MEMORY TEST. Princeton Review. Kaplan

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MEMORY TEST

Princeton Review

1. The main difference between auditory and visual sensory memory is that (A) Visual memory dominates auditory memory

(B) Visual sensory memory lasts for a shorter period of time than auditory sensory memory (C) Visual sensory memory has a higher storage capacity than auditory sensory memory (D) A phone number read to an individual will be lost before a phone number that was glanced

at for 15 seconds

(E) If both visual and auditory stimuli are presented at the same time, the visual stimulus is more likely to be transferred to the long-term memory than is the auditory stimulus 2. The greater likelihood of recalling information from memory while in the same or similar

environment in which the memory was originally encoded is an example of (A) Retroactive interference

(B) Chunking

(C) Elaborative rehearsal (D) Encoding specificity (E) Procedural memory

Kaplan

3. When studying memory, we are often concerned with the process of getting information into the system. The process of getting information into short-term memory is called

(A) Retrieval (B) Storage (C) Encoding (D) Sensation (E) Perception

4. According to Craik and Tulving, the most important factor in memory performance is (A) Retrieval cues

(B) Storage capacity (C) Encoding context

(D) Sensation of information (E) Perception of reality

5. The capacity of short term memory is (A) 2+or-3

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(B) 5+or-1 (C) 3+or-2 (D) 9+or-2 (E) 7+or-2

6. The stage that information first enters when it comes into the information processing system is called

(A) Short-term memory (B) Long-term memory (C) Encoding stage (D) Sensory memory (E) Working memory

7. A task that would lead to deep levels of memory would be (A) Identifying the number of letters in a word

(B) Determining if two words rhyme

(C) Deciding if someone’s name a good fit for them (D) Determining if a word fits into a sentence (E) Identifying the number of syllables in a word 8. An example of explicit memory would be (A) Learning how to type

(B) Remembering your locker combination (C) Writing

(D) Reading (E) Driving

9. Spreading activation is a process that has been used to demonstrate how information may be organized in long-term memory. To demonstrate this, you might find that

(A) Bread makes you think of butter (B) Doctor makes you think of eating (C) You daydream

(D) You remember your birthday (E) Dogs make you think about shoes

10. We recall information better when we try to remember it in the same situation as when we learned it. This concept is called

(A) Memory cue (B) Encoding specificity (C) Retrieval context (D) Spreading activation (E) Learning context

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11. Suppose you want to remember all the states. You decide that you are going to make up a song to help you. When you do this, you are using what psychologists call a(n)

(A) Mnemonic (B) Learning strategy (C) Encoding strategy (D) Retrieval strategy (E) Context cue

12. What evidence suggests that memory is organized the way it is? (A) We say the word nurse faster after we see the word desk (B) We say the word doctor faster after we see the word nurse (C) We say bread slower after we see the word butter

(D) We say pillow slower after we see the word couch (E) We say computer faster after we see the word couch

13. Mnemonics help us to remember things more efficiently because they (A) Provide a catchy tune

(B) Provide us with instant, photographic memory of information (C) Provide us with organization for recall

(D) Provide us with context

(E) Provide us with a bigger short-term memory

14. The most common form of a model of long-term memory is called (A) Spreading activation model

(B) Nodes and links (C) ACT

(D) Episodic memory (E) Semantic memory

15. An example of a task that might lead to poor memory would be (A) Trying to fit a word into a sentence

(B) Learning all the names of the children in a class (C) Associating words with images that they represent (D) Saying the number of letters in a word

(E) Trying to rhyme a word with a nonword 16. Short-term memory has a capacity that is

(A) Small (B) Large (C) Unlimited (D) 6+or-2 digits

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17. Long-term memory has a capacity that is (A) Small

(B) Large (C) Unlimited (D) 6+or-2 digits

(E) Variable by individual

18. The first stage of the information-processing model is (A) Sensory memory

(B) Attention

(C) Long-term memory (D) Short-term memory (E) Working memory

19. The final stage of the information processing model is (A) Sensory memory

(B) Attention

(C) Long-term memory (D) Short-term memory (E) Working memory

20. Someone is currently paying attention to something. In what stage of information processing is this person?

(A) Sensory memory (B) Attention

(C) Long-term memory (D) Short-term memory (E) Explicit memory

21. The idea that information is better recalled when the encoding context matches the retrieval context is called the

(A) Encoding specificity (B) Mnemonics

(C) Retrieval cue (D) Cognitive cue (E) Spreading activation

22. A task that would lead to deep levels of processing would be (A) Trying to learn how to spell nonwords

(B) Rhyming words (C) Counting letters

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(D) Fitting words into a sentence

