The source for the following information is the University Studies landing page on the PSU website. Nearly all institutions of higher learning require students to complete a general education program in addition to their major field of study. Portland State University's nationally recognized approach to education is based on an extensive review of current research. Strong evidence shows that tightly structured clusters of courses with an interdisciplinary thematic approach help to create a more effective education program. Using mentored inquiry sections, extending the program throughout the four years, and integrating carefully articulated goals further increase the program’s effectiveness. The University Studies general education program is designed to provide those environmental factors and learning opportunities that are known to enhance learning, satisfaction, and retention for students.
The role of language can be examined through Bourdieu’s (1979) notion of production and reproduction. Bourdieu (1979) states that language is a social construction in that it values the central role of symbolic domination whereby the most powerful language becomes a norm or acceptable to the minority groups. In this instance, people do not question why a particular language is the only one with prestige, but they regard that language as a symbol of power and status. Thus, Bourdieu’s (1979) concept of reproduction and production becomes relevant in this study, as the differences in LoLT create inequalities within the education system. While the LiEP recognises the value of all the official languages, the post-apartheid education system in South Africa still reinforces the superiority or hegemony of English in relation to the African languages. In this way, schools reproduce the social and linguistic inequality that limit the use of African languages for meaningful learning and teaching. According to Martin-Jones and Heller (1996), the production and reproduction of relations of power and inequality are legitimised through language beliefs and are accomplished through social practices. This implies that the education system plays a role in creating language inequalities in the classroom. In line with Bourdieu's (1979) theory, the education system in South Africa marginalises African languages, as they are not conferred power for socio-economic development. For example, the development of technology and science shows the power of English and its high status (Pluddemann, 2010). Again, this shows that post-apartheid African languages are still not developed as academic languages.
Research exploring the challenges facing L2 students in English medium programs primarily focus on L2 English users in Anglophone countries, such as Australia and USA (see, Murray, 2012; Read, 2008), rather than English L2 users at universities and colleges in countries where English is not the primary language outside the classroom b . Those studies concerned with L2 English users studying at English medium universities in expanding- and outer-circle contexts indicate that such students experience a number of language proficiency related difficulties. In one self- assessment questionnaire study of students’ perceptions of their study experience in English medium faculties of Social Science, Humanities, Engineering and Business at Norwegian and German universities, 42% of the Norwegian sample and 72% of the German students reported substantial comprehension difficulties (Hellekjaer, 2010). In another self-report study of students in English medium higher education programs in China, students identified comprehending lectures, understanding specialist vocabu- lary and writing in an appropriate academic style, as the major difficulties associated with studying through English as an L2 (Evans & Morrison, 2011) c . Research by Kırkgöz (2005) in Turkey, similarly found among first and fourth year English L2 undergraduate students that the incomprehensibility of both lectures and reading material were amongst students’ greatest concerns. Though little empirical research exists into the relationship between L2 comprehension and performance in these expanding- and outer-circle educational contexts, one study of 2000 bilingual Arab students in an English medium tertiary level science program, found that proficiency in pre-faculty study preparatory year English correlated significantly with academic performance in a Calculus course (Yushau & Omar, 2007). The current research aims to contribute to the literature by investigating the relationship between academicEnglish proficiency and overall academic performance of students studying in English medium tertiary level programs in the Sultanate of Oman, a country on the Arabian Peninsula with no direct experience of British rule but where English plays a key role in education and commerce, and as such will be considered as being in the expanding- circle of English use for the purpose of this study.
