Podcasting began in 2004. At the beginning it was used for radio broadcasting through the internet rather than by air. Unlike webradios, however, the podcast is asynchronous and can be used at any time after the download. Obviously, before downloading it, it has to be found. This is why the Podcast needs a distribution channel. There are, for example, databases like the iTunes App Store which classify podcasts into categories and allow their purchase. Since 2001 the arrival of the Apple iPod has favoured the development of playlists, i.e. lists that catalogue the downloaded files. The task is usually carried out by the e-tutor who organises the files in the most suitable order for learning. The Moodle platform (also called LMS) allows you to catalogue every file in the module which corresponds to the topic that is being taught in the course. Thanks to mTouch students can have access to the contents downloaded from the platform by using a mobile device. Moodle is one of the most used platforms both in the university and business sectors. Moodle was elaborated within the University of Curtin in Australia in 1999 to enhance cooperative formation on the interaction between students and professors. For those students who fear exams, it is also possible to download applications such as Esame OK (Exam ok) to learn how to manage anxiety and organize information about the exam contents. Students can also download a university student’s personal record book to make notes of exam dates and marks. Once they reach the disserta- tion writing phase, the iTesi (iThesis) application can help them to write the bibliography, subdivide their work into chapters and prepare the final defence. Professors can use the class register called Grade Book.
Knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structures are insufficient to guarantee effective communication. Language carries meaning beyond the words themselves. It also communicates information about the culture of the individuals involved in any communication act because language is inextricably linked with culture. Linguistic knowledge absent corresponding cultural knowledge may mean that students are learning little more than empty symbols to which incorrect interpretations or meanings may be attached. Linguistic proficiency without correspondent interculturalcompetence can lead to ineffective communications. To truly acquire higher levels of linguistic skills, one must become proficient in both the language and the culture in which it operates.
Abdullah and Chandran (2009) examined the most outstanding cultural facets that are illustrated in four English language textbooks frequently used in Malaysian ESL classrooms. The results of their investigation unveiled the fact that the textbooks focus on localized culture which represents the cultures of different ethnic groups in Malaysia. Further, it was found that these textbooks are culturally oriented toward the source cultures in which local culture is directly and explicitly included. It was also found that no attempt was made to cover intercultural behavior and communication, and finally, no example of comparison with western cultures was observed. Outside the realm of English as the second or foreign language, Bateman and Mattos (2006) examined six Portuguese textbooks with regard to the way they represented a single cultural theme “food”. The “Cultures and Comparisons End” sections of the textbooks were analyzed with respect to their standards for foreign languagelearning, the concentration on various areas which Portuguese is spoken, the employment of authentic texts, as well as treatment of differences with the culture of Brazil. The results of their study revealed that while the textbooks paid enough attention to the Brazilian culture practices, they didn’t focus on the cultural and cross-cultural comparisons, and ignored to express the perspectives of different groups which form Brazilian society.
In order to achieve the aim to enable learners to successfully interact with people of another culture, the author suggests incorporating a set of strategies that are relevant to succeed in international business communication. Whereas Zeuner (2001: 60) considers „scrutinising of meaning‟ as a pertinent strategy for understanding intercultural processes at work better, Spencer-Oatey and Stadler (2009) propose a variety of intercultural communication strategies, categorized according to five intercultural competences: 1. Communication management, 2. Building of shared knowledge, 3. Active listening and attuning, 4. Language adjustment and stylistic flexibility and 5. Languagelearning (Table 9). Although the authors focus more on the foreign management perspective of MNCs, their suggestions could also be transferred to the employees (learners). Though with regards to language, the aim appears too high for a beginners‟ class of foreign language learners. However, the willingness to learn the partner‟s language and the seriousness of learning it show that learners are trying to suit different contexts and audiences. Thus, they try to understand utterings and behaviour. In a beginners‟ class, this would be the first step to move towards each other.
Pulverness (2003) added that language is shaped by social and historical conditions; therefore, it is value laden and must be taught as such. Learners must be given the necessary resources to identify and interact within the shared frame of reference and cultural context that make language meaningful. Classroom methodology needs to acknowledge the extent to which language expresses cultural meanings. Consequently, cultural awareness and intercultural communicative competence should be an integral part of every aspect of the languagelearning process (Byram, 1997; Kramsch, 1993; Pulverness, 2003). Experience alone, while necessary, is insufficient in developing interculturalcompetence (Byram, 1997; Alred, Byram, & Fleming, 2003; Kramsch, 1993); reflection, analysis, and action are also required. By fostering these behaviours, educators can play an important role in facilitating the development of intercultural communicative competence in language classrooms. Byram, Nichols, and Stevens (2001) outlined four guidelines for developing interculturalcompetence in the language classroom: (1) learners should develop awareness of cultural similarities and differences by making comparisons between their own and others’ cultures; (2) they need to develop skills to analyze and interpret unfamiliar social and cultural information; (3) learners should be encouraged to collect data from beyond the classroom to promote their own intercultural communicative competence development; and (4) they should be exposed to literature that promotes an understanding of “otherness” on both cognitive and affective levels.
