Top PDF Sources of Pollution: Effects on Health and Its Remedies

Sources of Pollution: Effects on Health and Its Remedies

Sources of Pollution: Effects on Health and Its Remedies

Debarteleven (1992) postulates that environmental pollution and degradation are serious problems in Eastern and Central Europe. Kan (2009) originated the fact about China that, it has environmental problems, including outdoor and indoor air pollution, water shortages and pollution, desertification, and soil pollution, have become more pronounced and are subjecting Chinese residents to significant health risks. While many studies have focused on estimating a relationship between pollution and health, they have largely neglected to consider that pollution exposure is endogenously determined if individuals make choices to maximize their well-being. People with high preferences for clean air may choose to live in areas with better air quality. People can respond to a wide range of readily available information on pollution levels by adjusting their exposure. Failing to appropriately account for such actions can yield misleading estimates of the causal effect of pollution on health.
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WATER POLLUTION: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND REMEDIES

WATER POLLUTION: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND REMEDIES

Many areas of groundwater and surface water are now contaminated with heavy metals, POPs (persistent organic pollutants), and nutrients that have an adverse affect on health. Water-borne diseases and water-caused health problems are mostly due to inadequate and incompetent management of water resources. Safe water for all can only be assured when access, sustainability, and equity can be guaranteed. Access can be defined as the number of people who are guaranteed safe drinking water and sufficient quantities of it. There has to be an effort to sustain it, and there has to be a fair and equal distribution of water to all segments of the society. Urban areas generally have a higher coverage of safe water than the rural areas. Even within an area there is variation: areas that can pay for the services have access to safe water whereas areas that cannot pay for the services have to make do with water from hand pumps and other sources.
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Evaluation and Review of Hepatoprotective Drugs From Natural Resources

Evaluation and Review of Hepatoprotective Drugs From Natural Resources

The maintenance of a healthy liver is essential for the overall well being of an individual. Liver is the largest organ in the vertebrate body and the site for intense metabolism. Because of the strategic placement in the body, liver is continuously exposed to various xenobiotics and this may result in a variety of liver ailments. Exposure of various toxic chemicals such as certain antibiotic, chemotherapeutic agents, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, thioacetamide, excessive alcohol consumption and microbes can cause liver cell injury. Hepatic injury is associated with distortion of the metabolic functions. In absence of reliable liver protective drugs in modern medicine, folk remedies from natural sources are therefore evaluated for their potential hepatoprotective effects against different chemical induced liver damage in experimental animals. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from medicinal plants that have been tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system.
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The Effects of Traffic Related Air Pollution and Proposed Legal Remedies

The Effects of Traffic Related Air Pollution and Proposed Legal Remedies

with traffic related sources on the schedule one level of the environmental protection act, in order to give federal regulatory agencies, the ability to control and enforce their regulation. In addition, Bill C-30 made a commitment to a national carbon budget, and recognized that air pollution, along with climate change, worked hand in hand to constitute one of the most serious threats to Canadians (Beauregard-Tellier 2006). A final provision amended in Bill C-30, was Canada’s emission trading policy, which defined dollar values for carbon trading per tonne (Beauregard- Tellier 2006).
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NOISE LEVEL IN SURAT CITY

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NOISE LEVEL IN SURAT CITY

pollution and its consequent influence over the life quality of human beings may be considered as a "hot topic" in scientific research. The increasing number of living people and vehicles has led to major concern about "noise pollution". Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves. Sounds produced by all vibrating bodies are not audible. The frequency limits of audibility are from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The discrimination and differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon the habit and interest of the person/species receiving it, the ambient conditions and impact of the sound generated during that particular duration of time. Every exposure to loud noise destroys some cells, but prolonged exposure damages a larger amount of cells, and ultimately collapses the Organ of Corti, which causes deafness. Noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas [1]. Traffic noise is considered as one of the important sources of noise pollution that adversely affects human health in residential urban areas [2-4]. Permanent hearing loss by long-term exposure to noise has been reported by Nelson [5]. It is considered one of the most widespread environmental issues all over the world. It is considered a serious issue because of its harmful impacts on citizens and public health. Noise adversely impacts development as a result of its direct and indirect effects on life activities. Exposure to high noise levels is among the key causes of human mistakes leading to increased accident rate [6]. These levels have reached unacceptable limits locally and internationally. Pathak et al. [7] carried out a study on traffic noise pollution at four areas categories (industrial, commercial, residential and silence zone) in the city of Varanasi, India. They found that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise; about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high blood pressure problem, dizziness and fatigues. To prevent and control the sources of the noise, the Govt. of India has already published the rules known as Noise Pollution (Prevention & Control) Rules, 2000 which is applicable to entire country. To implement these Rules under Section 2 (c) Authority is prescribed, accordingly the Police Commissioner or District Superintendent of Police are declared as Authority. According to this act the environmental quality standards are prescribed which is as under
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Health effects of outdoor air pollution

