Top PDF UPDATE: International Human Rights

UPDATE: International Human Rights

UPDATE: International Human Rights

diseases, corporate services, and preparedness, surveillance and response. The International Labour Organization (ILO) (<http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm>) was established in 1919. Its functions are to bring together representatives of governments, employers and workers of 187 member States to set labor standards, develop policies and devise programs that promote decent work for all women and men. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (<https://www.unicef.org/>) supports 1) the Convention on the Rights of the Child; 2) the protection, inclusion, education, and gender equality of children; and 3) research and analysis on children. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHABITAT)
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Transcending Human Rights Instrumentalism

Transcending Human Rights Instrumentalism

Within national governments, in-house legal advisors exercise institutional mandates to ensure that the government’s policies conform to international legal standards that have become embedded in domestic law. …These legal advisers often operate within an internalised system of bureaucratic precedent, which may have a considerable measure of stare decisis effect. …In making decisions, government leaders consult these internal legal standards. Over time, legal ideologies come to prevail among domestic decision makers so that they become personally affected by public perceptions that their actions are or will be perceived as unlawful, even in crisis situations. …[D]omestic decision makers thereby become “enmeshed” with international legal norms, because institutional arrangements for the making and maintenance of an international law norm become entrenched in domestic legal and political processes. …Finally, internalization is promoted when strong process linkages exist across issue areas. …Because international legal obligations tend to be closely interconnected, deviation from international commitments in one area tends to lead noncompliant nations into vicious cycles of treaty violations. …When a nation deviates from that pattern of presumptive compliance, frictions are created, not just in the particular issue area…, but in the whole spectrum of interlinked issue areas. To avoid such frictions in its continuing interactions, a nation's bureaucracies gain powerful institutional incentives to press their governmental leaders to adhere generally to policies of compliance over policies of violation. 70
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In Nigeria and other post-colonial countries, human rights education is seen as a way to bring in transformative pedagogy that "takes up concerns of freedom, democracy, social justice and social empowerment" and try to "overcome the legacy of authoritarianism and selective knowledge production in the schools" (Uwakweh 2000; Claude 2000). Lohrenscheit's article on Freire overviews the central tenets of this approach for HRE. In keeping with its context-specific use, human rights education has been viewed optimistically by its promoters as a conflict-prevention or peace- building mechanism in conflict or post-conflict societies. The Universal Declaration of Rights recognizes that human rights principles incorporated into many international treaties were designed "to prevent resort to violence" and it is assumed by those promoting the human rights framework that the more human rights are observed, the more just and peaceful the society (Bernath, Holland, Martin 1999; Education Development Center 2003). Smith et al's article on Northern Ireland shares research on the role of HRE in promoting understanding among groups that have traditionally been in conflict.
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The Emerging Role of Sub-National Human Rights Institutions in the International Human Rights Regime

The Emerging Role of Sub-National Human Rights Institutions in the International Human Rights Regime

legislative autonomy. This argument has been made at times by the Council of Regions and other actors with an interest in preserving sub-national political authority. 58 The argument progresses as follows. First, advocates for decentralisation will point out that local authorities are intimately involved in human rights protection and implementation, and in particular are generally heavily involved in developing and implementing policies that can impact social and economic rights, such as public health, housing, social welfare, education, employment, urban planning and environmental protection. 59 However, there is sometimes insufficient attention paid to local government’s impact on human rights, due to a systematic bias among human rights advocates and scholars to monitor developments at the national or supra-national level. 60 Therefore, given the relevance of local government activities to human rights, and the relative lack of supervision, it is desirable for an HRI of some sort to monitor local government activities and provide appropriate recommendations when its laws or policies have violated or threaten to violate human rights. In countries where there is no NHRI, this means that an SNHRI should be established to fill the gap. Where there is an NHRI, the establishment of an SNHRI might still be necessary, because the NHRI might be legally prohibited from interfering with the actions of regional and municipal authorities when administration is divided into federal, autonomous, or highly decentralised jurisdictions. 61 Even where it would be legally permissible for a national- level body to pass judgment on the work of a lower-level autonomous governmental entity, it is worth bearing in mind that NHRI opinions are (in general) non-binding, and therefore only effective in as much as their addressee takes them into consideration and follows their recommendations. 62 If an autonomous entity would be systematically less likely to follow recommendations from a NHRI than from a local SNHRI due to autonomy concerns, then an SNHRI would end up as the more effective body for influencing local authorities.
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Discussing "human rights" : an anthropological exposition on "human rights" discourse

