability in providing the best services. One of the challenge of KM in the industry is corresponding not to the organization, but to the micro level of KM where the destinations are the main focus of any tourism aspects (Zehrer, 2011). As pointed out by Gretzel and Fesenmaier (2004), knowledge based information system at micro destination level integrates different levels of knowledge. They also pointed out the adopting of the technology usually takes place in three stages and is interrelated with experience that the organizations have in KM. There are basically three categories of tourist experiences: planning process, the actual trip and memories of the particular trip (Larsen, 2007). Tourism is one of the major industries that contributes to a country’s gross domestic products (GDP). Many companies and organization are involved in getting the chunk of the pie from the industry profitable opportunities. There are many opportunities that can be acquired by having the correct platform that an organization can benefit from. The result in KS in tourism enables operators to update and adapt the best practice to serve the tourists and having direct links to online resources to keep them in line with the current trends and development in the industry (Braun & Hollick, 2006). With the contest of securing customer for choosing a destination with an agency, knowledge on giving the best service possible is crucial in this industry. This is the role of social media in disseminating information to potential customers (Nezakati et al., 2015). Every player in tourism industry should adopt and adapt the best application in using social media that are famous and mostly used by users. Knowledge in acquiring the best practice would entitle business owners and entrepreneurs to be up to date in generating the current preference of the market.
Several cited work in this thesis on the skills in papermaking did not explicitly address the definition of tacitknowledge and skills, with a notable exception of Zuboff (1988) who provided the definition of the intellective skill, which replaced the action-centred skill. Although Zuboff does not adopt the deskilling view, her finding tends to neglect the salience of the traditional know- how. That the intellective skills is central to running paper machines in the computer-mediated environment, which exclusively rely on abstract cues, explicit reasoning, and procedural thinking, is far from adequate. Our finding opposed the creation of the “doubly abstract world” in exercising paper-making skills (See Zuboff S. (1988: 87)). Instead of constructing abstract mental images out of memory and imagination to refer to concrete reality, the finding suggests the background experience of the physical production process is key to become an effective papermaker. Yet, the differing conclusion might reflect difference between the US and the UK contexts. Greater product standardisation and sheer scale of the industry have incentivised the US mills to stay uniformly current with the newer technologies, as opposed to incremental investment in several of the UK mills. (Magee G. B., 2009: 42).
An increasing number of individuals do work which is knowledge based and the concept of knowledge worker needs to embrace these individuals who can be found at the all levels within organisations. A major aspect of managing tacitknowledge in a knowledge-based economy is giving to knowledge worker the power that arises from the ability to solve the critical contingencies facing the organisation. It means that knowledge worker will increasingly be able to determine that they are developed and managed in ways acceptable to them. This highlights the necessity of managing knowledge worker with flexible, employee centred approaches based on consensual models (Harman and Brelade, 2000). Yet, Construction as an industry which has a reputation for its dominant culture of command and controls consistently emphasises and correlates with the hard model of human resource management. Also the culture of subcontracting and self employment marginalises the importance of people
The College's role in motivating his student became young entrepreneur is very important. It is seen from some of the discussions of the field of entrepreneurship that has been presented above. The problem is how the College parties able to perform its role properly and capable of producing scholars who are ready to entrepreneurship. The role of College party in providing a container that provides the opportunity start a business since college is important, in accordance with the opinion of Thomas Zimmerer that starting a business, it could at the time college running, but more how important is the role of the College in terms of motivating its student to incorporated in the container. Because without giving any clear picture of the benefits of entrepreneurship, then likely the students no one is motivated to deepen skills doing business.
the outcome of the ‘ethnic-lingual nationalism’ in lieu of ‘religious nationalism’ especially ‘Muslim nationalism’, which provided the base for united Pakistan. On one hand, the role of the Arab world in the historic struggle of Bangladesh is the scar in terms of making a relationship with them. As the second-largest populated Muslim country, whenever Bangladesh has tried to make a good relation with the Arabs, this lesion has peeped in the mind of the Bangalees. On the other hand, the influence of the Arab world in the internal and foreign policy of Bangladesh is notably visible. Now, the relations with the Arab countries are going through a complexity due to mixing some policies and ideologies like secularism, socialism, the policy of look-Middle East and the policy of state religionism. So, the evaluation of the role of Arab countries in the liberation war of Bangladesh deserves an in-depth study in every respect. Many countries, including superpowers, involved in the East Pakistan crisis because it was, indeed, a part of the Cold War (1945-1991). But, the role of the Arabs was more heinous to the Bangalees than that of the Nixon administration's open collusion. It is also true that things were not really all black for Bangladesh. This article makes an attempt to identify the functions, involvements and attitudes of the Arab world in the historic struggle of Bangladesh, and then to elucidate the root causes of their stance.
