** First Order Equations**

**2.2 SEPARABLE EQUATIONS**

A first order differential equation isseparableif it can be written as

h(y)y0 _{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{,}

(2.2.1)

where the left side is a product ofy0 _{and a function of}_{y}_{and the right side is a function of}_{x. Rewriting}

a separable differential equation in this form is calledseparation of variables. In Section 2.1 we used separation of variables to solve homogeneous linear equations. In this section we’ll apply this method to nonlinear equations.

To see how to solve (2.2.1), let’s first assume thatyis a solution. LetG(x)andH(y)be antiderivatives ofg(x)andh(y); that is,

H0_{(}_{y}_{) =}_{h}_{(}_{y}_{)} _{and} _{G}0_{(}_{x}_{) =}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{.} _{(2.2.2)}

Then, from the chain rule,
d
dxH(y(x)) =H
0_{(}_{y}_{(}_{x}_{))}_{y}0_{(}_{x}_{) =}_{h}_{(}_{y}_{)}_{y}0_{(}_{x}_{)}_{.}
Therefore (2.2.1) is equivalent to
d
dxH(y(x)) =
d
dxG(x).

Integrating both sides of this equation and combining the constants of integration yields

H(y(x)) =G(x) +c. (2.2.3)

Although we derived this equation on the assumption thatyis a solution of (2.2.1), we can now view it differently: Any differentiable functionythat satisfies (2.2.3) for some constantcis a solution of (2.2.1). To see this, we differentiate both sides of (2.2.3), using the chain rule on the left, to obtain

H0_{(}_{y}_{(}_{x}_{))}_{y}0_{(}_{x}_{) =}_{G}0_{(}_{x}_{)}_{,}

which is equivalent to

h(y(x))y0_{(}_{x}_{) =}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}

because of (2.2.2).

In conclusion, to solve (2.2.1) it suffices to find functionsG = G(x)andH = H(y)that satisfy (2.2.2). Then any differentiable functiony=y(x)that satisfies (2.2.3) is a solution of (2.2.1).

Example 2.2.1 Solve the equation

y0_{=}_{x}_{(1 +}_{y}2_{)}_{.}
Solution Separating variables yields

y0
1 +y2 =x.
Integrating yields
tan−1_{y}_{=} x2
2 +c
Therefore
y= tan
x2
2 +c
.

Example 2.2.2

(a) Solve the equation

y0_{=}

−x

y. (2.2.4)

(b) Solve the initial value problem

y0=−x_{y}, y(1) = 1. (2.2.5)

(c) Solve the initial value problem

y0_{=}

−x_{y}, y(1) =−2. (2.2.6)

SOLUTION(a) Separating variables in (2.2.4) yields

yy0 _{=}
−x.
Integrating yields
y2
2 =−
x2
2 +c, or, equivalently, x
2_{+}_{y}2_{= 2}_{c.}

The last equation shows thatc must be positive ify is to be a solution of (2.2.4) on an open interval.
Therefore we let2c=a2_{(with}_{a >}_{0}_{) and rewrite the last equation as}

x2+y2 =a2. (2.2.7)

This equation has two differentiable solutions foryin terms ofx:

y= pa2_{−}_{x}2_{,} _{−}_{a < x < a,} _{(2.2.8)}
and

y=−pa2_{−}_{x}2_{,} _{−}_{a < x < a.} _{(2.2.9)}
The solution curves defined by (2.2.8) are semicircles above thex-axis and those defined by (2.2.9) are
semicircles below thex-axis (Figure2.2.1).

SOLUTION(b) The solution of (2.2.5) is positive whenx= 1; hence, it is of the form (2.2.8). Substituting

x= 1andy= 1into (2.2.7) to satisfy the initial condition yieldsa2_{= 2}_{; hence, the solution of (2.2.5) is}

y=p2−x2_{,} _{−}√_{2}_{< x <}√_{2}_{.}

SOLUTION(c) The solution of (2.2.6) is negative when x = 1 and is therefore of the form (2.2.9).