As stated by Frank Candline “Language is not a body of facts orinformation, like geography or history, but a human activity. “As it involves human activity , it includes many complex processes but to normalize the complex process of learning a language , the teacher as a facilitator should take a decision wisely on the objectives of his teaching.Any language of the world can be acquired only by practicing it. A child tries to imitate the parents to pick up the language. Imitation is nothing but repetition, practicing any language demands repetition. But we should be aware that the monotonous way of repetition leads to tedious work which will never serve the purpose. As such the easiest way to make anyone to get into the practice of repetition is introducing the language games inside the classroom which is also be called as “play-way method” of teaching.Through language games the teacher can teach any language items, including grammar, structures and even poems. Games are generally played for enjoyment but they can be played for instructions also. It is one of the procedures, which can be used to develop the communicative competency of learners.
target language ought to be selected and measured to suit the pedagogical activities according to specific criteria. In other words these activities should match the learners‟ level and different language skills in grammar, vocabulary, speaking, study skills, and variety of academic fields. “ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar, lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genre.” (Anthony, ibid). In comparison with the specification and stability of methodology in teaching GE the absolute characteristic reveals the flexibility of ESP which depends basically on learners‟ needs. In other hand, GE mostly follow the same methodology and activities for teaching and learning different English skills to diverse learners. “ESP is in contrast with General English”, is removed for the simple reason that ESP is not absolutely seen as being concerned with a specific discipline.” (Anthony, ibid).
Furthermore, the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry can lead to confirmation of the argument either through divergence (when multiple methods lead to similar conclusions); or in the case of dissonant results, such multiple methods can open pathways to new theories and areas of further exploration and research (Perlesz and Lindsay, 2003). Denzin has likened the use of multiple methods in research to a kaleidoscope (1979), in which we are able to see many perspectives when examining a question. The use of multiple methods in research allows the examination of different assumptions, different emphases, different priorities, and different strengths and weaknesses to converge in such a way that they reveal different aspects of the “reality” under study.
students in academia irrespective of their majors, the main concern of the latter is foregrounding the discipline-specific requirements that Englishlanguage education can satisfy (Hyland, 2006). Besides, it is argued that in ESAP programs, like other ELT domains, all related decisions, plannings, methodologies, and course designs should be based on research findings and that teacher education in such programs should receive due attention (Hamp-Lyons, 2011; Harwood & Petric, 2011). Therefore, ESAP teachers are expected to be aware of the learners‟ target language use domain, to know their current needs and capabilities, and to successfully fill the gap in an interactive way so that the learners‟ questions, voices, and even doubts are attended to (Giroux, 1994). Further, since ESAP instruction is geared to the target domain where the learners are to use language, teachers are to adapt their methodology to efficiently enable the learners to satisfy their communicative needs (Atai & Fatahi-Majd, 2014). However, at times and in some educational contexts, lack of concordance is observed between how general English teachers and subject teachers, here ESAP instructors, implement the courses, (Chen, 2011) especially in the Iranian context, where the teachers typically design and implement the courses independently, based on their own cognitions and experiences (Atai & Nazari, 2011; Atai & Fatahi-Majd, 2014).
Anton and Dicamilla (1999) conducted a study to examine the socio-cognitive function of L1 use in the collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom and the L1 use of English adult students of Spanish at the beginner level was examined. The study was done in a six-week period and the class was held daily for three hours, but the data of three sessions were recorded and analyzed. The class was divided into five pairs, four of which were male-female and the task they were supposed to do was to write an informative piece. The results demonstrated that L1 was used for the purpose of scaffolding in the Zone of Proximal Development, directing thinking through private speech and also evaluating and understanding the meanings of L2. As their results showed, L1 use had some other functions such as meta-linguistic, cognitive, social, intra-psychological and inter- psychological functions that contribute to it as an important tool in classroom interactions. Skinner (1985) believed that L1 use facilitates L2 learning as the mere L2 use in the classroom prevents the progress of concept developing in students’ mind because it makes the mind disconnected from the formerly developed thoughts and concepts. Therefore, a classroom is a context for co-constructing knowledge from which the shared knowledge can be co-constructed if the students are equipped with both Cognitive AcademicLanguage Proficiency (CALP) and Basic Interactional Conversation Skills (BICS) (Cummins, 2007). A teacher, as the source of knowledge, encourages an active interaction among the students and provides meaningful activities to reach this aim. The teacher has the authority to control the content and discourse of learning through the act of code-switching, which is a primary non-detachable step in second language interactions. By switching to L1 in L2 or bilingual classrooms, the teacher can simplify his meaning, define or elaborate on the concepts of the course and make the important points comprehensible. L1 must not be excluded from the classroom pedagogy because it is a helpful tool in language learning and the teachers must include code-switching in their class interactions in a non-detrimental way (Macaro, 2001).