Health effects of outdoor air pollution

la table des matières du numéro d’août 2011 à la page e280. KEY POINTS Exposure to outdoor air pollution has a substantial effect on health, including exacerbation of pre- existing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, increased susceptibility to infection and sensitivity to allergens, and increased risk of arrhythmia, ischemia, cardiac failure, and stroke. Patients with pre-existing conditions, children, and seniors are particularly at risk. Combustion of fossil fuels for transportation, home heating and cooling, and industry are the main sources of air pollution. Reducing exposure, especially from traffic, is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of pollution. The Air Quality Health Index is a tool that can help patients gauge risk before engaging in outdoor activity.
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A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities

A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities

The focus of emission reduction policies shifted from the industrial sector to non-industrial sources, namely, mobile sources in 1990s due to motorization. The Ministry of the Environment adopted a total emission volume control measure by the “Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas”, called in short "The Motor Vehicle NOx Law" in 1992. The law copes with NOx pollution problems from existing vehicle fleets in highly populated metropolitan areas. Under the Motor Vehicle NOx Law, several measures had to be taken to control NOx from in-use vehicles, including enforcing emission standards for specified vehicle categories.
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EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION ON THE HEALTH OF EXPOSED POPULATION AND ITS THRESHOLD LEVELS: A REVIEW

EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION ON THE HEALTH OF EXPOSED POPULATION AND ITS THRESHOLD LEVELS: A REVIEW

gearboxes, squealing brakes and cooling fans, exhaust systems, interaction between vehicles and aerodynamic friction are the noise sources produced from vehicles. However, increase in the number of automobiles, vehicle types, its flow and mode of operation, engine type, traffic speed, surface materials, position and dimension of the roads, crossroad signal system, high traffic density and disobeying of traffic rules increase the severity and magnitude of traffic noise 10 . Another important factor

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Effects of noise pollution on Samen district residents in Mashhad city

Effects of noise pollution on Samen district residents in Mashhad city

annoyance (5). The physiological and psychological effects of noise pollution appear on humans gradually and, in the long run, affect the human nervous system (6). Many researchers have reported that exposure to noise pollution increases the risks related to personal health, like irritability, muscle cramps, stress and anxiety, exhaustion, depression, headache and migraine, loss of body balance, pain, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal disturbances, sleep disorders, and mental stress (7-12). Annoyance and sleep disorders are the most widely reported effects of noise pollution (13,14). Many studies have assessed the effects of noise pollution in urban areas (15,16). According to these studies, there is a positive relationship between annoyance and increasing exposure to noise from different sources (17-19). For example, a study conducted in the city of Yazd investigated the consequences of noise pollution in different groups. The results revealed that police officers were most highly affected by high noise pollution levels (20). Omidvari and Nouri evaluated the effects of noise pollution on traffic Environmental Health
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Environmental Pollution: Its Effects on Life and Its Remedies

Environmental Pollution: Its Effects on Life and Its Remedies

-Noise pollution areas: They should be restricted by using proper construction materials, and in the surrounding by proper planning, plantation or artificial screening, and maintaining low noise level at the source itself. Planning for sewerage and other wastes disposal system for cities and township, such that pollution due to sewage and other wastes is avoided or prevented generally. The process usually ensures that the environment is self, livable, comfortable, healthy and attractive to live in and it is also easier to maintain it from pollution abatement.
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Sources of nickel pollution and its impacts on environment: a review

Sources of nickel pollution and its impacts on environment: a review

The adverse health effects of nickel depend on the route of exposure (inhalation, oral, or dermal) and can be classified according to systemic, immunologic, neurologic, reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects following acute (01day), subchronic (10-100 days), and chronic (100 days or more) exposure periods. The most common harmful health effect of nickel in humans is an allergic skin reaction in those who are sensitive to nickel. Nickel is the most observed cause of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity noticed in occupationally exposed as well in the general population. The metal is not only an allergen but also a potential immunomodulatory and immunotoxic agent in humans. Based on studies of nickel workers and laboratory animals, all nickel compounds, except for metallic nickel, have been classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 1990 and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994).
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Evaluation of Trace Metals in Groundwater of Ekondo Titi and Environs, Onshore Rio Del Rey, Cameroun

