Photovoltaic power is one of the cleanest and abundant energy type in **environment**. It is practically free and inexhaustible in the world. According to the researches and applications, it is likely to be an alternative main source of power in the future. The power generation from PV systems depends on atmospheric changes like solar irradiance and temperature. Because of that fact, **MPPT** **methods** play important role to operate PV system at maximum efficiency for all **environment** condition. This paper presents electrical characteristics of 3kW PV system and general **comparison** of FLC **based** and P&O **MPPT** **methods**. Both **MPPT** **methods** are investigated and realized in MATLAB **environment**. The tracking accuracy and performance efficiency are compared in detail by simulation results in MATLAB. **Based** on the simulation results, it can be concluded that with both **MPPT** **methods** PV system can generate maximum power for actual **environment** condition. However, the tracking accuracy and performance of FLC **MPPT** is better and more convenient than P&O MPPTs for PV system. FLC **MPPT** has no oscillations around MPP region and more stable output power than conventional MPPTs.

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Abstract—The power generation is using Photovoltaic (PV) cell is the best alternative developing for fossil fuel since it renewable green power, energy conservation and demand-side management. Solar energy most useful for sustainable development but due to it has a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic. It is difficult to track the maximum power produce by the PV module. This paper presents a **comparison** between the Single-Ended Primary-Inductor Converter (SEPIC) and CUK converter by using both **Fuzzy** **Logic** Controller (FLC) and **Perturb** & **Observe** (P&O) **methods** in maximum power point tracking (**MPPT**). In this paper, the performance, advantage and disadvantage for both converters and **MPPT** algorithm are described. A general model of a Photovoltaic system with proposed **MPPT** controller and converters is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink software. The input parameter of temperature and irradiation level will be under constant and variable level as to prove the system efficiency towards changing **conditions**. The simulation result will be analyzed in different case studies in order to prove the effectiveness timely response performances, efficiencies of our power of converting over input power of the PV module and the **comparison** of transient response of voltage ripple of the systems.

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ABSTRACT: In a photovoltaic system,the maximum power point varies with insolation and cell temperature . Maximum power point tracking (**MPPT**) is implemented to identify the maximum power operating point and subsequently system is operated at that particular operating voltage for maximum power gaining.Thisalgorithm is implemented in charge controllers for extracting maximum available power from PV module. Maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic systems using artificial intelligence **methods** are very popular. **Fuzzy** systems are very effective than simple conventional **MPPT** tracking. In the simulation part, a buck-boost converter feeding a permanent magnet dc load is achieved. The accuracy of the overall system depends on the **fuzzy** rule base and membership functions defined. The performance curves for **comparison** was obtained using MATLAB/Simulink platform.Simulation results show that **fuzzy** **based** tracking has better performance where it can facilitate the solar panel to produce a more stable power. KEYWORDS: GUI-Graphical User Interface; **MPPT**-Maximum power point tracker; NN- Neural Network; PV- Photovoltaic; P&O- **Perturb** and **Observe**; RCC- Ripple correlation control

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In this paper, an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking (**MPPT**) of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and insolation **conditions** is discussed. The **MPPT** controller for boost converter **based** on **fuzzy** **logic** (FLC) is developed and compared to conventional tracking algorithm (P&O). The different steps of the design of these controllers are presented together with its simulation. Results of this simulation show that the system with **MPPT** using **fuzzy** **logic** controller increase the efficiency of energy production from PV.

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The sun emits energy that is the best option for renewable energy as it is available almost everywhere which can be harnessed freely. Radiation from the sun is converted to electrical energy by using PV solar cells which exhibit photo- voltaic effect [1]. Photo-voltaic (PV) solar panel is a very simple as well as reliable technology which directly converts energy from the sun into electricity for home and industrial utilization [2-5]. Maximum power can be obtained from photo- voltaic panels using controllers [6]. Various approaches can be used to implement **MPPT** such as **perturb** and **observe** (P&O), incremental conductance (INC), constant voltage and short-circuit current techniques [7-8]. These techniques are used to obtain the point at which maximum power is tracked for specified solar irradiation as well as temperature but they display oscillatory behavior around the maximum power point when operating under normal **conditions**. Moreover the system’s response to rapid changes in temperature or irradiance is slow [10]. On the other hand the conventional PI controllers are fixed gain feedback controllers. Therefore they cannot compensate the parameter variations in the process and cannot adapt fast to changes that occur within the **environment**. PI-controlled system is less responsive to real and relatively fast alterations in state and so the system will be slower to reach the set point. Recently, intelligent **based** techniques have been introduced [9-11]. Amongst the **methods** which are intelligent-**based**, **fuzzy** **logic** has its own merit. The shape of the membership function of the **fuzzy** **logic** controllers can be adjusted such that the gap between the operation point and maximum power point is optimized. A SEPIC converter is used to provide a constant dc bus voltage [10-12]. The analysis of two **MPPT** techniques (P & O and FLC) of PV solar SEPIC converter that extracts maximum power from the module for varied solar irradiation and temperature is presented. **Comparison** and Modeling of the system is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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Many **MPPT** **methods** have been effectively used in standalone and grid-connected PV power system for slow and smoothly changing radiation. In practical applications, a PV array consists of many PV modules connected in series and in parallel to provide the necessary voltage and/or current. The output power of a PV array decreases considerably due to soiling, cell damage, partial shading, etc. The output power of a PV array has a very signiﬁcant reduction. The following are some of the **MPPT** techniques which are suitable for **uniform** irradiance **conditions**:

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This work deals with the **MPPT** algorithm of solar system. The first part is to illustrate the importance of **MPPT** and how it can be achieved. Then overviews of the **Perturb** and **Observe** (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IC) and **Fuzzy** **Logic** (FL) **MPPT** **methods** have been discussed and analyzed in details. In the last part, the simulation of these three **MPPT** **methods** under different **environment** **conditions** has been simulated.

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The P&O method perturbs the duty cycle and compares instantaneous power with past power. **Based** on this **comparison**, the PV voltage determines the direction of the next perturbation. P&O shows that, if the power slope increases and the voltage slope increases also, the reference voltage will increase; otherwise, it will decrease. The drawback of most of the **fuzzy**-**based** **MPPT** algorithms is that the tracking point is located away from the maximum power point when the weather **conditions** change. However, a drawback of P&O technique is that, at steady state, the operating point oscillates around the maximum power point giving rise to the waste of available energy, particularly in cases of constant or slowly varying atmospheric **conditions**. This can be solved by decreasing the step size of perturbation.

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In P & O algorithms, the perturbation variable may be the value of reference for terminal voltage of PV panel, output current of PV panel, or duty cycle of **MPPT** converter. In the figure 5.1, when the point of operation is at the left side in MPP then it is identified that output voltage of panel of PV is perturbed with dp/dv > 0. Then these algorithms would increase the reference voltage of PV panel. When the point of operation is at the left side in MPP then it is identified that output voltage of panel of PV is perturbed with dp/dv < 0. Then these algorithms would decrease the reference voltage of PV panel.

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algorithms, there by comparing and studying the effectiveness of these algorithms in tracking and obtaining the maximum power point [3]. The comparative simulation study of two important **MPPT** algorithms specifically **perturb** and **observe** and incremental conductance is performed as these are used widely because of its low-cost and ease of realization. Some important parameters such as voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been traced for both algorithms. Sepic have a pulsating output current and it requires current handling capability, in order to overcome these drawbacks the Luo converter is used, as it has the ability to reduce ripple voltage and current levels without inverting the polarities. The converters with incremental conductance can track the maximum power with reduc0ed oscillations [4]. Maximum Power Point Tracking (**MPPT**) for photovoltaic using incremental conductance method is studied and is applied with various converters and the efficiency of operation of these converters are compared [5]. The incremental conductance **MPPT** algorithm **based** on solar photovoltaic system using a CUK converter is designed and simulated and is studied in **comparison** with other converter topologies and the effectiveness of these converters is determined [6]. Performance enhancement of PV system using Lou converter and improved Lou converter modifications with increasing voltage ratio. The positive output super-lift Luo converter that allows significant increase the voltage transfer gain by the modest means. In the simplest case this increase is provided by replacing the inductor by the switched-inductor structure consisting of two inductors and three diodes. This allows getting practically double increase in the line-to-output voltage ratio at the high values of duty cycle. The study indicates possible ways to further increase the output voltage ratio without additional switches - by the use of magnetically coupled inductors and diode-capacitor voltage multipliers [7],[8]. Simulation of **fuzzy** **logic** control **based** **MPPT** technique for photovoltaic system is studied and the results are compared with results using incremental conductance method and their efficiency is studied [9]. By applying all these techniques a comparative study is conducted and the overall operating efficiency of various technique is obtained.