(E) Identifying what is a word and what is not

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23. The three stages of the Atkinson- Shiffrin process of memory are (A) Iconic, echoic, encoding

(B) Sensory, short term, long term

(C) Shallow, medium, and deep processing (D) Semantic, episodic, procedural

(E) Cerebellum, temporal lobe, hippocampus

24. Which of the following examples best illustrates episodic memory? (A) Telling someone how to tie a shoe

(B) Answering correctly that the Battle of Hastings was in 1066 (C) Knowing that the word for black in French is noir

(D) Remembering that a clown was at your fifth birthday party (E) Long-term memory for the time tables learned in second grade

25. Doug wrote a grocery list of ten items, leaves it at home. The list included in order: peas, corn, squash, onions, apples, pears, bananas, flour, milk, and eggs. If the law of primacy holds which of the following is Doug most likely to remember when he gets to the store?

(A) Peas, pears, eggs (B) Banana, flour, peas (C) Apples, pears, bananas (D) Flour, milk, eggs (E) Peas, corn, onions

26. In the example above, which of the items would be recalled in Doug’s short-term memory immediately after writing the list?

(A) Peas, corn, squash (B) Peas, corn, onions (C) Apples, pears, bananas (D) Flour, milk, eggs (E) Flour, corn, bananas

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(A) We remember items that are repeated again and again

(B) Maintenance rehearsal will encode items into our long- term memory

(C) Deep processing involves elaborative rehearsal, ensuring encoding into long-term memory (D) Input, output, and storage are the three levels

(E) We can only hold 7 items in our short- term memory store before it is full

28. Which of the following brain structures plays a key role in transferring information from short-term memory to long- short-term memory?

(A) Hypothalamus (B) Thalamus (C) Hippocampus (D) Frontal lobe (E) Parietal lobe

29. Dai was drunk, so his girlfriend convinced him to get out of his car, and she drove him home in her car. He could not remember where his car was parked when he got up the next morning, but after drinking some liquor, Dai remembered where he left his car. This phenomenon best illustrates

(A) The misinformation effect (B) Mood- congruent memory (C) The framing effect

(D) State dependent memory (E) Anterograde amnesia 30. Phonemes are:

(A) The rules of grammar that dictate letter combinations in a language (B) The smallest unit of sound in a language

(C) The smallest unit of meaning in a language (D) Semantically the same as morphemes

(E) About 100 different words that are common to all languages 31. Which of the following exemplifies retroactive interference

(A) After suffering a blow to the head, Jean cannot form new memories

(B) Elle failed a Spanish test because she studied for her Italian test after studying Spanish (C) Lee cannot remember an important date on the history exam

(D) Gene cannot remember his new locker combination but remembers last year’s

(E) Jodie remembers the first few items on her school supply list, but can’t remember the rest of them

Fast Track to a 5

32. The process of acquiring information and entering it into memory is referred to as (A) Storage

(B) Encoding (C) Retrieval

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(D) Gathering (E) Stimulating

33. Mary is able to remember her mother’s birth day. Remembering that date is an examply of which type of memory?

(A) Procedural memory (B) Semantic memory (C) Episodic memory (D) Nondeclarative memory (E) Flashbulb memory

34. Rosita was having a hard time remembering the material she learned in class and that she knew was doing to be on a test. As she walked into her classroom on the day of the test she

immediately started to remember the forgotten content. This sudden occurrence could be explained by

(A) Recency effect

(B) Context-dependent memory (C) Primary effect

(D) Retrieval failure (E) Semantic association

35. Steve can only remember his old locker combination; he keeps forgetting his new combination. Steve is experiencing

(A) Blocking interference (B) Retroactive interference (C) Proactive interference (D) Repression interference (E) Suppression interference

36. Ray hurt his head in a car accident and has been experiencing problems recalling past events. Ray’s doctors told his parents that Ray may be suffering from

(A) Anterograde amnesia (B) Misinformation effect (C) Incomplete schemas (D) Retrieval failure (E) Retrograde amnesia

37. What psychologist believed that the forgetting of information will occur rapidly at first and will then level off, with the remaining information being retained for a long period of time? (A) Herman Ebbinghaus

(B) Donald Hebb (C) Karl Lashley (D) Sigmund Freud (E) Elizabeth Loftus

Myer’s Psychology 38. The “magical number seven, plus or minus two” refers to the

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(B) Number of seconds information stays in short- term memory without rehearsal (C) Capacity of short- term memory

(D) Number of seconds information stays in echoic storage (E) Number of years most long term memories last.

