Emotions and feelings not the same. Emotions are energy in motion; composite biological signals like a fast beating heart or sweaty palms. We are all experiencing emotions every single moment of every single day but we don’t necessarily feel them. Feelings are the awareness in our minds of the ‘energy in motion’. The energy is there, but we don’t necessarily feel it: we have not really learned to understand our own emotional life. To transform our lives, we have to understand that ultimately emotions will predict our health, personal sense of wellbeing, success, fulfilment, motivation and decisions. The good news is with awareness comes the ability to direct and manage our emotions – they are part of us, not something that is imposed on us.
Mindfulness is one approach to managing emotions effectively. Whilst there is no single definition for
‘mindfulness’ it is generally agreed the practice of mindfulness finds it roots in the teaching of Buddhism with a focus on maintaining a calm awareness of ones body, feelings, mind and virtues in day-to-day life.
This translates as an ability to increase awareness of, and respond skilfully to, mental processes which contribute to ‘emotional stress and maladaptive behaviour’. Being mindful allows you to focus on achieving the optimum outcomes from the task in hand, be aware of the feelings of others and be aware of how you are presenting to them.
As expected, we found evidence for the predictive and incremental validity of the MSCEIT. Scores on the using emotions subscale were positively related to the perceived quality of daily social interactions, and manag- ing emotions scores were positively related to the per- ceived quality of interactions with members of the oppo- site sex. Moreover, managing emotions scores were positively related to perceived self-presentational suc- cess in social interaction due to higher perceived achievement exceeding higher expectations. This is interesting because effective emotional regulation requires balancing goals and expectations. Finally, rela- tionships between MSCEIT scores and the perceived quality of social interactions were unchanged when indi- vidual differences in the Big Five personality traits were controlled. Controlling for the Big Five diminished rela- tionships between managing emotions scores and self- presentational success in five of the seven self-presenta- tional dimensions that were measured. Nonetheless, managing emotions scores were still significantly associ- ated with a composite score of self-presentational success in opposite-sex interactions when the Big Five traits were controlled.
LITERATURE REVIEW Defining EmotionalIntelligence
Mayer and Salovey first conceptualized emotionalintelligence (EI) in 1990, and it was soon after popularized by Goleman’s (1995) book titled EmotionalIntelligence: Why it Can Matter More than IQ. The definition that Salovey and Mayer began with in 1990 classified emotionalintelligence as four mental abilities including the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to facilitate thought, the ability to understand emotion, and the ability to regulate emotion. Goleman (1995) expanded the conceptualization of emotionalintelligence by proposing five domains of EI: knowing one’s own emotions, managing one’s own emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in others, and properly handling relationships. A few years later in 1998, Goleman took these five domains and separated them into twenty-five emotional competencies. Since then, the construct has been praised (Daus, 2006) and criticized (Locke, 2005) partially because of the broad range of conceptualizations that have been used to define it, which created a need for emotionalintelligence to be specified further. Once emotionalintelligence had seen a large range of definitions, and more research was gathered, Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2000) revised the definition and ideas of EI, including formally distinguishing trait-based (mixed) emotionalintelligence from ability-based emotionalintelligence.
The second sub-dimension of socialintelligence is social facility, which can further be divided into synchrony, self-presentation, influence and concern. Social facility refers to what is naturally carried on from social awareness. Social facility refers to someone’s sense and knowledge of others so as to develop smooth and effective interactions. Synchrony concerns smooth interactions on a nonverbal level. Self-presentation refers to the effective presentation of self. Influence involves the ability to shape the outcome of social interactions. Concern is related to recognizing the needs of others, caring about their needs and taking appropriate actions to affect this care. Goleman explained that the high road abilities concerning social cognition and the low road functions concerning nonverbal abilities are mixed together in this model of socialintelligence (Goleman, 2006). Issues related to learning behaviour were examined based on Weinstein and Palmer’s (2002) Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). In this study, learning behaviour is defined by how a student learns overtly (openly) and covertly (within one’s mind which cannot be observed by others). Three factors were involved in determining covert behaviour: attitude, motivation and anxiety. Attitude refers to measures of self-motivation and the desire to succeed. A low score indicates that the student needs to learn how to set goals. Motivation refers to measures of how well students apply themselves to their studies and their willingness to succeed. A low score indicates the need to learn how to set goals. Anxiety refers to the measures of the level of worry a student has regarding his/her study. A low score indicates the student’s needs to learn coping techniques.
