There is a long debate going on whether the publicsector enhances economic performance. Nevertheless, economists agree that there are circumstances in which lower levels of government spending would enhance economic growth and other circumstances in which higher levels of government spending would be desirable. If government spending is zero, presumably there will be very little economic growth because enforcing contracts, protecting property, and developing an infrastructure would be very difficult if there were no government at all. In other words, some government spending is necessary for the successful operation of the rule of law. Economists generally agree that government spending becomes a burden at some point, either because government becomes too large or because outlays are misallocated. In such cases, the cost of government exceeds the benefit. Generally, the publicsector is not profit seeking and public spending requires costly financing choices. Since public spending requires public funds. Collecting the necessary funds means that the public authorities are confronted with the taxpayers’ reluctance to comply with the tax laws, especially if taxes discourage productive behaviour. Government spending displaces private-sector activity. This dampens growth since economic forces guide the allocation of resources in the private sector, whereas political forces dominate when politicians and bureaucrats decide how money is spent. Some government spending, such as maintaining a well-functioning legal system can have a high “rate-of-return.” In general, however, governments do not use resources efficiently, resulting in less economic output.
Indian banking industry is the backbone of country’s economy that plays a very important role to strengthen the financial system of the country. The banking systems of the developing nations are suffering from the poor performance in the terms of profitability and productivity because of less investment in technology and excessive government regulations (Makkar and Singh, 2012). To solve this problem various reforms has been taken up and implemented to foster the growth of banking sector in India. India is one of the fastest and developing and growing economies in the world. This sector is tremendously competitive and recorded a growth in right trend (Ram Mohan 2008). Indian Banking has increased its total assets five times within the period from March 2000 to March 2010, i.e. US$ 250 million to US$ 1.30 trillion and CAGR of 18% as compared to the country’s GDP of 7.5% during the same period. The commercial banking assets to GDP ratio has increased to nearly 100 percent while the ratio of bank’s business to GDP has recorded nearly twofold, from 68 percent to 135 percent. The overall development has been lucrative with enhancement in banking industry efficiency and productivity, (Dwivedi & Charyulu 2011). The study tries to evaluate the productivity and profitability of selected commercial banks in India though the techniques of ratio analysis. High productivity and profitability leads to soundness of the industry, but the basic reason behind low productivity may be mismanagement, liquidity, credit policy, rise in operational costs and lack of human resource management. The present study attempts to evaluate the productivity and profitability of the selected public and private sector banks in India. The study has been divided into six sections. Section 1 is the introduction , Section 2 defines the terms profitability and productivity. Section 3 is related to review of literature. Section 4 related to objective, hypothesis and methodology, section 5 is related to result analysis and the last section discuss the conclusion and recommendations if any.
The Indian constitution charges the states with "the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health". Central government efforts at influencing public health have focused on the five year plans, on coordinated planning with the states, and on sponsoring major national health programs. For most national health programmer’s government expenditures are jointly shared by the central and state governments. Healthcare expenditure is a very necessary social expenditure for any country. Like any other social expenditure health expenditure also requires a significant contribution from the Government. Whether it is a developed country or a developing one state’s role in developing a good health infrastructure and assuring good health to everybody becomes very critical and important. The spending on health has major contributions coming from private households (75 per cent). State governments contribute 15.2 percent, the central government 5.2 percent, third-party insurance and employers 3.3 percent, and municipal government and foreign donors about 1.3 (World bank 1995). Of these proportions, 58.7 percent goes toward primary health care (curative, Preventive, and Promotive) and 38.8 percent is spent on secondary and tertiary inpatient care. The rest goes for non-service costs.
A group of “incremental” models (Lindblom, 1959; Quinn, 1980; Mintzberg, 1973) presented other depictions of how firms actually make strategic decisions and they have become the foundation of strategy development processes. The richness provided by these and other integrative frameworks endeavoured to provide an enhanced representation of organizations compared to what could be produced by single or binary theoretical frameworks. These enhanced views showed promise in identifying more specific managerial and operational implications. From these views, strategic managers could possibly derive prescriptive strategy development processes deemed more effective and efficient within given organizational contexts. From these initial characterizations of the strategy process, multidimensional strategy process archetypes and many unique typologies have been developed endeavouring to contribute to the understanding of how individual or combination strategy processes affect outcomes in an interactive or synergistic manner (Gunby Jr., 2009).