39. Which of the following describes long –term potentiation?

(A) When attempting to retrieve information, it is easier to recognize than recall (B) Constructed memories have the potential to be either accurate or inaccurate

(C) Memories are formed in the brain when a synapse changes to allow for more efficient transfer of information

(D) Implicit memories are processed by the cerebellum instead of by the hippocampus (E) Information is transferred from working memory to long-term memory

40. Which of the following is an example of implicit memory?

(A) The ability to find a hidden Where’s Waldo? figure with practice

(B) The ability to retrieve from memory the details of an assignment that is due tomorrow (C) The ability to vividly recall significant events like the 9/11 attacks to New York City and

Washington, D.C.

(D) The ability to remember the details of your last birthday party

(E) The ability of people to recognize names and pictures of their classmates many years after they have graduated

41. Which of the following statements concerning memory is true?

(A) Hypnosis, when used as a component of therapy, usually improves the accuracy of memory. (B) One aspect of memory that is usually accurate is the source of the remembered information (C) Children’s memories of abuse are always accurate

(D) Memories we are more certain of are more likely to be accurate (E) Memories are often a blend of correct and incorrect information

42. The basketball players could remember the main points of their coach’s halftime talk, but not her exact words. This is because they encoded the information

(A) Semantically (B) Acoustically (C) Visually (D) Shallowly (E) Automatically

43. When someone provides his phone number to another person, he usually pauses after the area code and again after the next three numbers. This patter underscores the importance of (A) Chunking

(B) The serial position effect (C) Semantic encoding (D) Auditory encoding (E) Automatic processing

44. Which of the following us true regarding the role of the amygdala in memory? (A) The amygdala help process implicit memories

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(B) The amygdala support Freud’s ideas about memory because they allow us to repress memories of trauma.

(C) The amygdala produce long-term potentiation in the brain

(D) The amygdala help make sure we remember events that trigger strong emotional responses (E) The amygdala are active when the retrieval of a long-term memory is primed

45. Which of the following illustrates the serial position effect?

(A) The only name Kensie remembers from the people she met at the party is Spencer, because she thought he was particularly good looking

(B) Kimia has trouble remembering information from the book’s first unit when she reviews it for semester finals

(C) It’s easy for Brittney to remember that carbon’s atomic number is 6 because her birthday is on December 6

(D) Kyle was not able to remember the names of all his new co-workers after one week on the job, but he could after two weeks

(E) Alp is unable to remember the middle of a list of vocabulary words as well as he remembers the first or last words on the list

46. Mnemonic devices are least likely to be dependent upon (A) Imagery

(B) Acronyms (C) Rhymes (D) Stories

(E) Massed rehearsal

47. You are likely to remember more psychology in your psychology classroom than in other environments because of

(A) Mood congruence (B) Context effects (C) State dependency (D) Proactive interference (E) Retroactive interference

48. All of the following kinds of information tend to be automatically processed except (A) Space information

(B) Time information (C) Frequency information (D) New information

(E) Well-learned information

49. Hermann Ebbinghaus is considered a pioneer in memory research because he established the importance of

(A) Semantic encoding (B) Mnemonic devices (C) Rehearsal

(D) Iconic storage

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50. Which of the following is an example of source amnesia?

(A) Iva can’t remember the details of a horrifying event because she has repressed them

(B) Mary has entirely forgotten about an incident in grade school until her friend reminds her of the event

(C) Michael can’t remember this year’s locker combination because he confuses it with last year’s combination

(D) Stephen misremembers a dream as something that really happened

(E) Anna, who has been trying to lose weight, is unable to remember several of the between-meal snacks she had yesterday

51. Chemistry teachers almost always present elements within the context of the periodic table. The periodic table is useful because it is a(n)

(A) Example of chunking (B) Hierarchy

(C) Mnemonic device

(D) Example of iconic storage (E) Massed rehearsal strategy

52. Hermann Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve indicates that (A) Most forgetting occurs early on and then levels off (B) We forget more rapidly as additional time passes (C) Forgetting is relatively constant over time

(D) Forgetting is related to many factors, but time is not one of them’

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Key 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. E 6. D 7. D 8. B 9. A 10. B 11. A 12. B 13. C 14. A 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. A 19. C 20. D 21. A 22. D 23. B 24. D 25. e 26. D 27. C 28. C 29. D 30. Don’t do 31. B 32. B 33. C 34. B 35. C 36. E 37. A 38. C 39. C 40. A 41. E 42. A 43. A 44. D 45. E 46. E 47. B 48. D 49. C 50. D 51. B 52. A

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