Substitutingx = 1andy =−2 into (2.2.7) to satisfy the initial condition yieldsa2 _{= 5}_{. Hence, the}
solution of (2.2.6) is

Section 2.2Separable Equations 47
* x*
* y*
1 2
−1
−2
1
2
−1
−2
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.2.1 (a)y=√2−x2_{,}_{−}√_{2}_{< x <}√_{2}_{;} _{(b)}_{y}_{=}_{−}√_{5}_{−}_{x}2_{,} _{−}√_{5}_{< x <}√_{5}

Implicit Solutions of Separable Equations

In Examples 2.2.1and2.2.2we were able to solve the equationH(y) = G(x) +cto obtain explicit formulas for solutions of the given separable differential equations. As we’ll see in the next example, this isn’t always possible. In this situation we must broaden our definition of a solution of a separable equation. The next theorem provides the basis for this modification. We omit the proof, which requires a result from advanced calculus called as theimplicit function theorem.

Theorem 2.2.1 Supposeg=g(x)is continous on(a, b)andh=h(y)are continuous on(c, d).LetG

be an antiderivative ofgon(a, b)and letH be an antiderivative ofhon(c, d).Letx0be an arbitrary point in(a, b),lety0be a point in(c, d)such thath(y0)6= 0,and define

c=H(y0)−G(x0). (2.2.10) Then there’s a functiony=y(x)defined on some open interval(a1, b1),wherea≤a1< x0< b1≤b, such thaty(x0) =y0and

H(y) =G(x) +c (2.2.11)

fora1< x < b1. Thereforeyis a solution of the initial value problem

h(y)y0 _{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{,} _{y}_{(}_{x}

0) =x0. (2.2.12)

It’s convenient to say that (2.2.11) withcarbitrary is animplicit solutionofh(y)y0 _{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{. Curves}

defined by (2.2.11) are integral curves ofh(y)y0 _{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{. If}_{c}_{satisfies (2.2.10), we’ll say that (2.2.11) is}

animplicit solution of the initial value problem(2.2.12). However, keep these points in mind: • For some choices ofcthere may not be any differentiable functionsythat satisfy (2.2.11).

• The functionyin (2.2.11) (not (2.2.11) itself) is a solution ofh(y)y0 _{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{.}

Example 2.2.3

(a) Find implicit solutions of

y0 = 2x+ 1

5y4_{+ 1}. (2.2.13)

(b) Find an implicit solution of

y0 = 2x+ 1

5y4_{+ 1}, y(2) = 1. (2.2.14)

SOLUTION(a) Separating variables yields

(5y4_{+ 1)}_{y}0 _{= 2}_{x}_{+ 1}_{.}

Integrating yields the implicit solution

y5_{+}_{y}_{=}_{x}2_{+}_{x}_{+}_{c.} _{(2.2.15)}

of (2.2.13).

SOLUTION(b) Imposing the initial conditiony(2) = 1in (2.2.15) yields1 + 1 = 4 + 2 +c, soc=−4.

Therefore

y5+y=x2+x−4

is an implicit solution of the initial value problem (2.2.14). Although more than one differentiable func- tiony = y(x)satisfies 2.2.13) near x = 1, it can be shown that there’s only one such function that satisfies the initial conditiony(1) = 2.

Figure2.2.2shows a direction field and some integral curves for (2.2.13). Constant Solutions of Separable Equations

An equation of the form

y0 =g(x)p(y)

is separable, since it can be rewritten as

1

p(y)y

0_{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{.}

However, the division byp(y)is not legitimate ifp(y) = 0for some values ofy. The next two examples show how to deal with this problem.

Example 2.2.4 Find all solutions of

y0 _{= 2}_{xy}2_{.} _{(2.2.16)}

Solution Here we must divide byp(y) =y2 to separate variables. This isn’t legitimate ifyis a solution
of (2.2.16) that equals zero for some value ofx. One such solution can be found by inspection: y ≡0.
Now supposeyis a solution of (2.2.16) that isn’t identically zero. Sinceyis continuous there must be an
interval on whichyis never zero. Since division byy2_{is legitimate for}_{x}_{in this interval, we can separate}
variables in (2.2.16) to obtain

y0

Section 2.2Separable Equations 49
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
−1
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
* x*
* y*

Figure 2.2.2 A direction field and integral curves fory0_{=} 2x+ 1

5y4_{+ 1}

Integrating this yields

−1

y =x
2_{+}_{c,}
which is equivalent to

y=−_{x}21_{+}_{c}. (2.2.17)

We’ve now shown that ify is a solution of (2.2.16) that is not identically zero, thenymust be of the form (2.2.17). By substituting (2.2.17) into (2.2.16), you can verify that (2.2.17) is a solution of (2.2.16). Thus, solutions of (2.2.16) arey ≡0and the functions of the form (2.2.17). Note that the solutiony≡0

isn’t of the form (2.2.17) for any value ofc.