To make a difference in the world and have a job that means more than just making money is a main motivator for people to work in the publicsector (Paine Schofield, Holton, Pegg, Sweeny & Rizello, 2008). I am no exception. I started my Social Work degree straight after high school full of naïve optimism of the influence I could have on societal injustices. Unfortunately I became quickly aware of the lack of resources and strategies that could support me to implement long term change for families. Most social work practice was crisis orientated and not focused on the early intervention of social issues. I decided to undertake a second degree in Applied Management believing that I might be able to change some of the policies and strategies that I had seen in the human services and be more client focused. In the years following I worked as a social worker, moved to three different countries and had three children. My interest in the strategic vision of the publicsector never waned and I ensured I was part of steering groups and staff development projects in my former and current role. I am currently working in New Zealand for a tertiary educational provider. I was originally employed in the student support team before teaching on the Social Work degree. Currently I am the Programme Manager for the Foundation and Youth Guarantee programmes. I started my Master of Social Work while I was teaching the social work degree. When I got promoted to middle management I discovered that this did not change the resource and strategy issues that I experienced as a professional. I seemed to continue with negotiating the funding system, advocating for long term interventions and supporting unsatisfied clients. The main difference was that I also had staff to deal with as well as more paperwork. Nevertheless, I enjoy the challenge and the different facets of the role. To be part of a range of activities like marketing, moderation and strategic planning is stimulating and challenging. In my role I have managed to create some changes in policy, staff development and student support services which I could not have achieved in my previous roles.
Health policy is an essential pillar of human welfare. Given the high degree of externality, the State has to play a significant role in health and healthcare provision. Unfortunately, evidence shows that public spending on healthcare in India is low and out of pocket spending by people is more than four times the government spending. While the low level of public spending on health is a known fact, enditure on health and its trend over time is not easily accessible. The National Health Accounts, the most authoritative and comprehensive source of health expenditure information in India, is highly infrequent. The subsequent use of partial data sets ilable on public health expenditures leads to flawed policymaking and less than desirable public health outcomes. In India, the Constitution assigns a predominant role in providing social e List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution assigns legislative responsibility to the States on matters related to “Public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries”. Similarly, Entry 17 assigns the responsibility for water tates. Other interrelated matters such as medical education and medical professions are placed in Entries 25 and 26 of the Concurrent List. The health expenditure estimates have been prepared by the World Health Organization under the framework of the System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA 2011). The Health SHA 2011 tracks all health spending in a given country over a defined period of time regardless of the entity or institution that financed and managed that spending. It e data on health spending in a country, which in turn can
Enrollment Ratio(GER) in higher education, India has successfully transformed from the elite stage of higher education development (GER <15%) to the initial phase of massification (GER from 15% to 50%). Unlike the developed economies whose massification phase were mostly controlled bythe publicsector, in India, the massification stage is characterized by the less participation of publicsector and more participation of private sector (Varghese 2015).As per the recent data available, the private higher education institutions account for more than 75% of the total number higher education institutions in India. The rapid growth of private higher education institutions has outnumbered government and aided higher educationinstitutions in many states.In this background, the paper analyses the different types and growth of private higher education in Indiaover the past three decades.
Since the BSC was first created by Kaplan and Norton (1992), there has been a lot of confusion about the exact definition of the balanced scorecard. Several criticisms and questions about the balanced scorecard approach arise. This study aims to review the BSC literature from articles published in the first rank Scopus indexed journal (Q1). Although a large number of academics are sceptical about the relationship between BSC and organisational outcomes, BSC is widely used, and practitioner-oriented literature shows that it has useful values especially in improving organisational performance and strategy attainment. Based on the findings of empirical results in the private sector, SMEs, and the publicsector, it can be inferred that out of 45 articles of empirical research of the organisations investigated in terms of the balanced scorecard implementation,14 (31 per cent) gained a high level of success, 6 (13 per cent) failed, and 56 per cent were not representative as the methodology and data collection were not detailed enough. These results conclude the implementation status of the balanced scorecard shows a high level of success and a little of failure.