achieve better academic results. Learning behaviours help students develop across three critical elements: the self, others, and the curriculum. Developing good behaviours leads, in turn, to utilizing appropriate learning strategies, including working with others, improving memory, test taking, time management, and emulating the behaviour of their more successful counterparts (Idaho State University, n.d; Cornell University, 2015; Berkeley Student Learning Center, 2015). Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan and Majeski (2004), in their study on the transition of students from high school to university in the United States, found a strong positive correlation between academic achievement and several facets of emotionalintelligence which resorates with other studies. Others have found the same (Downey, Mountstephen, Lloyd, Hansen, & Stough, 2008; Parker, Bond, Wood, Eastabrook, & Taylor, 2006; Bond, & Manser, 2009). Thus, it has been found that the development of EI may offer students significant opportunities to improve scholastic performance and emotional competencies. The reasons for which include increased self-awareness of strengths and weaknesses, better ability to apply lessons learned, development of better connections with other students, and a better ability to develop appropriate learning strategies (Parker et al., 2006). Continuing to this line of research, this current study will examine emotionalintelligence as a factor contributing to students’ learning strategies that may lead to academic success in students among students in Thailand.
This aspect of Positive Psychology, the relation- ship of «doing well by doing good» (Piliavin, 2003) is not new to Adlerians, because the psychological model that has most dealt with the relationship of the individual with others, the link between mental health and moral behaviour, is Individual Psychol- ogy, with its core concept of social interest (SI), and which claims a relationship between prosocial behav- iour and psychological health. Recently, Adlerians have pointed out the relatedness of Adlerian concepts to the tenets of Positive Psychology (Carlson, Watts, & Maniacci, 2006; Leak & Leak, 2006), especially with respect to the relationship between prosocialness and social interest. Leak and Leak (2006) for example, found a positive correlation between a measure of social interest (the Social Interest Index by Greever, Tseng, & Friedland) and some measures of positive psychological functioning; the authors propose the integration of social interest into Positive Psychology. Although SI has stimulated a great body of theo- retical considerations and empirical research, it is still a difficult concept to define. Among all attempts made to give an operationalization of this construct, there seems to be a consensus that SI has the follow- ing aspects: a sense of social embeddedness (belong- ing to a family, a community, etc.); empathy («to see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another», Adler, cited in Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956/1964, p.135); a prosocial (altruistic) attitude defined as the capacity to value the interests and welfare of others even when these have no personal utility (Crandall, 1981). Thus, prosocialness is one core aspects of SI and can be defined as the tendency to perform acts of helping, sharing and taking care of other people. Some Adleri- ans have also pointed out the link between SI and moral behaviour and the idea that an antisocial indi- vidual cannot be considered mentally healthy (Oberst & Stewart, 2003). Adler already assumed that SI is an innate aptitude of the human being that has to be
The results of field data for the relationship between emotionalintelligence, religiosity, and social attitude of students which have been analyzed can be explained as follows. The existence of relationship between emotionalintelligence and social attitude of students can be explained that theoretically the emotionalintelligence is the dominant predictor in determining the success of someone’s life. Many results of research stating that: the emotionalintelligence can determine someone’s success in their occupation, either in works, career, or in education and process of learning. Emotionalintelligence is defined as the ability to identify, manage, and express precisely, including motivate oneself, identify other people’s emotion, and build the relationship with other people. It is obvious if an individual who has high emotionalintelligence can live happier and more successful because of self-confidence and is able to restrain the emotion or has good mental health. Likewise with someone’s social attitude, it covers honesty, responsibility, politeness, and working together, which if it all is possessed by every student will generate good personality.
The relationship betweensocial maturity and emotionalintelligence of adolescents has been studied in the present study. Social maturity scale by Rao (2011) and emotionalintelligence scale by Singh and Toor (2014) were administered on 200 adolescents of Ludhiana district of Punjab. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive, correlation and differential analysis.
One particular ESI model, no matter how valid, robust and viable it might be, describes only a limited view of the individual’s capacity for emotionally and socially intelligent behavior. In order to provide a more complete and comprehensive description of the capacity for this type of behavior, we should consider creating an expanded model that incorporates the best conceptual and psychometric aspects of existing ESI models. As such, a future challenge in this field is to explore how best to create a multi- dimensional model that captures both the potential (or ability) for emotionally and socially intelligent behavior as well as a self-report and multi-rater assessment of this type of behavior. Our ability to more fully describe ESI will be incomplete until we succeed in creating such a multi-dimensional and multi-modal approach. By applying an expanded model of ESI, we will eventually be more effective in mapping out this construct, evaluating its importance and understanding how best to apply it. Encouraging such an approach is also the best way to discourage the proliferation of ungrounded theorizing that abets misconceptions and false claims of what emotional-socialintelligence is and is not and what it can and cannot predict.
