intimate partner violence by “a partner” over the previous school year. Use of the term “partner” denotes intimate partner violence may exist among heterosexual and same-sex partners. The CTS2 is a commonly used measure of intimate partner violence that measures the frequency with which respondents had experienced psychological and physical abuse from their dating partners. Three items assessed psychological abuse (e.g., insults, and threats) and seven items assessed physical abuse (e.g., slapping, pushing, kicking). Psychometric analyses conducted by Anderson and Leigh (2010) reported sound construct validity between the psychological and physical abuse scales for Deaf and Hard of Hearingcollegestudents. CTSPsychIndex was created by combining the self-reported questions: “Partner insulted or swore at you?”, “Partner put you down in front of family and/or friends?”, and “Partner threatened to hit or throw something at you?”
prevention and positive psychology. The intervention focuses on facilitating competence by teaching problem focused coping skills and cognitive reframing, helping students identify individual strength, and improving self-image. Supports are enhanced by developing awareness of school resources for those who are being bullied, providing access to a caring adult, and creating a safe space for students to make sense of their experiences with bullying. The program implements culturally relevant practices in order to reduce the potential for additional exploitation in the context of the interventions. Initial evaluation of the project outcomes, acceptability, and treatment integrity are promising (see Varjas et al., 2006; Varjas et al., 2009 for a detailed description of the project and program evaluation). Longitudinal studies of RBSUD and other intervention projects may provide valuable insight about how to foster resiliency among victims of bullying as well as provide information about potential interventions for collegestudents who did not receive such interventions prior to college.
Although most research has agreed that the excess risk of mental disorders in lower socioeconomic classes is a result of an interaction between these two processes, the literature has been remarkably inconsistent in which is the greater determining factor. Case in point is Hudson’s (2005) examination of state hospital records in Massachusetts. He found the expected strong inverse association between socioeconomic status and mental illness and hypothesized that the rates of mental illness were primarily due to the economic stressors faced in impoverished communities. Although his data supported that hypothesis, he admitted that he was unable to demonstrate causation because his analysis was missing the time element necessary to determine directionality. His data also could not completely rule out the social drift perspective, at least for some illnesses.
Two hundred seventy-nine collegestudents enrolled in entry-level psychology courses at GSU agreed to participate in this study. Of these 279 participants, seven did not complete the survey and were omitted from further analysis; therefore, 272 participants finished the survey. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 48 (M = 20.69, SD = 4.38) and were racially diverse (39% White, 30% Black, 10% Asian, 7% Latino, 7% Multiracial, and 5% Other). Just less than half of the sample (45%) identified as politically Middle Of The Road, 31% identified as Somewhat or Very Liberal, 20% as Somewhat or Very Conservative, and 4% as Other. About half (55%) of the sample identified as Christian, 15% as Spiritual But Not Religious, 13% as Atheist or Agnostic, 13% as Other, and 5% as Muslim. The majority of the sample (74%) identified as Women, which is higher than the university population (approximately 60% women) (GSU, 2009) but is
(21). The intervention group participated in a daily school-based exercise program involving 40 minutes of indoor and outdoor physical activity, including ball games, running and jumping. The authors wished to utilize typical activities enjoyed by young children in order to minimize dropout rates. The control group for this study was an age- matched group at a second school, exposed to 60 minutes of physical activity per week. The authors of this study analyzed BMC and BMD data pertaining to total body (TB), lumbar spine (L2-L4 vertebrae), third lumbar vertebra (L3), femoral neck (FN) and leg. The girls in the intervention group experienced an average increase of 2.8% and 3.1% in BMD (p<0.001) in the lumbar spine and L3 vertebrae respectively, compared to the control group (21). An additional advantage seen in the intervention group was a 2.9% gain in bone width at L3 compared with controls. This study suggests that physical activity in young children may contribute to BMC and BMD, which may protect against future fracture risk.
The sample period for the study is 1991 to 2008. I test ordinary least-squares regression analysis on the percentage change in farmland market values as compared to the percentage change in the prices for agricultural commodity futures over the time period. In view of the rejection of the PVM, our models test additional variables such as capitalization rates, interest rate futures, and anticipated inflation. Variables included in previous studies are interest rates, government payments, transaction costs, property taxes, ex-post land and building returns, soil characteristics, commodity transportation costs, inflation and debt payments. Because of small sample size, I do not include all of the above mentioned variables in the model. Other methodologies such as regression analysis on price levels and Johansen’s cointegration technique are used. I find support for my hypothesis if the futures prices and anticipated inflation have positive signs and statistically significant with respect to farmland market values. Interest rate futures and farmland capitalization rates would be expected to have an inverse relationship with farmland market values.
