Performance of the EC’s programme
C. Environment and gender
Limited attention to gender issues but some recent increase in focus, e.g. through RDP There has been weak attention to gender issues in the design of EC programmes. In the
rehabilitation programme in none of the projects assessed in the programme evaluation had there been any gender-awareness in project proposals, gender needs assessments, or the collection of any gender-disaggregated data, and the EC had not assessed the projects in terms of their likely gender impact. The Delegation also acknowledged to that evaluation that “a gender strategy is lacking” (EC 1999g, pp. 29-30).
In the roads sector too, “throughout the design and implementation of ROCS1 and ROCS2 there has been a visible lack of gender focus”,55 and a gender action plan was suggested in December 1999. ANE has recently established a gender unit. In EC roads projects, there has been an even more limited analysis of poverty, gender and environmental issues, given the smaller resources available to the EC for work in these areas (though the Delegation is conscious of the importance of strengthening its work in this area).
Gender issues were not considered in the CSP or the NIP for the 8th EDF. Nevertheless, some improvements may still be expected in the gender impact of the 8th EDF (see Box on p.27).
Line ministries are to form part of the RDP Steering Committee. 55
World Bank (1999a), gender section.
Rapid EC response to the floods
Given the vulnerability of the Mozambique population, environmental disasters have a large impact on poverty. It is particularly important, therefore, that the Government and donors respond rapidly to disasters such as the floods in February 2000 (see Annex 1.7, p.A8). Initial indications are that, in spite of the weakness of the Government’s disaster response mechanisms at the time of the floods, the short-term response was effective, because of both a concerted effort by the international donor community and also a high-level response by the Mozambican Government. The response of the EC has also been rapid. In the short-term response to the floods, ECHO made available over € 9 mill of assistance, more than half the support going to Gaza province. The short-term response was also supported by counterpart funds from the food security budget- line, while some existing NGO projects reoriented their activities. For its medium-term response, at the International Reconstruction Conference in Rome in May 2000 the EC pledged € 67.5 million for reconstruction.
The largest EC programme is the € 20 million Post-Flood Reconstruction Programme in Gaza Province, which provides for both flood protection infrastructure and the rehabilitation of urban roads. Effectiveness in the implementation of this programme is however less clear, given Government weaknesses. Moreover, a number of donors are concerned that, because of the Government’s weak management capacity, the focus on rehabilitation may weaken development plans.
There is a gender contact point in the Delegation but there is no capacity for mainstreaming gender across the EC’s project portfolio, and the workload of the Delegation makes it difficult to give sufficient attention to this area.
Environment remains a low priority in the EC programme
Although there has been an increased focus on poverty both by the Government and the EC, there has been limited attention given to environmental protection. While a Delegation adviser has responsibility in this area, his role consists principally of reviewing project proposals for funding under the Environment and Tropical Forestry budget-lines, each of which has provided for slightly more than € 2 million of project funding in Mozambique since 1993. There has not been a systematic review of the likely environmental impact of EC projects.
In the roads sector, for example, even in recent roads project there is not a clear strategy on how specifically to control the moderate environmental risks. It is expected that the environmental impact of EC roads is moderate because they only involve rehabilitation and are not new roads. The 1998 field manual on the environment and the 1996 environmental guidelines for road works are not always followed.
A small project to support the environment is a € 1.5 million 7th EDF project to support the National Directorate for Tourism, with the aim of ensuring that regulations and planning in the tourism sector reflect environmental concerns.
Possible sources of improvement in gender impact
• Delegation staff received training on gender mainstreaming in 1998 as part of the African Gender Training Project. • In February-March 1999, a mission to
Mozambique was carried out by a gender expert commissioned by the EC. Her role consisted primarily of giving advice on how gender issues could be incorporated within forthcoming EC interventions, in particular the RDP. • A poverty and gender specialist is to be
appointed within the RDP. While there have been delays in the appointment of this specialist, which may limit their influence on programme design, the EC hopes that the specialist will be in place by the time of the appraisal process for projects to be supported.