A sample of 240 social work students was utilised. Intrinsic sources of motivation, such as caring for people and helping to reduce social inequalities were endorsed more frequently than extrinsic factor such as salary and career opportunities. Students who were more intrinsically motivated tended to be more resilient and less distressed. A wide range or sources of social support was drawn upon by social work students, both within and external to the university setting. The most commonly endorsed ways of coping with stress were problem focused, such as planning, positive reframing, active coping and instrumental support. Positive reframing, acceptance and substance use were the key predictors of resilience and psychological distress. The emotional and social competencies together explained 47% of the variance in resilience. Resilience fully mediated the negative association between emotionalintelligence and psychological distress, highlighting the importance of inter- and intra-individual emotional competencies in promoting resilience and enhancing wellbeing. How these findings might inform the curriculum to help trainees enhance resistance to workplace stress is explored and the actions that have been taken to address the findings discussed. Research on the nature of resilience in trainee social workers and how to enhance this through the curriculum and other support structures is ongoing.
Modern life is becoming highly complex because of the process of urbanization and related social changes which influence the lives of people (Kaur, 1992) Anxiety and stress owing to the competitive life are reflecting on the behavior of individuals in every sphere of life which not only negatively influence their emotional health and social interaction but also adversely affect their overall adjustment in their respective fields and performance. The consequent stress may lead to symptoms such as, headaches, backaches, high blood pressure, panic, stomach problems, sexual dysfunction, reduced autoimmune problems like allergies or some form of arthritis, mood and sleep disturbances and also disturbed relationship with family and friends.
2. EmotionalIntelligence Models
Three emotionalintelligence models are widely discussed in emotionalintelligence literature: the ability model, the trait model, and the mixed model. The ability model focuses on the individual’s ability to perceive emotions, use emotions, understand emotions, and manage emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. The trait model focuses on a personality framework and includes measures of non-cognitive abilities. The trait model suggests that individuals have a number of emotional self-perceptions and emotional traits that form their per- sonality. The ability and trait model differ in terms of theoretical explanations and measurements. The mixed model focuses on self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The mixed model sug- gests that the abilities and capabilities to manage emotions can be learned and improved with training and de- velopment (Ahmed, 2010a). The topic of emotionalintelligence is important for individuals, businesses, and re- search communities because of its potential impact on the performance of organizations. According to Bar-On (1997, 2000), Goleman (1998a, 1998b), and Stein and Book (2003), emotionalintelligence is an important part of an individual’s ability to influence the performance of an organization. Emotionalintelligence has been a topic of discussion in research for several decades.
Emotionalintelligence levels of social workers are important in achieving positive work atmos- phere and helping relations. It has been observed that many social workers are in the profession with “blind spots” resulting from trauma they personally experienced in their family (Sellers & Hunter, 2005). Based on this, it is important to foster developable and integrated capability to execute task in a social work context resulting in behaviour that contributes to desirable results. This work found its premise on the observed inadequate emotional skills of social workers. While, there are documental evidence on the effectiveness of EI in fostering human performance, successes and efficiency, there is dearth of literature on its use in the field of social work in Africa in general and particularly Nigeria. In addressing the gap, this study set out to address three objectives. First, it examined the emotional intel- ligence of social workers; second, the main effect of emotionalintelligence on participants' level of emotional labour was investigated and third, the generated hypothesis seeking significant effect of emotionalintelligence training programme on emotional labour skills of social workers was tested.
A recent report of the findings associated with the Canadian Summer Camp Research Project (CSCRP), demonstrated the benefits campers experience through their summer camp experiences (Glover et al., 2011). The study focused on measuring the degree of impact camp has on campers and was accomplished by observing the growth campers experienced at the beginning and end of their summer camp experiences. The report found that 65% of the campers experienced positive growth related to social connections and integration with females and new campers seeing greater improvement than males and returning campers. In addition, the highest rate of growth was found in the area of emotionalintelligence with 69% of campers experiencing positive development. The emotionalintelligence findings also suggest that camp creates an environment in which children of both genders are able to grow emotionally and that, despite age, the rate of development is relatively similar. Though the report does reveal growth in the areas of social capital and emotionalintelligence, it does not consider the relationship between the two constructs. To my knowledge, there is no literature that analyzes the relationship between these constructs. This thesis aims to address this gap.
4.2. Educational Implications
Social and emotional competence and competence in using technology parallel help students to prepare themselves for tomorrow’s labor market. On the one hand, it is important to learn at school how to use technical tools and applications that are com- mon at work. On the other hand, it is also important to utilize the potential informa- tion technology brings, such as the possibility to collaborate in various ways with people from different cultures, even from the other side of the globe. Bringing up digi- tally enabled workforce requires emphasizing social and emotional skills. In order to benefit from the overall global change in working life, it is important that students study SEL for the future.