Obesity-related diseases impose billions of dollars in medical expenditures on state and local governments each year (Wolf and Colditz 1998; Finkelstein et al. 2003). Because of the diseases’ preventable perception, governments at all levels are enacting policies aimed towards reducing obesity rates while simultaneously seeking to understand underlying causes. A substantial literature now exists researching the economic causes of obesity (Finkelstein et al. 2005). One category of studies identifies strong spatial patterns of obesity, such as higher incidence in economically disadvantaged areas net of individual characteristics (Robert and Reither 2004). Within this vein there is an established positive association between urban sprawl and obesity (Ewing et al. 2003; Giles-Corti et al. 2003; Saelens et al. 2003; Frank et al. 2004; Lopez 2004; Rashad and Eriksen 2005; Zhao and Kaestner 2009). Still only a correlation, the most commonly asserted explanation is that suburbia imposes an automobile-dependent and sedentary lifestyle (Plantiga and Bernell 2005).
Kreuntz et al. (2008) ran a similar protocol; however, their findings are different. Twelve males and 6 females of college age were recruited for the study. Subjects performed an eccentric exercise intervention that included 6 sets of 4-10 bicep curls on five days a week for 6 weeks, though arms were alternated each day. Supplementation involved giving subjects 400 mg of ibuprofen immediately after the daily exercise intervention, though only on days using one of their arms. After daily exercise intervention using the other arm, subjects received a placebo. Results between arms were compared at the end of the exercise intervention, and no significant differences were found between the placebo and the ibuprofen, nor were any significant changes seen in DOMS. The authors did not include whether subjects were untrained, nor did they mention whether their exercise protocol induced significant muscle soreness, so it is possible that more research is necessary to verify these findings.
The efficacy of many drugs is determined to a large extent by the processes that govern their uptake into the cell or into the cellular compartment that is the site of action. 7, 17-19 These processes obviously include transporters for water-soluble drugs but even rates of diffusion for lipophilic drugs. An example of the latter is chloroquin, which as a weak base diffuses across several membranes before it reaches the Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole where it is trapped by protonation and fatally inhibits heme polymerization. 20, 21 Equally, efflux systems such as ATP-binding cassette transporters and the P. falciparum CRT1 channel-like protein have been implicated in resistance to drugs ranging from antibiotics and antiparasitics to antineoplastic drugs. 22, 23 As such, detailed insights into the processes that determine drug flux across the (plasma) membranes of target cells are vital for the rational optimization of drug activity and both the prevention and bypassing of drug resistance.
1998, the Lancet journal article presented findings that demonstrated a potential link between the measles virus and autism, suggesting that the vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) caused autism. After Wakefield’s study was published in 1998, MMR vaccination rates in Britain fell from a high of 92% to below 80% in 2003 (Lewis & Speers, 2003). Attempts to explain the fall of vaccination rates point to the media’s coverage of the issue. Lewis and Speers (2003) conducted a content analysis of British print, television, and radio news coverage of the controversy from January to September 2002. The analysis revealed that 69% of MMR stories focused on a link between the MMR vaccine and autism and 58% of MMR stories mentioned Wakefield’s proposal for three single vaccines. Despite the large body of scientific evidence that disputes Wakefield’s findings, research indicating the safety of MMR was featured in only 37% of stories. Lewis and Speers observed that the MMR vaccine became controversial during this time period (January through September, 2002) because a BBC television program Panorama, aired a broadcast titled “How safe is MMR” on February 3, 2002, taking up Wakefield’s theory regarding the MMR vaccine. Wakefield and other colleagues also pre-published a paper in Molecular Pathology that was made available when this broadcast aired. Reporting of a measles
reoffended during a follow-up period of either one year, two years, or three years. Data was also released regarding time-to-failure (TTF), or the measure averaging the number of days between the release date and the first new offense. A rate of increase or decrease was determined based on a comparison of the 2005 rates to the rates from 1998-2004. Three year recidivism rates showed an increase of 4.9% for those who participated in probation. Short-term programs showed a decrease of 9.5% in recidivism. Regular commitments showed a decrease of 5.4%. Youth detention centers, felon commitments, and non-secure residential commitments showed no change in recidivism. Short-term programs showed an increase of 41 days, while regular commitments showed an increase of 12 days. Again, probation and youth detention centers showed no significant change in TTF. Probation is not positively affecting juvenile offenders by aiding in the decrease of repeat offenders, neither are youth detention centers. Douglas County is classified as Region 3, which released just over 26,000 youth and had a three year recidivism rate of 41.3%, the second highest rate out of five regions.
victimization, limited contact with family and friends, and so forth (Fleisher 1995; Santos 2003, 2006). Nevertheless, certain data indicate that the experience of incarceration is not perceived as a particularly harsh form of punishment by some offenders. In one study of persistent offenders using narrative data, Laub and Sampson (2003) found that some long-term inmates actually perceive life in prison as being easier than life on the street. Akerstrom (1985) reported similar findings in her qualitative study of 150 male prison inmates, as many of the respondents in the study reported that the idea of living a conventional life was ―more terrifying than doing time‖ (p. 23). Therefore, it can be inferred from these qualitative studies that, for some inmates, incarceration does not serve as a meaningful deterrent.