In this chapter, the research methods and procedures used to conduct this study are explained. The framework of research and study analysis is detailed for study replication or further validation of the data provided. The purpose of the quantitative study was to test the relationship of students’ scores on the WIDA ACCESS test to their score on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Test in the area of reading. The study also assessed the predictive power of the WIDA ACCESS test on the North Carolina End-of-Grade test for Englishlanguage learners. An ex-post facto, correlational design was used in the study (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). This allowed existing data to be examined to determine the extent of the correlation between Englishlanguage proficiency levels and reading performance of fifth-grade Englishlanguage learners in North Carolina. The independent variable is defined as the student’s overall score on the WIDA ACCESS test. The dependent variable is defined as the student’s reading score on the North Carolina End-of-Grade test. It is hypothesized that the WIDA ACCESS test will be found to be a strong predictor of the North Carolina End-of-Grade test in reading. Having predictive data for teachers to use as language learners begin the school year in their classes will assist teachers as they plan interventions to be implemented throughout the school year. This data can also assist school systems as they allocate resources for support services such as English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, reading support, test accommodations, and curriculum planning.
HIROSHIMA, Japan, Oct. 30, 2003. The change in policy came directly from the Tokyo headquarters of Elpida Memory, a semiconductor maker. Elpida’s 1,366 workers were told to stop addressing each other by their titles and simply to add the suffix –san to their names. Many Japanese have dropped the use of titles to create a more open – and they hope, competitive – culture. This change mirrors other changes in Japanese society, experts say. Equality minded parents no longer emphasize honorific language to their children, and most schools no longer expect children to use honorific language to their teachers. What is clear is that the use of honorific language, called keigo, to elevate a person or humble oneself, has especially fallen out of use among young Japanese. Japanese, perhaps more than any other language, has long taken account of social standing. In Japanese, there are many ways to say I or you, calibrated by age, circumstance, gender, social position and other factors. Verb endings, adjectives and entire words also shift according to the situation. These days, companies hope the use of - san – less cumbersome than the longer titles traditionally used – will allow workers to exchange ideas more freely and make decisions more quickly. In 2001, 59 percent of companies with more than 3,000 employers had adopted such a policy, compared with 34 percent in 1995, according to the Institute of Labor Administration of Japan. “It’s easier to talk now,” said Kazuyoshi Iizuka, a 32-year-old employee at the Tokyo headquarters of Elpida. The factory’s president, Takehiko Kubota, 59, who describes himself as “old-fashioned,” sent an e-mail message on Sept. 5 explaining the policy to his staff.