As has been argued by others (Byram et al. 2002), processes of decentering are inherent in this mediation. The intercultural mediator needs to be able to develop interpretations both from inside and from outside the languages and cultures at play in a particular situation. The mediation is not an explanation of a particular cultural understanding but rather an act of translation between cul tural frameworks in which the values and assumptions of each framework are attended to. Mediating cultures for others also involves being able to integrate the perspective of the recipient of the mediation in the representation of the other culture (note especially Example 5). This behavior is fundamentally an intercul tural one that is not simply the possession of knowledge about another culture as this is manifested in pragmatic differences but rather the ability to use reflection of pragmatic difference to formulate positions between cultures as a mechanism to develop and express understandings of another culture. In this way intercul tural mediation involves awareness of one’s own cultural practices and expecta tions in relation to the aspect of language use being mediated as well knowledge of the target culture behavior. Central to this process is the ability to decenter from one’s own cultural frame and to begin to perceive linguistic behaviors from alternative perspectives. AbdallahPretceille (2003) has argued that the ability to decenter is not an innate one, but rather one that needs to be fostered through education. From the examples presented here, it can be argued that reflection on observed differences in language use can provide a pathway through which such learning can be developed and that pragmatics can thus play a significant role in developing interculturalcompetence.
The suggestions for interculturallanguagelearning websites listed in Table 1 can be considered as key elements that need to be taken into account when designing interculturallanguagelearning websites. With regard to the first requirement for having specific goals, for example, interculturallanguagelearning websites should have goals of being educational places where users can find online materials and resources for learners and teachers of the target language; collaborate with other learners, teachers and/or researchers; engage in discussions on the target language and culture; and/or contribute to the development of the learning and teaching of the target language and culture (Son, 2010). To achieve those goals, it is necessary for interculturallanguagelearning websites to provide a range of interactive tasks, which assist second/foreign languagelearning and culture learning. In order to produce certain learning outcomes, web resources can be exploited and language tasks such as
improvement here, since offering programs through the medium of English and including students from different cultures does not necessarily enhance ICC if it is not actually included in the curriculum. The development of language skills during studies was also considered important, in addition to English and Swedish (Swedish is the second language in Finland), it was argued that there should be more opportunities to study other languages. Integrating students into work in Finland also entails compulsory Finnish language courses. That the ICT experts still reported persistent misunderstandings and casual inappropriate behavior suggests that the company framework supporting intercultural collaboration need to be complemented by individual ICC. Both the international students and the ICT experts would benefit from the skills for rendering tacit knowledge explicit and build a common understanding by the negotiation of reality. Negotiation of reality refers to the process by which participants examine their own and other people´s implicit and explicit assumptions, expectations, targets and possible roles concerning a situation, and decide together what kind of communication and behavior is appropriate (Friedman & Antal, 2005). This presupposes an ability for critical reflection, which is the part of the cognitive competence of ICC clearly unknown to the students and ICT experts. Even though the interviewees were generally able to examine the differences between communication cultures, they did not know how to render explicit their own and others´ expectations, making them keen to acquire cultural knowledge. The fact that ICT experts utilized national stereotypes to explain failures in communication suggests, however, that ICC training should not encourage stereotyping by offering cultural knowledge, but emphasize the growing ability to critically reflect on one´s own ways of perceiving, reasoning and behaving, which facilitates understanding other people´s ways of communicating. Cognitive competence would also reduce the problems caused by lack of language proficiency, and support languagelearning.