Discussing "human rights" : an anthropological exposition on "human rights" discourse

(as opposed to the study of peoples and cultures of the past), can contribute in manners that are precise and with feelings about current topics of incalculable importance to the development, evolution, and improvement of a 'universally' acceptable doctrine of "Human Rights". The opinions of anthropologists concerned with "Human Rights", wherever they stand in the "relativism "/ "universalism" debate,1 °4 should be of great interest to those involved in international political and "Human Rights" discourse because of the intense and hands-on research methods routinely employed by anthropologists in studying contemporary societies -especially those of the developing world. It is these very societies, international policy makers swear they are interested in giving an increasing voice to, that are most thoroughly researched and best known to anthropologists, who have a history of studying peoples rarely studied. As Theodore E. Downing and Gilbert Kushner write in the "Introduction" to Human Rights and Anthropology : "A nthropologists' concern for precise reporting, replicating observations, preserving linguistic and conceptual clarity and reducing observer bias provides an alternative -if not more accurate- view on the human condition than that obtained from
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The legal recognition of the human rights situation of women with disabilities in the state of Qatar

The legal recognition of the human rights situation of women with disabilities in the state of Qatar

However, the legal situation of women with disabilities, with regards to equality and non-discrimination, could be safeguarded if the CRPD is taken into consideration. On the one hand, the definition of discrimination is incomplete in the framework of the international legal system in which Qatar participates (since it is the Human Rights Committee, as the competent body designated by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, that is in charge of analyzing this concept in depth 11 , and Qatar has neither signed nor ratified this Covenant); but on the other hand, in addition to the definition established in the CEDAW and the CERD, Qatar, as State Party to the CRPD can also refer to the definition provided in Article 2 of the CRPD on discrimination on the basis of disability. This definition is wider than just being based upon the condition of the person. The definition of discrimination established in the CRPD raises the issue of the social construction of disability. Disability is not defined as the being the result of any “impairments” (the word used by the CRPD to refer to the individual condition of a person regardless of his/her social context), but it could potentially affect persons without “impairments” who are discriminated against for their relationship with a person with disabilities 12 or because they themselves appear to have a disability. This broader sense of the grounds for discrimination is relevant, differing from the other Conventions mentioned above. Both the CERD and the CEDAW define discrimination
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International Response to Protection and Enforcement of Human Rights

International Response to Protection and Enforcement of Human Rights

If an Inter-State communication provides under Article 41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of the state parties concerned, the committee may with prior consent of the state parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc conciliation commission so as to make available to state parties concerned the good offices of commission with a view to make an amicable solution of the matter on the basis with respect for present Covenant. 8 After the commission has fully considered the matter but in every event not later than 12 months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the committee a report for communication to the state parties concerned. In case the commission is unable to complete the consideration of matter within 12 months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of status of its consideration of matter. In case, however, an amicable solution on the basis of respect for human rights is reached, the commission shall confine its report to a brief statement of facts of solution reached. 9
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Religious Human Rights and the International Human Rights Community: Finding Common Ground - Without Compromise

Religious Human Rights and the International Human Rights Community: Finding Common Ground - Without Compromise

Religious identity alone will seldom be the only indicator of religious persecution, given that "religion is usually intertwined with ethnic, political, territorial[r]

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Comments on the "Universality" of the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials

Comments on the "Universality" of the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials

Among the relevant international instruments are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Declaration [r]

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Challenges to the Application of International Women's Human Rights

Challenges to the Application of International Women's Human Rights

Challenges to the Application of International Women's Human Rights in Ghana BY ANlTA M, HEYMANN ABABIO Cet article tente d'analyser I'adoption et l'implantation de La Convention pour 12limination de[.]