Figure2.2.3shows a direction field and some integral curves for (2.2.16)

Example 2.2.5 Find all solutions of

y0 _{=} 1
2x(1−y

2_{)}_{.} _{(2.2.18)}

Solution Here we must divide byp(y) = 1−y2 _{to separate variables. This isn’t legitimate if}_{y} _{is a}
solution of (2.2.18) that equals_{±}1for some value ofx. Two such solutions can be found by inspection:
y≡1andy ≡ −1. Now supposeyis a solution of (2.2.18) such that1−y2_{isn’t identically zero. Since}

1−y2_{is continuous there must be an interval on which}_{1}_{−}_{y}2_{is never zero. Since division by}_{1}_{−}_{y}2_{is}
legitimate forxin this interval, we can separate variables in (2.2.18) to obtain

2y0

−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−2
−1.5
−1
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
* y*
* x*

Figure 2.2.3 A direction field and integral curves fory0 _{= 2}_{xy}2

A partial fraction expansion on the left yields

_{1}
y−1 −
1
y+ 1
y0 _{=}
−x,
and integrating yields

ln
y−1
y+ 1
=−
x2
2 +k;
hence,
y−1
y+ 1
=eke−x2
/2_{.}

Sincey(x)6=±1forxon the interval under discussion, the quantity(y−1)/(y+ 1)can’t change sign in this interval. Therefore we can rewrite the last equation as

y−1

y+ 1=ce
−x2_{/}_{2}

,

wherec=±ek_{, depending upon the sign of}_{(}_{y}_{−}_{1)}_{/}_{(}_{y}_{+ 1)}_{on the interval. Solving for}_{y}_{yields}
y= 1 +ce

−x2

/2

1−ce−x2_{/}_{2}. (2.2.19)

We’ve now shown that ifyis a solution of (2.2.18) that is not identically equal to_{±}1, thenymust be
as in (2.2.19). By substituting (2.2.19) into (2.2.18) you can verify that (2.2.19) is a solution of (2.2.18).
Thus, the solutions of (2.2.18) arey ≡1,y ≡ −1and the functions of the form (2.2.19). Note that the

Section 2.2Separable Equations 51

constant solutiony ≡1can be obtained from this formula by takingc= 0; however, the other constant solution,y≡ −1, can’t be obtained in this way.

Figure2.2.4shows a direction field and some integrals for (2.2.18).

−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−3
−2
−1
0
1
2
3
* x*
* y*

Figure 2.2.4 A direction field and integral curves fory0 _{=}x(1−y2)

2

Differences Between Linear and Nonlinear Equations

Theorem2.1.2states that ifpandf are continuous on(a, b)then every solution of

y0+p(x)y=f(x)

on(a, b)can be obtained by choosing a value for the constantcin the general solution, and ifx0is any point in(a, b)andy0is arbitrary, then the initial value problem

y0_{+}_{p}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{y}_{=}_{f}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{,} _{y}_{(}_{x0}_{) =}_{y0}

has a solution on(a, b).

The not true for nonlinear equations. First, we saw in Examples 2.2.4and 2.2.5 that a nonlinear equation may have solutions that can’t be obtained by choosing a specific value of a constant appearing in a one-parameter family of solutions. Second, it is in general impossible to determine the interval of validity of a solution to an initial value problem for a nonlinear equation by simply examining the equation, since the interval of validity may depend on the initial condition. For instance, in Example2.2.2 we saw that the solution of

dy dx =− x y, y(x0) =y0 is valid on(−a, a), wherea=px2 0+y20.

Example 2.2.6 Solve the initial value problem

y0_{= 2}_{xy}2_{,} _{y}_{(0) =}_{y0}
and determine the interval of validity of the solution.

Solution First supposey06= 0. From Example2.2.4, we know thatymust be of the form

y=−_{x}21_{+}_{c}. (2.2.20)

Imposing the initial condition shows thatc = −1/y0. Substituting this into (2.2.20) and rearranging terms yields the solution

y= y0

1−y0x2.

This is also the solution ify0 = 0. Ify0 <0, the denominator isn’t zero for any value ofx, so the the solution is valid on(−∞,∞). Ify0>0, the solution is valid only on(−1/√y0,1/√y0).

### 2.2 Exercises

In Exercises1–6find all solutions.