There was irrational provision of services as the daily and weekly chemopropylaxis, with pyrimethamine, chloro- quine and proguanil were still being used. The proportion of private providers giving weekly prophylaxis was still very high. It was of interest to find that many providers (although much more in the private sector) stated that chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil were still very useful in the control of MIP and these drugs were still being prescribed. However, it is known that the usefulness of weekly chemoprophylaxis has been limited because of poor adherence by pregnant women to a weekly or more frequent drug regimen and also increasing levels of plasmodium falciparum resistance to the drugs . A previous study that was undertaken in 2001 in Nigeria showed that 86.8 % out of 91 obstetricians routinely provided malaria chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine, pyrimethamine, proguanil, and sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine either singly or in various combinations to pregnant women. It could be speculated that the greater use of the chemoprophylaxis by private providers in this study could be due to lack of knowledge of their decreas- ing effectiveness. However, further research, especially using qualitative methods could be used to understand the Table 4 Patterns of provision of IPTp by providers
Several studies have looked at the causes and implications of high spreads, but in some regions, particularly Africa, spreads have received less attention. Some of the regional studies that have been conducted are briefly looked at as follows. Gelos (2006) found that Latin American banks had high spreads because of higher interest rates, fewer efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than banks in other regions. Brock and Rojas-Suarez (2000) found that higher operating costs and higher nonperforming loans (NPLs) were related to higher spreads. Randall (1998) found that the share of loans going to the publicsector in the Caribbean was negatively correlated with spreads (one possible explanation for this was that greater government involvement resulted in larger transactions that were more efficient to manage). Barajas, Steiner, and Salazar (1999) found that in Columbia spreads widened in the 1990s as a result of high NPLs of the public banks and private banks’ greater responsiveness to credit quality and more careful approach to risks. Banco Central do Brazil (1999) identified credit risk, taxes, and overhead costs as the main determinants of the high ex-ante spread in Brazil (more important even than the high level of required reserves, which are nevertheless significant).
According to him service quality had been widely researched but not service productivity. According to Philip Kotler et al 2010 services firm can differentiate it by delivering consistently higher quality than its competitors provide. Now a day’s most of service industries have joined the customer-driven quality movement and like product marketers, service providers need to identify what target customers expect in regards to service quality. The top service companies set high service –quality standards. They watch service performance closely, both their own and that of competitors. They do not settle for merely good service; they aim for hundred percent defect-free service. Studies of Panda reveal that customer tests the quality of service of a firm at every encounter. Each of the customer encounter is called moment of truth. If the experience from service encounters are bad, it may not lead to customer satisfaction .Quality management involve deciding on quality standards and implementing a method of assurance on performance level of the staff and facilities. Quality has emerged as a major competitive element in service company strategies. Service providers are giving increasing emphasis on creating reputation for good quality of service as this provides a positive image for their organization. The service quality management process involves matching evolving customer expectations. Customers have their own service expectations. From a firm a customer is satisfied when his expectations match the perceived service. When the perceived service passes over the expected service, the customer is delighted if there is failure in meeting expectation the customer is dissatisfied. Lovelock et al (2006) opined that if a firm wants to retain customer they are required to provide better services to their customers by quality improvement programs and should continuously enhance benefits desired by customers. At the same time, productivity improvement efforts decrease the cost. The customers are satisfied with the organization if the services deliver by firm are better than their competitors. According to Zeithamal et al (2008) customer have two different types of service expectations: 1) Meaning and types of expected service 2) Current issues in customer service expectations. In a Perception of the service, service quality may be the most critical determinant of satisfaction. They mentioned the service encounters or “moments of truth” as the building blocks for both satisfaction and quality. Service encounter is an opportunity to build perceptions of quality and satisfaction.
An important finding of this paper surveys the literature on the raging question of public/private sector compensation and benefits disparity. Although previous studies especially in the developed countries found empirical evidence in compensation premium in the publicsector domain, these results have been assailed with criticisms owing to selection bias in research instrumentation and sampling errors and the often dissimilarity of the nature of jobs in the private and public sectors; however, the World Bank empirical study of a developing country like India (Glinskaya & Lokshin, 2005) and Nasir, 2000), also confirm that the publicsector is more paid than the private sector. In contrast, a pilot study commissioned by USAID in Zambia by Furth (2006), indicates that the pay package in the publicsector compared to the private sector is low in that country that recommended for the institution of good performance-based incentives to attract competent personnel in to the public health delivery system. More importantly, the recent findings of Bender & Heywood (2010) have established that compensation and benefits payments of the private sector has exceeded that of the publicsector therefore, questioning the validity of the long- established “publicsector premium” hypothesis.
though tend to increase motivation, but it also hampers chances of innovation. However, (Kurland & Egan, 1999)assume that the publicsector has less formalization and communication as compared to the private sector and thus effectiveness is less in public universities. Thus, in order to regulate OC and effectiveness in the performance and process of organization, it’s required to manage organizational structure (S. Khan, 2015; Ngussa & Gabriel, 2017; Razia, 2015). There were many studies (Adekola, 2012; Nazir et al., 2013; Razia, 2015; Dutta et al., 2017; Kaur, 2016; Sharma & Sehrawat, 2013; Tiwari, 2019) conducted which reveal that private universities provide more job satisfaction as there is always a possibility of growth, earning high compensation, promotion, deriving rewards and recognition, earning monetary benefits, and having safe and healthy working condition. However, the private university also has a sense of job insecurity, which led to promoting more dedication and commitment towards work and hence enhance performance. On the other hand, public universities though provide more training and skill improvement opportunities but lack of rewards, recognition, and appropriate working condition tend to have less effective in comparison to public universities. These mediating effects of career development opportunity and job satisfaction is derived from three empirical analysis conducted on sample of 300 academic employees (Sharma & Sehrawat, 2013), 200 teachers (Dutta et al., 2017) with 100 responses of each university, and 300 teachers with 150 responses each of public and private universities (Tiwari, 2019). Our review thus suggests that some factors have a mediating effect and they thus help in regulating the
The primary objective of the present study was to identify the publicsector bred Indian popular rice hybrid, viz., KRH-4 with their parental lines developed recently, using SSR markers, to provide the DNA fingerprint for these rice hybrid and their parental lines, and to establish the basis for identification and monitoring of seed purity for these hybrid rice combinations.