The use of technology can be particularly effective when employed to support learning for otherwise disaffected students. Howard, Ellis, and Rasmussen (2004) showed that college undergraduates with low reading levels made greater gains than students with higher reading levels through the use of a self-paced hypermedia program designed to enhance student interest. The program included graphics and movie-like features and moved from general to specific information. The students were tested after completing the module and no differences were found between the high and low skilled groups, suggesting that the module had allowed the less skilled students to close the performance gap that had originally been present between themselves and the more skilled readers. Learner control was thought to be a major benefit of the technology because the learner was able to manipulate the information to his or her preference, which is particularly conducive to learning. Likewise, increased engagement, which has been associated with increased achievement, was also believed to be important to the students’ outcome.
governments have the authorities to vary the rates for their assigned taxes. This is constrained by the fact that there are rate ceilings for taxes. Enterprise property tax, transport tax and tax on gambling business are regional taxes and all the revenues is retained in the region of collection. Personal property tax and land tax are pure local taxes with local governments getting all the revenue collected in their jurisdiction. Regions and local governments also receive shares of revenue in some federal taxes including enterprise profit tax, personal income tax, excise taxes on alcohol and beverages, gasoline and beer, mineral resources extraction tax on common mineral and other minerals (not including oil and gas), simplified tax on small businesses, single tax on imputed income and single tax on agricultural enterprises. 125 In addition to tax revenue, subnational government have access to non-tax revenue items that include income from use of property, paid services and funds accruing from civil, administrative and criminal penalties. 126 The mean value of real subnational revenue per capita was 6.11 thousand rubles in 2000 and it progressively increased to 32.23 thousand rubles in 2007. In the meantime the mean value of real transfers per capita increased from 1.18 thousand rubles to 9.80 rubles. As Figure 3.1 shows, the increase in transfers has not been as smooth as the increase in revenue. This could be attributed to discretionary transfers as well as arbitrary changes in the transfer pool on an annual basis.
The third Deaf participant, a recent college graduate, went to a deaf residential school in high school, which was four hours away from her home. She would stay at the residential school during the week and return home on the weekends. Her parents are not in the scientific field, and she graduated with a Criminal Justice Masters degree, therefore her studies are concentrated in the humanities field. Her experience at the residential school has been mainly positive when it came to science and math. She had one math teacher for all the classes, since her school was very small. Her class was around twenty-five students. If she needed to take classes her school did not offer, it would be at the public school across the street. From her experience, she believed there should be more staff well equipped with mathematics and science. At the dormitory, there was two staff for each floor of students, from elementary to high school. Only one person out of six staff was equipped to help with math and science assignments. “The other staff members were much older, so it has been many years since they’ve taken those courses”.
Deaf community at NTID, while often integrated with the hearing population of RIT, serves as an extremely large and influential microsystem for the students who attend this institution. It is important to note that NTID is one of the nine colleges that are a part of RIT. Students who are registered under the NTID name who prefer a more mainstream education can attend classes with assistive support services such as C-PRINT, interpreting, and notetaking. While NTID is situated near the dormitory and main dining hall section of the campus, DHH students often gather in the common areas of the NTID college, socializing before, in-between, and after classes. This open public space, also known as the Shumway Dining Commons, provides an opportunity for students to socialize and share information about their engagement and political beliefs. At the Commons, the majority of the students use ASL. Additionally, there are various campus groups that are characterized as on-campus clubs. These clubs provide gateway
on Andreas Fininger, framing, and photo transfer. The Andreas Fininger article helped to supplement the industrial, mechanical, and construction lesson because students were able to compare the compositions they were taking with those of Andreas Fininger who used industrial, mechanical, and construction as a subject matter. The framing concept lets students work with a commonly used photography technique with a digital camera; because of the quick turn around of the digital media, this was a great way to critique student progress as they were working on the assignment. Students really seemed to enjoy the photo transfer assignment; I think this was because students were able to use drawing and painting media along with their photographs and it had been awhile since they were able to use media other than photography. Some students had more success than others with the transfer process. With this process, students took one of their digital images and covered the surface with gel medium; while the gel medium was wet, they placed it onto watercolor paper. Once it dried, students then wet the paper on the back of the image with water and scrapped all the paper off and the image would stick to the gel medium. Students who did not get all the paper off had a hazy image and were unsatisfied. One thing that could help this is to put another coat of gel medium on top of the image and most of the haze tends to go away, but teachers should encourage students to get as much of the paper off the photo transfer as possible to have a clear image.
Bobby and Kristina Anderson have resided in the community about a year. The couple are black gentrifiers and became active in the West End since moving in the neighborhood. They live on a less traveled street in the neighborhood, and they have gotten to know all their neighbors. Oftentimes, Bobby Anderson will do things for people in the community, including cutting their grass. Kristina Anderson is also active in the community, and she is proud of Bobby s Southern hospitality and willingness to help out his neighbors. Kristina Anderson has one hard and fast rule for her husband: Bobby is not permitted to go to the home of any single, female neighbor without her. Kristina says she trusts Bobby, but she is a little concerned about how her single, female neighbors may perceive Bobby s acts of kindness. Kristina also has concerns about what neighbors may think who might see her husband coming in and out of the houses of single, female neighbors. This consciousness of marital status is rooted in issues of gender and has the potential to stifle associations in the community.