1. y0_{=} 3x2+ 2x+ 1

y−2 2. (sinx)(siny) + (cosy)y
0 _{= 0}
3. xy0_{+}_{y}2_{+}_{y}_{= 0} _{4.} _{y}0_{ln}
|y|+x2_{y}_{= 0}
5. (3y3_{+ 3}_{y}_{cos}_{y}_{+ 1)}_{y}0_{+}(2x+ 1)y
1 +x2 = 0
6. x2_{yy}0 _{= (}_{y}2_{−}_{1)}3/2

In Exercises7–10find all solutions. Also, plot a direction field and some integral curves on the indicated
rectangular region.
7. C/G y0_{=}_{x}2_{(1 +}_{y}2_{);}
{−1≤x≤1, −1≤y≤1}
8. C/G y0_{(1 +}_{x}2_{) +}_{xy}_{= 0;} _{{−}_{2}_{≤}_{x}_{≤}_{2}_{,} _{−}_{1}_{≤}_{y} _{≤}_{1}_{}}
9. C/G y0_{= (}_{x}
−1)(y−1)(y−2); {−2≤x≤2, −3≤y≤3}
10. C/G (y−1)2_{y}0 _{= 2}_{x}_{+ 3;}
{−2≤x≤2, −2≤y≤5}

In Exercises11and12solve the initial value problem.

11. y0_{=} x2+ 3x+ 2

y−2 , y(1) = 4

12. y0_{+}_{x}_{(}_{y}2_{+}_{y}_{) = 0}_{,} _{y}_{(2) = 1}

In Exercises13-16solve the initial value problem and graph the solution.

Section 2.2Separable Equations 53

14. C/G y0_{+}(y+ 1)(y−1)(y−2)

x+ 1 = 0, y(1) = 0

15. C/G y0_{+ 2}_{x}_{(}_{y}_{+ 1) = 0}_{,} _{y}_{(0) = 2}

16. C/G y0_{= 2}_{xy}_{(1 +}_{y}2_{)}_{,} _{y}_{(0) = 1}

In Exercises17–23solve the initial value problem and find the interval of validity of the solution.

17. y0_{(}_{x}2_{+ 2) + 4}_{x}_{(}_{y}2_{+ 2}_{y}_{+ 1) = 0}_{,} _{y}_{(1) =}_{−}_{1}
18. y0_{=}_{−}_{2}_{x}_{(}_{y}2_{−}_{3}_{y}_{+ 2)}_{,} _{y}_{(0) = 3}
19. y0_{=} 2x
1 + 2y, y(2) = 0 20. y
0_{= 2}_{y}_{−}_{y}2_{,} _{y}_{(0) = 1}
21. x+yy0 _{= 0}_{,} _{y}_{(3) =}
−4
22. y0_{+}_{x}2_{(}_{y}_{+ 1)(}_{y}_{−}_{2)}2_{= 0}_{,} _{y}_{(4) = 2}
23. (x+ 1)(x−2)y0_{+}_{y}_{= 0}_{,} _{y}_{(1) =}_{−}_{3}
24. Solvey0 = (1 +y
2_{)}

(1 +x2_{)}explicitly. HINT:Use the identitytan(A+B) =

tanA+ tanB

1−tanAtanB. 25. Solvey0p

1−x2_{+}p

1−y2_{= 0}_{explicitly. HINT:}_{Use the identity}_{sin(}_{A}_{−}_{B}_{) = sin}_{A}_{cos}_{B}_{−}

cosAsinB.

26. Solvey0_{=} cosx

siny, y(π) = π

2 explicitly. HINT:Use the identitycos(x+π/2) =−sinxand the periodicity of the cosine.

27. Solve the initial value problem

y0 =ay−by2, y(0) =y0. Discuss the behavior of the solution if(a)y0≥0;(b)y0<0. 28. The populationP =P(t)of a species satisfies the logistic equation

P0 _{=}_{aP}_{(1}

−αP)

andP(0) =P0>0. FindP fort >0, and findlimt→∞P(t).

29. An epidemic spreads through a population at a rate proportional to the product of the number of people already infected and the number of people susceptible, but not yet infected. Therefore, if Sdenotes the total population of susceptible people andI =I(t)denotes the number of infected people at timet, then

I0_{=}_{rI}_{(}_{S}

−I),

wherer is a positive constant. Assuming thatI(0) = I0, findI(t) fort > 0, and show that

limt→∞I(t) =S.