Moreover, inclusion of a broad range of physical, psychological, and social conditions in these models permits us to control for their effects and to argue that the influence of omitted variables is unlikely to be large enough to change our major conclusions. Indeed, our sensitivity analyses suggest that estimated effects of physical frailty on death are relatively robust to potential unmeasured confounding. Secondly, the use of secondary data restricts the way key variables are specified, particularly those concerning lifestyle habits or social conditions. However, this is compensated in part by the availability of rich and credible data available in ELSA. In addition, we benefit from the work of others who have elegantly operationalized the measurement of complex social constructs such as social support and integration (Banks et al., 2010), and then demonstrated the utility of these specifications. Thirdly, more than 20% of values are missing for allostatic load, low social support, and low social integration. We argue that handling on the MAR assumption is reasonable given that we include a broad range of predictors that provide information for the FIML procedure. Nonetheless, the potential influence of missing values needs to be borne in mind when interpreting negative findings for these three predictors. Lastly, five assumptions are needed if we are to inject any extent of causal interpretation into our mediation analysis (VanderWeele, 2016). The first three are adequate control for the physical frailty-death, physical frailty-mediator, and mediator-death confounding, which would apply to any observational study. As mentioned, controlling for a wide range of multidimensional predictors of death in our statistical models increases the possibility that these assumptions hold. In addition, our sensitivity analyses suggest that residual confounding is not likely to change our results in any important way. The fourth is that there should not be any mediator- death confounder that is itself affected by physical frailty. Addressing any violation of this assumption would entail performing more complicated modeling (Daniel et al., 2013) that is beyond the ambit of our study. Thus, we acknowledge that our findings stand on this
Basic: includes the 400 most frequent function words, 200 most frequent letter bigrams, 250 rare POS bigrams and 300 most frequent spelling errors. The 400 most frequent function words were taken from a list of 512 function words used in the orig- inal experiments by Koppel et al. For the 200 let- ter n-grams, we chose bigrams, as they are shown to be effective for the task in previous research. The 250 rare POS bigrams were extracted from the Brown Corpus using the POS tagger in (Toutanova et al., 2003). Finally, we simplified the error types by considering only misspelled words, based on a list of 5,753 common misspellings, constructed from Wikipedia common misspellings and those used in (Abbasi and Chen, 2008). We ignored any misspellings with 0-1 appearances across the entire sub-corpus. Since many of the rare POS bigrams and misspellings had no appearances, the effective vector lengths vary between 653-870 features.
With the globalization of the world economy, international business activities have become increasingly frequent. Business English talents with both interna- tional trade expertise and Englishlanguage proficiency have become an urgent need. But there are some problems of the cultivation of Business English talents. For example, the curriculums do not meet the career need; teachers pay so much attention to language training instead of practice that the students are much more competent in language skills than in business skills. Therefore, it is of vital practical significance for Chinese universities to cultivate effectively more high-quality application-oriented talents who are capable of serving the society and the economy professionally. And the focus of Business English teaching reform should be on the practical teaching.
Data were collected through record review of the participants, starting from their initial level in the ADN program till the time they graduated. Such review was conducted after permission was granted by PAAET. A letter requesting review of records was utilized to facilitate obtaining relevant data. Data gathered were on the grades in the different English courses offered in the ADN program of the College, namely: English 101, English 114, English 213, and English 214. Moreover, their general grade point average specifically on the nursing courses and in general, to include both the non - nursing courses and nursing courses were all taken into account in the review. The nursing courses included: Fundamentals of Nursing, Nursing Care of Adults, Nursing Care of Family, Nursing Care of Adults and Family, Community Nursing, Professional Issues in Nursing and Nursing Practicum. Included in the non - nursing courses were: Human Anatomy and Physiology, Introduction to Psychology, Pharmacology, Pathophysiology, Microbiology; Principles of Human Nutrition, and Islamic Culture.
Students entering English-medium universities frequently struggle to cope with the language demands of their degree programmes, despite having met the Englishlanguage entry conditions stipulated by their receiving institutions. This can have significant repercussions for the teaching-learning process, for the student experience and for universities’ reputations. Most universities, therefore, have in place some form of in- sessional Englishlanguage support to develop students’ language proficiency. Such provision tends to be centralised and to offer English for general academic purposes rather than language development that responds in a more nuanced way to the particular literacy needs of students’ disciplines. In this article, we report on an alternative, decentralised model of language support, implemented in a School of Nursing and Midwifery, and which seeks to develop students’ competency in the language skills required for their Nursing studies and professional practice. Results to date have been encouraging and provide further evidence that such tailored provision offers a potentially fruitful language development strategy.
The study was primarily interested in investigating speaking apprehension level among the administrative staff at a public university in Malaysia. The findings indicate that the staff were moderately apprehensive as far as communication in English is concerned. This is in line with similar studies conducted by Jafar et al. (2016) which found that most people with tertiary education experience moderate level of apprehension. An explanation that can be offered is that since all the officers held university qualification, they have had more exposure to the Englishlanguage during their university time as students, hence they experienced the moderate apprehension level. Although the level of apprehension among the staff was not worrying and “reasonable”, perhaps the situation could be further improved.