Irrespective of the specific goals of different study abroad programmes, the two main advantages as commonly believed are foreign language acquisition and intercultural communicative competence development (Amuzie & Winke, 2009; Engle & Engle, 2003). Educators and learners tend to take the same position that being completely immersed in the target language and culture is one of the best ways to offer students various language input and exposure to the target culture. Over several decades, empirical studies have focused on examining the changes that students experience in their language proficiency and intercultural communicative competence in study abroad contexts. Researchers intend to gain a deeper understanding of whether study abroad programme has significantly positive impact on students’ linguistic gains and development of intercultural communicative competence, and whether this intercultural experience helps students acquire skills that are needed to work in a global community (Wang, 2010). Some scholars claim that substantial immersion in the target language and culture is proved to be important for languagelearning, especially for highest proficiency of second language (Davidson, 2007), whereas others believe that simply sending students to overseas institutions does not necessarily lead to communicative competence achievement (Berg, Michael, & Paige, 2009). A literature review on study abroad research, however, has indicated that the outcomes, particularly on these issues, are generally inconsistent and inconclusive (Wang, 2010). Since there are a growing number of study abroad programmes being offered to students in higher educational institutes and even in secondary schools as part of their learning experience, it is vital that we use the resources of empirical studies to research the impact and effectiveness of these programmes (Pedersen, 2010; Wang, 2010).
informed’” (p. 539). (2) Pedagogy of preparation. The few teachers who fit into this category engaged students in cultural learning through the stories of teacher’s intercultural experience and conducting intercultural dialogues, with a focus on the differences between home and the target cultures. Their teaching helped to prepare students for their appropriate behaviours while communicating with people from English speaking countries, mostly Britain and the Unites States of America. (3) Pedagogy of encounter, which reflects a true intercultural perspective in language teaching. The very few teachers who belonged to this category were found to be novice female teachers who had extensive personal overseas experience. They tended to engage their students in experiencing both “authentic encounters such as visits by native speakers or virtual contacts,” and “simulated encounters such as role-plays or mental constructs” (p. 540). Their teaching reflected a “reciprocal” and “dialog” perspective which included both the home and the target culture (p. 540). The researcher points out that most of the teachers belong to the first category which indicates that few of them conduct instructional activities beyond the transmission of cultural knowledge.
In the structure of eco-cross-cultural competence, we consider the creative abilities described as intercultural aimed at the formation of this type of competence. Such creative abilities include cognitive-psychological and pragmatic cognitive-psychological abilities which are understood more widely than language ability defined by Yu.N. Karaulov as a non-layered set of linguistic abilities and readiness to carry out speech acts of varying degrees (Karaulov, 2007). If speech ability is aimed at learning the language and using it in various situations, then the cognitive- psychological ability involves the development of the psychological functions of the individual in the human psychosphere. V.D. Shadrikov believes that abilities are the properties of functional systems that implement individual mental functions which have an individual measure of severity and are demonstrated in the success and qualitative uniqueness of the development and implementation of activities (Shadrikov, 2012: 142).
Preprocessing Foster (2010) and Gadde et al. (2011) report improved parsing and tagging per- formance when the input data is normalised be- fore processing, This work employs very little data cleaning and future work will involve ex- ploring the interaction between preprocessing and parser retraining. Hyperlinks and usernames in tweets were replaced by the terms Urlname and Username respectively — to make life easier for parsers and POS taggers, proper nouns that are in the systems’ lexicons should be used. The auto- matic sentence splitter and tokeniser that was used to create the Web 2.0 training sets makes use of abbreviation statistics in order to determine sen- tence boundaries. We compiled an abbreviation ta- ble using football discussion forum data but made no attempt to modify it for Twitter data. What is needed is a sentence-splitter tuned to the punctu- ation conventions of Twitter. However, more fun- damental question remain: what is the correct unit of analysis for tweets and does it even make sense to talk about sentences in the context of Twitter? Our next step in this direction is to experiment with the Twitter-specific resources (tagset, tagger, tokeniser) described in Gimpel et al. (2011). More Datasets We have focused on WSJ ma- terial as the source for our labelled training data. Future work will involve the use of other syntac- tically annotated resources including Brown and
The second assignment was built upon the processes and affordances of mobile Web 2.0 that students built up during the first PIC2 assignment. The assignment focused upon student-generated content, additionally using Web 2.0 tools to present to the rest of the class and the course lecturers. Students were required to create a chronological timeline (design-line) that identified and discussed key moments in design through products, craft objects, fashion, cars, architecture, exhibitions, literature, music, politics, war, graphics, manifestos, design schools, etc. Their design-line had to be visual as well as text-rich. A clear use of graphical communication was required. Student-sourced quotes from designers, industrialist, politicians were add to the design-line.
Traditional way of teaching foreign languages frequently as we know boils down to reading special texts. As a result of this type of teaching almost solely one function of the word is realized. The function of communication, that is, information is realized out of four communicative skills of learning a language (reading, writing, speaking, and listening); only reading is developed as passive and oriented at “learning”. Teaching foreign languages based only on written texts turns communicative opportunities of language into passive ability to understand texts composed by others. However, it tends neither to create nor to produce speech, which is an essential part of languagelearning process. It is caused by the fact that without speech, real communication is impossible.