30. L The result of Exercise29is discouraging: if any susceptible member of the group is initially infected, then in the long run all susceptible members are infected! On a more hopeful note, suppose the disease spreads according to the model of Exercise29, but there’s a medication that cures the infected population at a rate proportional to the number of infected individuals. Now the equation for the number of infected individuals becomes

I0 _{=}_{rI}_{(}_{S}

−I)−qI (A)

(a) ChooserandSpositive. By plotting direction fields and solutions of (A) on suitable rectan- gular grids

R={0≤t≤T, 0≤I≤d}

in the(t, I)-plane, verify that ifIis any solution of (A) such thatI(0)>0, thenlimt→∞I(t) =

S−q/rifq < rSandlimt→∞I(t) = 0ifq≥rS.

(b) To verify the experimental results of(a), use separation of variables to solve (A) with initial conditionI(0) = I0 >0, and findlimt→∞I(t). HINT:There are three cases to consider:

(i)q < rS;(ii)q > rS;(iii)q=rS.

31. L Consider the differential equation

y0 _{=}_{ay}

−by2−q, (A)

wherea,bare positive constants, andqis an arbitrary constant. Supposeydenotes a solution of this equation that satisfies the initial conditiony(0) =y0.

(a) Chooseaandbpositive andq < a2_{/}_{4}_{b. By plotting direction fields and solutions of (A) on}
suitable rectangular grids

R={0≤t≤T, c≤y≤d} (B)

in the(t, y)-plane, discover that there are numbers y1 andy2 withy1 < y2 such that if y0> y1thenlimt→∞y(t) =y2, and ify0< y1theny(t) =−∞for some finite value oft.

(What happens ify0=y1?)

(b) Chooseaandbpositive andq = a2_{/}_{4}_{b. By plotting direction fields and solutions of (A)}
on suitable rectangular grids of the form (B), discover that there’s a numbery1such that if
y0≥y1thenlimt→∞y(t) =y1, while ify0 < y1theny(t) =−∞for some finite value of

t.

(c) Choose positivea,b andq > a2_{/}_{4}_{b. By plotting direction fields and solutions of (A) on}
suitable rectangular grids of the form (B), discover that no matter whaty0is,y(t) =−∞for
some finite value oft.

(d) Verify your results experiments analytically. Start by separating variables in (A) to obtain y0

ay−by2_{−}_{q} = 1.

To decide what to do next you’ll have to use the quadratic formula. This should lead you to see why there are three cases. Take it from there!

Because of its role in the transition between these three cases,q0=a2_{/}_{4}_{b}_{is called a}_{bifur-}

cation valueofq. In general, ifqis a parameter in any differential equation,q0is said to be a bifurcation value ofqif the nature of the solutions of the equation withq < q0is qualitatively different from the nature of the solutions withq > q0.

32. L By plotting direction fields and solutions of y0 =qy−y3,

convince yourself thatq0 = 0is a bifurcation value ofqfor this equation. Explain what makes you draw this conclusion.

33. Suppose a disease spreads according to the model of Exercise29, but there’s a medication that cures the infected population at a constant rate ofqindividuals per unit time, whereq >0. Then the equation for the number of infected individuals becomes

I0 _{=}_{rI}_{(}_{S}

−I)−q.

Section 2.3Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions of Nonlinear Equations 55

34. Assuming thatp6≡0, state conditions under which the linear equation
y0_{+}_{p}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{y}_{=}_{f}_{(}_{x}_{)}

is separable. If the equation satisfies these conditions, solve it by separation of variables and by the method developed in Section 2.1.

Solve the equations in Exercises35–38using variation of parameters followed by separation of variables.

35. y0_{+}_{y}_{=} 2xe
−x
1 +yex 36. xy
0
−2y= x
6
y+x2
37. y0
−y= (x+ 1)e
4x
(y+ex_{)}2 38. y
0_{−}_{2}_{y}_{=} xe
2x
1−ye−2x

39. Use variation of parameters to show that the solutions of the following equations are of the form
y=uy1, whereusatisfies a separable equationu0_{=}_{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{p}_{(}_{u}_{)}_{. Find}_{y1}_{and}_{g}_{for each equation.}

(a)xy0_{+}_{y}_{=}_{h}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{p}_{(}_{xy}_{)} _{(b)}_{xy}0
−y=h(x)py
x
(c)y0_{+}_{y}_{=}_{h}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{p}_{(}_{e}x_{y}_{)} _{(d)}_{xy}0_{+}_{ry}_{=}_{h}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{p}_{(}_{x}r_{y}_{)}
(e)y0_{+}v
0_{(}_{x}_{)}
v(x)y=h(x)p(v(x)y)