Mastery goals refer to task mastering, overcoming the challenge or increasing the competence level and improving people's ability . People with approach performance goals focus on showing merit and desirable judgments, while people with performance avoidance goals focus on showing lack of merit avoidance and undesirable judgments . According to Matos, Lens and Vansteenklste there is a significant relationship between achievement goals and academic performance . Another goal of educational system in all societies is making an effort for people’s self-efficacy. If an adult wants to have self-efficacy, he/she must develop this characteristic in his/her childhood and pupilage (studentship) period. The self-efficacy theory originates from the social cognition theory and includes self-efficacy. Is also said that hope on the result is introduced as the main construct . Bandura has defined self-efficacy as the person’s judgments on his/her abilities, competences, capacities and capabilities to do a specific task . Self- efficacy has also been defined as measuring our merit to complete duties and reaching the goals . According to Green, Miller, Crowson, Duke and Akey's point of view , self-efficacy is a very important factor to predict academic performance in different academic levels. Self- efficacy and academic performance interact. This means that the students with high self-efficacy have a better academic performance compared to the students with low self-efficacy . Also, people with high self-efficacy select proficiency and performance goals, while people with low self-efficacy select the performance avoidance goals [11, 13]. Various researches have referred to the significant role of self-efficacy on academic performance such as [2, 5, 6, 16, 17, 20].
This question is informed broadly by the literature discussed in Chapter Two. An important part of the context, however, is that the higher education system has been in a process of continuous reform and the conditions of academic employment have declined since about the time that anti-discrimination and affirmative action legislation have been in place (Marginson & Considine 2000; Anderson, Johnson et al. 2002; Ball 2003; Kimber 2003; Horsely, Martin et al. 2005; Coates, Goedegebuure et al. 2008; Lavelle 2008). The main features of the reforms are threefold. They include the expansion of the higher education system, the retraction of government funding as a proportion of university income with a shift toward a ‘user pays’ model and the remodelling of higher education management in line with corporate models of governance. The shift has been to transform universities from being institutions dedicated to contributing to the public good, to being producers of education services in the global higher education market (Thornton 2005). In 2008, the export of Australian higher education services was ranked third in terms of volume of trading, behind only the export of coal and iron ore (RBA 2008). In short, higher education has been commodified and redefined as a product for domestic and international trade. As Marginson (2000) puts it, universities have made the transitionfrom ‘college to corporation’. Many of the changes brought about by reform, which has been continuous, have been borne by academics. Within the system, academics are now ‘producers’ of goods and services to be purchased by the ‘customer’ who was once understood as a student. New customers have also been defined including government and industry. The role of higher education is now to ensure the continued supply of a skilled labour market as well as products in the form of research and consulting expertise. The effects of this redefinition include larger academic workloads, increased staff to teacher ratios, extensive surveillance and ‘benchmarking’ and declining academic freedom. In short, academic work is no longer as attractive as it once was and women have particularly been affected for a range of reasons detailed in Chapter Two.
UiTM initiated the e-learning drive with the establishment of i-Learn Centre in December 2005 operating under the Academic Affair Division with the responsibility of handling the adaptation of e-learning in UiTM (i-Learn Portal, 2012). i-Learn portal is the system that allows lecturers to link the courses taught for students to access related resources for the course. As mentioned by Posiah, Siti Akmar and Kamaruzaman (2008), “the adoption of e-learning is a further step towards manifesting the vision of technology serving lifelong learning and a knowledge based society through enculturation of new and effective pedagogies” (p.113). Furthermore, e-learning has the potential to enrich and complement the effectiveness of traditional teaching and learning by empowering students to become active and self-paced learners besides allowing lecturers to continuously update instructional materials. With the target of reaching 200,000 students, the university’s top management acted on the conviction that technology and e-learning will improve learners’ support and reduce the demands on buildings and facilities (Posiah, Siti Akmar, & Kamaruzaman, 2008). In addition, e-learning technology approach could be a solution in catering the huge number of students and providing assurance towards continuous learning opportunities (Azlan et al., 2009).