According to Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis, the most effective language acquisition happens when the “affective filter” is low (Krashen, 1982). Researchers have indicated that Chinese immigrants and international students face differing levels of stress and anxiety during the process of acculturating in the host country (Ching, Renes, McMurrow, Simpson, & Strange, 2017). In China, many people are curious about American culture and attracted by the image of the American dream. However, after they arrive in the United States, they may experience depression and disappointment when they discover the reality does not match their unrealistic expectations. Hence, culture shock is almost inevitable for most new immigrants and international students in the U.S. These new arrivals exhibit social uncertainty or dissatisfaction in the target language and target culture (Brown, 2006). Although the process can be a struggle, Heng (2016) has indicated that it is important to help students understand their new sociocultural context in the host country. In the long term, “grappling with a new sociocultural context” improves students’ self-confidence and lowers their anxiety related to intercultural communication (Heng, 2016).
to Duronto et al.  “communication between strangers is characterized by a limited amount of information about each other, by ignorance of the means to reach a goal, and by ignorance of the probable outcomes. To deal with the ambiguity that characterizes these new situations, we need information [in order to manage uncertainty]” (p.550). However, culture-generic competence only marginally fulfills this need due to its inherent fuzziness. This is not just a problem for the individual, but also for the education sector, because education relies heavily on assessment of learning and the less tangible a competency is, the harder it makes it to assess , which is why the education sector also favours culture-specific (and therefore assessable) competence. The fact that all of intercultural work is wholly unpredictable per se puts many people off, so when they try to overcome the difficulties of cultural diversity they gravitate towards more ‘tangible’ competencies that seem easier to master and promise more instant success and achievement. While this is true to some extent, it is deceiving in the long run.
Abstract. We review the emergence of a diverse collection of modern Internet- scale programming approaches, collectively known as Web 2.0, and compare these to the goals of cyberinfrastructure and e-Science. e-Science has had success following the Enterprise development model, which emphasizes sophisticated XML formats, WSDL and SOAP-based Web Services, complex server-side programming tools and models, and qualities of service such as security, reliability, and addressing. Unfortunately, these approaches have limits on deployment and sustainability, as the standards and implementations are difficult to adopt and require developers and support staff with a high degree of specialized expertise. In contrast, Web 2.0 applications have demonstrated that simple approaches such as (mostly) stateless HTTP-based services operating on URLs, simple XML network message formats, and easy to use, high level network programming interfaces can be combined to make very powerful applications. Moreover, these network applications have the very important advantage of enabling “do it yourself” Web application development, which favors general programming knowledge over expertise in specific tools. We may conservatively forecast that the Web 2.0 approach will supplement existing cyberinfrastructure to enable broader outreach. Potentially, however, this approach may transform e- Science endeavors, enabling domain scientists to participate more directly as co- developers of cyberinfrastructure rather than serving merely as customers.
The three case studies overviewed herein serve to illustrate the flexibility of mobile web 2.0 scenarios within tertiary education, providing examples of the integration of mlearning within three different discipline contexts. In comparison to previous mlearning projects instigated at Unitec since 2006, the 2009 projects have so far demonstrated higher student engagement within each respective course, and more effective collaborative learning environments than more traditional group work activities. The use of social networking sites such as Ning can significantly enhance the level of peer to peer collaboration and learning especially where cross disciplinary and multi stakeholder projects are concerned. Furthermore, the use of mobile Web 2.0 technologies helps to focus students on a shared interest as a material consideration: the community of interest becomes the over-riding factor. The level of integration of the technologies within each course is a key, and involves the use and modeling of the technologies by the course lecturers. As the lecturers have become familiar with the affordances of mobile web 2.0 technologies over the past 2-3 years, and they have become more comfortable using these technologies on a daily basis, they have been able to better conceptualise how to integrate these technologies into the course curriculum and assesment. More traditional assesment activites have been translated and transformed into more engaging social constructivist activities facilitated via mobile web 2.0. Students are generally keen to use these technologies, and with their integration into the course assesment criteria they value these technologies beyond the novelty factor. The use of embedded technology support via an intentional community of practice model has proven very sucessful in both supporting the lecturers, and scaffolding the students in their appropriation of the technologies. A clear, explicit foundational pedagogy based on social constructivism guides the choice of technologies and the ways in which they are utilised within each course - focusing upon student created content, reflection, sharing and critique. The projects have been made manageable by the supply of a specified smartphone or netbook for each course, keeping the technological support requirements to a minimum. However, it is believed that the best long-term scenario is to move to student-owned devices, and just as many institutions specify set requirements for laptops for courses, the same would apply for student-owned wireless mobile devices such as smartphones.