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ABSTRACT: In this new era, the recent technological invasions have propelled the development of the entire world to its new heights. These development have to be transformed the world into its new dimensions through technology aspect & impact. This is the main reason for the increase in the power demand. The rate of the world development in geometric ratio catalysis the need of extracting power from renewable energy resources and another reason is that the availability of conventional energy resources is only up to 60-70 year. This causes a higher demand to electric power management system. Therefore, it has a great theoretical significance to study the Advanced SEPIC converter with **fuzzy** **logic** controller **based** **MPPT** for standalone systems. The design has to be simulated and verified using Mat lab R2010a

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Abstract: In our project study we are going to analyse merits and demerits of various **MPPT** algorithms. A novel **MPPT** algorithm will be developed and implemented on a micro grid connected to the utility grid. The novelty of proposed technique will lie in its easy implementation. Performance of the proposed **MPPT** algorithm will be compared with **Perturb** & **Observe** (P&O), Current **based** **MPPT**. MATLAB **based** simulation results will be reported.

At any minute the working purpose of a PV module relies on upon changing the protection level, sun course, irradiances and the temperature, and additionally a heap of the frameworks. The measure of the power that can be separated from a PV cluster likewise relies on upon the working voltage of that exhibit. As we watch, a PV's Maximum Power Point (MPP) will be determined by its voltage-current (V-I) and voltage-power (V-P) trademark bends. With the always showing signs of change environmental **conditions** and the heap variables, so it is exceptionally hard to use the greater part of the sun oriented energy accessible without a controlled framework for best exhibitions. It gets to be important to constrain the framework to work at its ideal power point [13].

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Modeling and analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system is substantial for designers of solar power plants to do a yield investigation that precisely predicts the expected output power under changing weather **conditions**. The model allows the prediction of PV module’s behaviour and characteristics **based** on the mathematical model equivalent circuit using Matlab/Simulink platform under different temperature and solar radiation readings. The second part of this paper proposes an enhancement to the conventional **perturb** and **observe** (P&O) maximum power point tracking (**MPPT**) technique in order to overcome the disadvantages of this method such as oscillation and slow tracking under sudden change of atmospheric **conditions**. The proposed method suggested that utilizing a variable perturbation step size depending on power changes instead of constant step size which is used in conventional P&O algorithm in order t o ensure that the solar energy is captured and converted as much as possible. The simulation results are compared with that of traditional P&O to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

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Abstract— There has been tremendous advancements in the field of electronics recently. This had led to the realization of the hardware for the techniques like Maximum Power Point Tracking (**MPPT**). Low cost and simplicity are important factors. But hardware implementation of **MPPT** techniques with Digital Signal Processors (DSP), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and dSPACE controllers are expensive. PIC microcontrollers are relatively cheaper, but coding in PIC for expert systems **based** **MPPT** is not easy. These are the driving factors to find a simple and low cost solution. This paper proposes an hardware for **MPPT** techniques using Arduino Microcontroller which has an added advantage of being an open- source and also its coding resembles a simple C language. Here **Perturb** and **Observe** (P&O) type of **MPPT** has been implemented and tested on a Standalone Photo Voltaic (PV) system. The results confirm that maximum power has been extracted by P&O method irrespective of atmospheric temperature and solar irradiance with the Arduino Microcontroller.

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The main purpose of this thesis study was to devise an approach to extract maximum energy from a photovoltaic (PV) power system. To that end, we presented PV module maximum power point tracking, along with several approaches to deal with current unresolved problems. Specifically, we proposed a **fuzzy** **logic**-**based** algorithm for tracking optimal power, together with a system model for developing and applying the algorithm. Several different components and subsystems were analyzed and modeled in our work. The models were then tested towards validation and combined to create the optimum power point tracker model. We also performed hardware implementation in order to measure the algorithm’s performance in real-life situations. Analyses of the various dc-dc converter topologies pointed to buck-boost topology as the most promising approach for the maximum power tracker. Therefore, we modeled the PV module and buck-boost converter, and validated them in Simulink. We then used the **Fuzzy** **Logic** Toolbox in MATLAB to formulate the **fuzzy** **logic** algorithm.

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Due to changes in extrinsic and intrinsic factors in power voltage (P-V) and nonlinear current voltage (I-V) characteristics, we can achieve maximum efficiency at anytime in PV and also reduce the cost of energy. The PV system gives maximum power, when the maximum power point is unique point. There are many factor that can be considered, where the most important one is power point tracking in PV generation. The **MPPT** is nonlinear control problem. This is due to the nonlinearity present in the PV or parameter variations in PV.

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In this paper we have presented the design and simulation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (**MPPT**) for a photovoltaic system in the solar car using **fuzzy** **logic**. **Based** on simulation results we can conclude that: The effect of irradiation changes is more significant than the effect of temperature changes in PV’s output power changes. The resulting efficiency value system with **MPPT** is 96 to 98% (almost reaches the maximum peak power), while the efficiency of the resulting system without **MPPT** is 51% to 90% (not producing maximum power).

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This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (**MPPT**) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of **MPPT** **based** **fuzzy** **logic** controller (**MPPT**-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. **MPPT**-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate) on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

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