Evaluation of Trace Metals in Groundwater of Ekondo Titi and Environs, Onshore Rio Del Rey, Cameroun

The study of trace metal deposition and accumulation is of increasing interest because of the awareness that trace metals present in groundwater may have negative consequences on human health and on the environment when they ex- ceed the maximum contamination levels. Because of the absence of treatment of groundwater before drinking in Ekondo-Titi and environs, it is of great impor- tance to assess the trace metal content. The assessment of trace metal quality of groundwater used by the inhabitants of this area is sparse. Environmental pollu- tion by trace metals is due to both geogenic; natural processes such as weather- ing of minerals and anthropogenic activities related to industry, agriculture, burning of fossil fuels, vehicular emission, mining and metallurgical processes and their waste disposal.
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The liability of foreignness in capital markets: Sources and remedies

The liability of foreignness in capital markets: Sources and remedies

differences in management practices that ultimately lead to foreign firms competing at a disadvantage and underperforming against local competitors in host markets. While this may have been adequate in an era when internationalization was understood almost exclusively as globalization of product markets, the increasing integration of capital markets adds a new dimension to internationalization where a firm, in addition to selling its product and services to foreign customers, may also attempt to raise equity, debt, or VC resources from foreign investors. A number of studies in IB and finance demonstrate that investors in both developed and developing markets strongly prefer to invest in local firms rather than foreign firms in capital markets (Ke, Ng, & Wang, 2010). This "home bias” puzzle, first documented by French and Poterba (1991) and Tesar and Werner (1995), is one of the major research questions in international finance, but there is a paucity of studies that provide a comprehensive analysis of factors contributing to this phenomenon, as well as possible remedies firms may use to overcome home bias when raising finance globally.
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The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam: Source, Impact And Remedies

The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam: Source, Impact And Remedies

Figure 2 shows that, the number of private vehicles has increased rapidly and caused the increase in air pollution levels in big cities in Vietnam. Many private vehicles are not taken seriously warranty periodic maintenance therefore it causes the increase in emissions into the environment with ever-growing toxic levels. In particular, dilapidated and out of using date facilities are still in traffic, they are not only threatening the safety of lives for people in traffic but also seriously affecting the quality of urban air, threatening the health and lives of people. Vietnam is ranked No.4 in the world in the number of motorcycles used as the transportation means. As statistics from Figure 2, there are currently all over the country of 52 million motorcycles and 2 million cars. However, those are the registered vehicles, while the unregistered vehicles are not mentioned. That means the toxic emissions from vehicles considered as key factors in Vietnam are very horrible and much different from the developing countries in the world. A different calculation in two biggest cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City showed that, motorcycles are about 95% of total vehicles, they use 56% of gasoline consumption but discharge 94% of unburt hydrogen carbon emissions (HC); 87% of carbon monoxide (CO); 57% of nitrogen oxides (NO x )… in total emissions of vehicles.
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Analysis of Air, Water and Noise of International Airport, Bhopal Virag Bohare *1 , Dr. Pankaj Jain 2, Dr. Y. K. Saxena3

Analysis of Air, Water and Noise of International Airport, Bhopal Virag Bohare *1 , Dr. Pankaj Jain 2, Dr. Y. K. Saxena3

longitude 77°10' to 77°30' E with an average elevation of 527 m (1729 ft.) above sea level. The weather in Bhopal is temperate with hot summers (April-June) and cool winters (November-February). The minimum and maximum temperature reported of city Bhopal is 9°C and 44°C respectively. Bhopal is Encompasses an area of 463 sq. km with 85 municipal wards. The population of Bhopal Municipal Corporation as per census 2011 is 23, 71,061. Raja Bhoj Airport is ISO 14001:2004 certified airport of the Madhya Pradesh. It is the second busiest airport in Madhya Pradesh after Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport in Indore. Total numbers of flight movement as on date of monitoring (i.e. 10/07/2017 and 11/07/2017) are 26 on each day and total average passengers travelled per day in month of June are 2,019. Average No of passenger movements per month of new terminal building are 65000.In 2013, Raja Bhoj Airport becomes the first airport in the state to use solar power for running its utility grid system. 100-kilowatt solar power plant was made operational in June 2013, with plans to install a 2 megawatt solar power plant at the airport in the future. The information are collected from
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<p>Preference, Perception And Predictors Of Herbal Medicine Use Among Malay Women In Malaysia</p>

<p>Preference, Perception And Predictors Of Herbal Medicine Use Among Malay Women In Malaysia</p>