According to (Bohlander & Snell, 2010) organizations are increasingly spending more and more money every year on training to have the capacity to content in the local and the global market. Governments also consider training and developing people as the first step towards solving the unemployment problem in their nations. Training is described as a “change agent”, which means that its primary purpose is to cause a change in employee knowledge, skills performance or behaviour. Training professionals are considered to be change leaders in their organizations. They are in the important and potentially strategic position of directing change through programs and through the behaviours they model. The major role of training professionals is to figure out how to change the skills, behaviours and routines of individuals to meet or even exceed business expectations. They have to constantly observe and assess what needs to be changed as well as how well change has been adopted by the organization’s corporate culture. They are responsible for monitoring individual behaviour, skill performance and program outcomes (Rothwell, Lindholm, & Wallick, 2003).
The paper is divided into seven sections. Part 2discusses the provisions of the UN Charter and the „sacred‟ UN mandate. Part 3 attempts to research on the political and diplomatic role of the Secretariat. The part will also discuss the role of the UN Secretariat in light of the UN principles on the use of force, dispute settlement and regulation of armaments with a special focus on Article 99 and Article 33 of the UN Charter. Part 4 will attempt to identify the political constraints on the exercise of power by the UN Secretariat and analyze how it can be overcome. Part 5of the paper emphasizes on the administrative role of the Secretariat. Part 6 of the paper aims to highlight the trend to structure the role of the Secretariat around the traits of the Secretary-General holding the office. This part will attempt to analyse the expansionist interpretation of the Secretariat‟s role stamped on the office by the successive Secretary-General‟s. Part 7 of the paper concludes the paper with certain overarching observations.
implicit connection between leib, koerper and body-for- others, and this causes disturbances in identity. Societal and cultural norms and values, particularly as expressed in language and symbols, may exacerbate this identity split and the distress felt by such individuals, by limit- ing the opportunities for self-expression: in EDs, this is by having a limited definition of beauty and ideal body; in GD, this is by limiting gender to either male or female. However, differences do exist between these conditions, es- pecially in the way language represents a kind of solution. In EDs, the definition of the body can offer a kind of “material- ised metaphor” that may be used to shape identity. GD peo- ple may try to exit the confines of typical language either by creating their own labels or by using language in a unique or individualised way. Therefore, in some way GD people are finding creative and constructive ways out of their situation, expanding the possibilities for language and identities, and overcoming the limitation of socio-cultural traditional mod- els. On the contrary, persons with EDs remain entrenched in the limitations of their corporealised language, which limits the expression of their own identity.
In Dumai City, a policy program aimed at reducing poverty is carried out through mental and cultural improvement of the weak poor. This is done by building strong character to want to work and always striving towards improving living standards and instilling self- interest and potential since childhood so that the work occupied by each member of the community is based on expertise that grows naturally. Besides that, the Dumai City Government also provides all forms of facilities and infrastructure to develop the expertise of the local community. In addition, in the field of social affairs, the Dumai City Government instills awareness of the groups who are able to share with their inadequate siblings by issuing zakat, infaq, alms and endowments and contributing to the widest opportunity for women to develop their potential. The role of civil society was also encouraged.
The role of agribusiness in ensuring food supply security, employment growth and economic development of the Republic has repeatedly been stressed by the head of state, Nursultan Nazarbayev, in his address to the nation. Extensive work was carried out in the Republic of Kazakhstan on studying and addressing problems in the agribusiness, which resulted in the adoption of a set of decrees aimed at improving the state agrarian policy and increasing the efficiency of agribusiness undertakings.
Education quality improvement efforts in particular in Parepare Town, then the expected presence of an education professional management setup by doing the following things: (1) improving the leadership of the principal as a major element in the management of quality improvement, (2) increased the ability and professionalism of employee administration education, (3) restructuring system of budgeting and financing schools, (4) restructuring management system and program activities, development projects (5) renewal and the establishment of the educational system, (6) empowering educational institutions and increased participation of families and communities, (7) enhancing the quality of educational institutions, (8) to improve the quality of human resources, integrated directional and thorough. Result observation of keterlaksaan the role of the School Committee, occur in the field compared to a standard which should have as a criterion for determining the success of (Ali Mustadi, Zubaidah, SumardiKymee♥, 2016:1).
role of the endocannabinoid system in the neurobiology of mood disorders. Many animal studies suggest that the direct or indirect (i.e., endocannabinoid reuptake inhibition or reduced enzymat- ic degradation) stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors exerts an antidepressant-like action. On the other hand, several ani- mal models of depression seem to be associated to a decreased activity of the endocannabinoid system. On the contrary, we have recently demonstrated that the supposed antidepressant- like activity of the CB1 receptor antagonist, Rimonabant, is a “false positive” effect, thus providing an experimental support to explain the obvious contradiction of a drug claimed to be anti- depressant in animals, but withdrawn from the market after few years of clinical use due to its depression-inducing potential.