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HUMAN RIGHTS OF INDIAN WOMEN: MYTH AND REALITY

HUMAN RIGHTS OF INDIAN WOMEN: MYTH AND REALITY

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights constitute a trinity which is often called the magna carta of humanity". The United Nations shows concern for human rights and the list of these rights which every human being has a right to enjoy includes: The right to life; Abolition of slavery and suppression of the slave trade; Abolition of forced or compulsory labour; Freedom from torture; Freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; Equality in the administration of justice; The right of everyone to leave any country, including his own and to return to his country; The right to a nationality; Freedom for thought, conscience and religion; Freedom of opinion and expression; Freedom of association; The right of everyone to take part in the government of his country; The realisation of economic, social and cultural rights; The right to work; The right to education; The right to health; Freedom from hunger; The right to participate in cultural life; The right to a clean environment; The right to adequate shelter and services. As women are the largest minority in the world and suffer suppression of personality, therefore, the United Nations has had to deal with the problem of justice to womenhood seriously, to remedy their many maladies. Some of the recipes are: United Nations instruments embodying the principle of equality of men and women; measures taken by United Nations bodies to implement the principle of equality of men and women; United Nations instruments dealing with problems that affect women adversely; measures taken by United Nations bodies to deal with problems that affect women adversely; Integration of women in development; Effective mobilisation of women in development. 1
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Litigating Customary International Human Rights Norms

Litigating Customary International Human Rights Norms

In addition to seeking recognition of additional human rights violations as falling within the reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, pending cases also push to expand t[r]

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Exploring the Limits of International Human Rights Law

Exploring the Limits of International Human Rights Law

As I discuss below, advocacy groups have recognized that importation of the language of international human rights into domestic legal systems-through direct litigation, domestic [r]

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Taking Pride in International Human Rights Litigation

Taking Pride in International Human Rights Litigation

US human rights cases are based on the Alien Tort Claims Act ("ATCA"), which states that the federal courts shall have jurisdiction over "a tort only, committed in [r]

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Race and Gender Analyses of Trafficking: A Case Study of Nigeria

Race and Gender Analyses of Trafficking: A Case Study of Nigeria

Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Tracked Persons Summary These standards are drawn from international human rights instruments and formally recognized international legal norms They aim to[.]

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Who Cares about the Rights of Indigenous Children - Infanticide in Brazilian Indian Tribes

Who Cares about the Rights of Indigenous Children - Infanticide in Brazilian Indian Tribes

Declaration of Human Rights, 157 the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 158 the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 159 [r]

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Refugee Family Reunification Rights: A Basis in the European Court of Human Rights' Family Reunification Jurisprudence

Refugee Family Reunification Rights: A Basis in the European Court of Human Rights' Family Reunification Jurisprudence

This is because the Court is a major institution in international human rights law and is interpreting a provision of a human rights document (Article 8 of ECHR50[r]

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International Law, Human Rights Beneficiaries, and South Africa: Some Thoughts on the Utility of International Human Rights Law

International Law, Human Rights Beneficiaries, and South Africa: Some Thoughts on the Utility of International Human Rights Law

While international criminal accountability for private organizations is not provided for in the Hague tribunals," civil liability and other forms of accountability for[r]

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The International League for Human Rights: The Strategy of a Human Rights NGO

The International League for Human Rights: The Strategy of a Human Rights NGO

"A creative association acting in conformity with the laws of the state," the purposes of the Committee were specified as including assistance to state author[r]

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International Machinery on Human Rights

International Machinery on Human Rights

Among the recommendations adopted by the CEDAW Committee at its 7th Session in 1988 was one calling upon State parties to disseminate the Convention, the report of State parties and t[r]

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