To that end, fi ndings from this study suggest a need to focus our attention on providing appropriate programs on herbal medicine, especially among married women of lower-income groups. Despite the popularity of herbal remedies for well-being and health, herbs are capable of producing a wide range of undesirable effects if used too often. Some of these are capable of causing serious inju- ries and life-threatening conditions. 26 Unfortunately to this day, healthcare professionals have a limited understanding of the potential effects of herbs. The current work also highlights the challenges associated with herbal education, due to the positive perception of herbal use among the study population. Furthermore, due to the common lack of disclosure of herbal use among women, 16 healthcare pro- viders should have an open and non-judgemental conver- sation with women about the use of herbal remedies to ensure safe and optimum management is achieved. Therefore, health educational programs on herbal use should be developed that address these concerns to ensure appropriate information is delivered.
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Benefit mapping and analysis of air pollution and health

Benefit mapping and analysis of air pollution and health

Several institutions such as The National Ambient Air Quality Program (NAAQP) by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), State Level Program (SAMP) of Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), those carried out by the Municipal Corporation, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) and several other research institutions, regularly monitor the air quality in Pune. Data filtering and authenticity along with continuity of such data have been limitations. However, careful examination of the data from the time of policy interventions, especially the focus of Pune being a demonstration city for formulation of science based policy under the MoU of the then Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India and US-EPA, it was thought appropriate to consider data of 2004through 2008 from MPCB 44 and PMC 25-29 for this study. Also, the data is continuous with104 readings in a year recorded on two consecutive days a week as per NAAQM of India for PM 10 at three locationsr epresenting
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COMMERCIAL AREAS OFALLAHABAD CITY AND ITS IMPACT ON CONTOUR TRAFFIC NOISE POLLUTION OF THE THE ENVIRONMENT

COMMERCIAL AREAS OFALLAHABAD CITY AND ITS IMPACT ON CONTOUR TRAFFIC NOISE POLLUTION OF THE THE ENVIRONMENT

Fig 1 represents the impact of noise on human health on the people residing and working on some of the selected commercial areas of Allahabad city. The results obtained from the questionnaire revealed that the people living close to the vicinity were the most affected since they are in direct contact with noise. About 67- 79% of the population were exposed daily to noise in their working place The study conducted shows that the noise levels in these areas were very high which make the people annoyed at present but continuous daily exposure in the long run may also produce other types of problems. Besides annoyance, long-term exposure to environmental noise can also cause other effects to people’s health[12]. Tinnitus is a common symptom which was observed in 62-78% of the subjects living in these areas. This usually occurs after exposure to a loud sound in which normal hearing comes back after few hours. Similar results were also obtained by [13]
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Marine pollution and its effect to the bio diversity

Marine pollution and its effect to the bio diversity

Coastal and estuarine ecosystems have been, and still are, heavily influenced by the human species through pollution and habitat loss throughout the world. This coastal pollution and its impacts have resulted in a number of environmental issues including the enrichment of enclosed waters with organic matter leading to eutrophication, pollution by chemicals such as oil, and sedimentation due to land-based activities. Over Eighty per cent of all marine pollution originates from land-based sources which are primarily industrial, agricultural and urban. Pollution accompanies most kinds of human activities, including offshore oil and gas production and marine oil transportation. Most marine animals, particularly marine mammals and fish, are very sensitive to pollution. Decreased species diversity in whales and dolphins was related to an increase in heavy pollution. Many marine species have been shown to be impacted by various pollution to some degree. So, oceanic pollution must be managed both nationally and internationally in a precautionary way before irreversible damage to biodiversity and the marine ecosystem occurs.
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Air quality and chronic disease: why action on climate change is also good for health

Air quality and chronic disease: why action on climate change is also good for health

Increased particle concentrations in ambient air have been associated with long-term effects on mortality as well as increased risks for admissions for cardiac and respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and ischaemic heart disease. 15 In children parti- culate air pollution has been associated with increased chronic cough, and bronchitis. 16 Globally, ambient PM air pollution has been estimated to be responsible for at least 0.8 million premature deaths and 6.4 million lost life years. 17 Pope et al. 18 in the USA found that each 10 m g/m 3 elevation in ambient fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all- cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respec- tively. Chen and Goldberg 19 reviewed 17 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies published 1950–2007 and found a 6% increase in non-accidental mortality for every increase of 10 m g/m 3 in ambient fine particles, independent of age, gender and geographical regions. They then esti- mated that exposure to fine particles would lead to approximately 5000 deaths a year in Canada. Among these deaths, 1100 deaths would be from lung cancer and 2700 deaths would be from cardiovascular diseases. Kunzli et al. 20 estimated the impact of total ambient air pollution
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