Examples of social dialogue around these issues are predominantly found in sectors in which the social partners are already well represented. Little or no dialogue is found in newly- emerging industries. In the electricity sector, and electricity generation from renewable energy sources, it is determined by the degree to which the energy source is ‘established’. Only in cases where electricity generation from renewable energy sources had already been carried out for a relatively long period of time within a country (for example hydro-electric energy generation) or where established energy providers increasingly source from renewables, is the subsector well-represented by the traditional actors in established companies. In the newly- emerging industries (such as energy generation from biomass, wind and photovoltaic sources), companies are very heterogeneous. Many are very small entities in remote areas and are therefore outside the reach and interest of the social partners. On the employers’ side many business associations have formed with the intention of representing companies in the sector, but these associations have not yet developed into fully fledged social partner organisations with the right to bargain. On the trade union side, there are examples of active recruitment strategies in the newly emerging sectors in only a few countries, such as Germany, Portugal and the UK. In other countries, such as Malta and Cyprus, the renewable energy sector is still in its infancy and no attempts to create representation can be detected. While Europe’s commitment to the move to a low-carbon economy is clear, recent austerity- led reductions in public subsidies, tax incentives, feed-in tariffs and other public support measures might slow down the process of greening. Data from the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) show that as any young industry, green sectors are facing significant levels of turbulence. This mostly concerns companies in the solar and wind power generation industry, which have come under some pressure due to overcapacity and increased competition from China, compounded by the fact that some Member States have changed their support schemes for these industries. Yet at the same time, job growth in the green economy has been positive throughout the recession and is forecasted to remain quite strong. Cases of knowledge- intensive job creation within the renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors have been registered.
Stress is an inseparable part of human existence. It affects all individuals rich and poor, literate and illiterate, both men and women and young and the old alike across the developed and developing nations. Stress and its effects on humans has been well understood and attempts are constantly being made to promote the well being of them by organizing stress management programs at periodic intervals in both Governmental and Non Governmental sectors. Stress management has acquired particular importance in the Twenty First century mainly due to two important reasons. In the present era in industrialized countries, the majority of women work outside the home, either part-time or full-time. Working women with children living at home differ from women with no children and from their own working spouses or partners living in the same home in several ways.
In Vietnam, pregnant women are recommended to have at least three ANC visits during the pregnancy, with one each trimester. According to the national guidelines, the ANC package includes bio-medical assessments (body weight and height, blood pressure, fundal height, fetal abdominal circumference, fetal heart rate, vaginal examination, ultrasound scan and urine and blood testing); care provisions (tetanus vaccination, iron/folate supplement) and health consultation . Before the “ Doi Moi ” policy in 1986, pregnant women were mostly provided ANC at commune health centres (CHC) with subsidies from the government. Only women considered to have a high risk pregnancy were referred to district hospitals or higher levels. With health sector reforms including the introduction of the user fee policy and the establishment of a private health system, pregnant women now have more options for ANC even though ANC services are mostly available at primary level public health facilities. The reforms might have led to larger gaps between different regions and social groups in the use of health care in general and ANC utilization in particular .
1) The number of publicsector banks are very high: Before 2014 the number of publicsector banks are 27.that is 19 banks which are exclusively owned by government of India that is nationalized banks. A part From that we have 1 State Bank of India, 5 associate banks of SBI,1 IDBI, and another entity was 1 Bharathiya Mahila bank. So put together there are 27 publicsector banks. Whichever angle u look at it the number of publicsector banks are very high.
The basic awareness can help to prevent potential cybercrime against them. To enforce effective cyber security, there is a critical need to develop integrated and inter-locked policies. These policies need to be developed through a consultative and collaborative process across publicsector, private sector and civil society, bringing together expiries from health sector, education sector, technology and related institution, and the important is, the young digital citizens who are the greatest users of ICTs need to be directly involved in developing cyber security solutions.