One notable aspect of the data was that the teachers in this study were not always aware of what they did until they watched the video recordings (see Section 7.3.6). They were especially not conscious of their body language and use of non-verbals but also elements of their practice such as using names or having starting routines were so automatic that they often did not think to comment on them until prompted. In this way, the data raises interesting questions about the role of the intuitive knowledge of more experienced teachers, in EI/SI terms. Tsui (2003: 12) states ‘expertise is intuitive’. Drawing on the Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986) model of expertise characterised as ‘knowledge how’ rather than ‘knowledge that’, Tsui shows how teacher expertise can emerge from experience and that such intuition only forms based on teachers’ ability to recognise patterns from their similar past experiences. She stresses that ‘knowledge that experts have is tacit and is embedded in their action’ (page 13). In our study, these teachers showed that they did employ intuition in their actions for quality interpersonal relationships, although as Tsui cautions, they also used very conscious and deliberate decision-making processes about how best to foster group dynamics or attend to individual learner needs. Therefore, we suggest that EI/SI competences in action in the language classroom are likely to reflect a mixture of intuitive knowledge gained from experience (perhaps the upper edge reflected in higher scores in the questionnaire of those with longer experience) as well as conscious knowledge that can be called on when making socio-emotional relevant decisions in the classroom. Nevertheless, it is worth reiterating that experience does not automatically translate into expertise, as famously a person can have ten years of experiences or one year of experience ten times. It is the quality of reflection and learning a teacher is able to engage in with their experiences that ensures growth towards a more expert state. It implies, therefore, the potential value not only of teaching pre-service teachers in the areas of socio-emotional competences (see section 7.4) but also the potential benefits of supporting in-service teachers in ensuring they learn in socio-emotional terms from their experiences and continue to enhance their skills in this area, leading to high levels of EI/SI such as these teachers had.
The concept of social capital theory (SCT) until recently has been considered to have emerged from sociology (Brooks and Nufukho, 2006). Furthermore, Storberg (2002) indicated that social capital theory, like human capital theory and human resource development (HRD), could be found in management and sociology. Putnam (1995) simply defined SC as “the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other.” Bourdieu (1986) explains SC as the accumulation of the actual or potential resources, which are thoroughly linked to the possession of a durable or quality network of well-established and institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition. Lin (2001a) defined the concept as “resources embedded in one’s social networks; resources that can be accessed or mobilized through ties in the networks.” In this study, social capital is seen as the network of strong personal relationships developed over a period of time over trust and cooperation that provides a significant contribution for the survival of the individuals, communities and an enterprise (Jacobs, 1965; Loury, 1977, Nahapiet and Ghosal, 1998). Seemingly, the definition sees SC as the combination of different social processes, patterns and, sometimes, practices that are enough to determine the SC of an entity. Various researchers (such as Burt, 1992; Fukuyama, 1995; Nahapiet and Ghosal, 1998, Putnam, 1993a) have opined that the social networks at the various levels from individual to group, organization and national levels are able to adequately foster knowledge sharing, learning, reduced time and transaction costs, reduced redundancy, reduced occurrence of opportunism and cost of monitoring and auditing, encourage cooperative behaviour, which helps in facilitating the complete development of new forms of association and innovative organization. The main purpose of SC is to generate capital and credit to members in the network, which serve as a source of capital for an entrepreneur (Nahapiet and Goshal, 1998).
It has been a well-researched and established fact that homeschoolers usually score above average in all subject areas. However there has not very much research done to examine other areas of performance and behavior of homeschooled children. The first purpose of this study is to look at how homeschooled children deal with their emotions. The second purpose is to look at the social skills of homeschooled children. Your child will be asked to complete two paper and pencil inventories in which he or she will answer questions about their awareness of their emotions, as well as those of others, how they handle certain situations, and how he or she interacts with others. You, the parent or guardian, will also be asked to complete an inventory about your child's social skills. There are no right or wrong answers. Your child will also be asked to sign an assent form stating their understanding of the project and willingness to participate.
Wright et al. 2000), and therefore the timing is good to bring EI training to both the classroom and the workplace.
Once the value of EI is understood and applied, the competencies developed are sure to benefit both internal and external social networks. These networks will play a part in having a favorable effect on such external dealings as accreditation, managed care contracting, and collaboration between one-time competitors. Internally, having managers and leaders with good EI skills will boost team productivity (Barth 2001) and increase orga- nizational effectiveness (Goleman 2000)—two conditions that are desperately needed in health- care today. In any case, managers or leaders who allow themselves to become more emotionally intelligent, and thus enhance their social networks, will improve not only their own personal qualities but also those of their organization.