STUDY OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO DIESEL ENGINE USING ETHANOL BLENDS WITH DIESEL

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STUDY OF PERFORMANCE

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIABLE

COMPRESSION RATIO DIESEL

ENGINE USING ETHANOL BLENDS

WITH DIESEL

NILESH MOHITE1*

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur, India.

nilesh.242933@gmail.com

SUJIT KUMBHAR2, VINAY KALE3, TAUSIF MULLA4

2, 3, 4

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur, India.

Abstract

As the population of the world increases consumption of the energy also increases tremendously. With the current consumption rate if it has been quoted that there will be great shortage of petroleum products in upcoming decades, it will not be wrong. For this reason people are looking for alternative fuels. As ethanol is the main bio-product in the many industries now-a-days, it is better to develop the engine which can work on pure ethanol or one can add ethanol in the petrol or diesel and use the blends of that. For this purpose, it is necessary to check the performance characteristics and emissions of the blends of ethanol and also necessary to compare with the pure form of fuels. Again it is necessary to check the effect of compression ratio on the blends of ethanol. So in this paper the same has been conducted at basic level.

Keywords: ethanol; blends of ethanol; compression ratio.

1. Introduction

India is home to over a billion people, about one-sixth of the world’s population. The population continues to grow at 1.93% per annum, which is well above the global average (India, 2004). The population of India has nearly tripled in the last 50 years, from 361 million in 1951 to 1.027 billion in 2001. The country’s economy has also been growing rapidly in the last decade, with real GDP growth rates remaining consistently over 5% (India, 2004). The petroleum products play an important role in our modern life. The costs of these products depend on international markets and India will be the third largest consumer of transportation fuel in 2020, after the USA and China, with consumption growing at an annual rate of 6.8% from 1999 to 2020. India’s economy has often been unsettled by its need to import about 70% of its petroleum demand from the highly unstable and volatile world oil market (India, 2004). The acid rain, global warming and health hazards are the results of ill effects of increased polluted gases like SOX, CO and particulate matter in atmosphere. With the increased exhaust emissions, global warming has generated an intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuel for engines. Increase in non-petroleum prices, global warming has generated an interest in developing alternative fuels for engine. Technologies now focusing on development of plant based fuel, plant oils, and plant fats as an alternative fuel.

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2. Preparation of blends

2.1Description

Four types of blends according to need to plot the result in alternative fuel were prepared by us, having quantity 2000ml each, owing 5%, 10%, 15%,20% ethanol respectively. In addition to this, the sorbitol mono-oleate as a surfactant to reduce the surface tension in the quantity of 1.6% with respect to ethanol in each blend had been also added. Thus we can say that quantity in each blend is not exactly 2000ml, it may vary according to percentage of ethanol.

500ml of each blend was send to the Nikhil Laboratory for testing the desirable properties to find the suitability of blend to the engine. The detail report of Nikhil Lab is also added. Preparation of blend was done at Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Kolhapur.

2.2Basic procedure to prepare the blend

(1) Firstly, the desired quantity of diesel in to beaker was taken. Suppose for 5% ethanol 1900ml diesel to prepare the blend similarly, for 10% 1800ml, was taken and so on.

(2)Then desired quantity of ethanol was taken and with the help of pipette 1.6% of sorbitol mono-oleate (with respect to ethanol) is added to the ethanol, and then mixed.

(3)Pure diesel was stirred for at least 5-10 minutes; a magnetic bid was dipped in to the beaker to aid proper mixing.

(4)After that, mix of ethanol and sorbitol is added to the pure diesel during stirring very consciously, to ensure the accurate mixing. This is stirred at least for 20 minutes.

(5)Thereafter, blend is prepared and is taken in to the well cleaned bottle.

[Note: The care had been taken regarding the separation of layer of blend.]

2.3Detail of blends

Table 1. Detail of blends

Blends Quantity of diesel Quantity of ethanol

Quantity of sorbitol

mono-oleate

Total quantity of blend

E5 1900ml 100ml 1.6ml 2001.6ml E10 1800ml 200ml 3.2ml 2003.2ml E15 1700ml 300ml 4.8ml 2004.8ml E20 1600ml 400ml 6.4ml 2006.4ml

3. Experimental setup & performance testing 3.1 Introduction

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Fig.3.1 Engine

4. Comparison of result

4.1Compression ratio=18

Graph4.1.1.Brake power vs. load

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Graph 4.1.2.Fuel flow vs. load

By graph we can predict that, increase in fuel flow as load increases and in comparison with pure diesel and blends we can predict that highest fuel flow is observed with pure diesel & it is observed lowest flow with the blend proportion E5 from graph.

Graph 4.1.3.Break specific fuel consumption vs. load

By graph we come to know that with increase in load by constant speed there decrease in fuel consumption & it is also been observed that for same condition with pure diesel more fuel consumption than that of E5 as well as that of E15,15 & E20.

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Graph 4.1.4Break thermal efficiency vs. load

By graph we can predict that, as the load increases wit constant speed there is drastically increase in thermal eff. As in graph above and gives maximum efficiency for E5 and lower efficiency at pure diesel & middle efficiencies for E5, E20, E15, E10 respectively. And the highest B Th. Efficiency given by E5 blend is 36.36 at load of 9.5 kg.

4.2 Compression ratio=17

Graph4.2.1.Brake power vs. load

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Graph 4.2.2.Fuel flow vs. load

It can be seen that as load increases the fuel flow also increases. There is decrease in fuel flow from load 3.5 to that of 6.5 with pure diesel.

Graph 4.2.3.Break specific fuel consumption vs. load

It is observed that with increase in load by constant speed there decrease in fuel consumption now it somewhat gives different result than that of compression ratio 18 i.e., the consumption graph for E5 and E10 are giving lower consumption with about same rate.

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Graph 4.2.4Break thermal efficiency vs. load

The graph shows that with increase in the brake Th. Eff. As observed on graph the pure diesel gives highest brake thermal efficiency at load 6.5 is 24.5% but as load goes on increases beyond this it gives lower eff. At load 9.5 the efficiency of pure diesel is 23.3%. but for the blend proportions It will not fall down the graph goes on increasing & now the highest brake thermal efficiency given by the proportions of E5 and E15 as in graph above, and the highest efficiency is 27.26% & it was 36 % for compression ratio 18 so, it can be predicted that with decrease in compression ratio there is somewhat decrease in efficiency.

4.3 Compression ratio=16

Graph4.3.1.Brake power vs. load

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Graph 4.3.2.Fuel flow vs. load

From above graph it can be seen that as load increases the fuel flow also increasing and been observed that, lower fuel flow for the E20 higher flow for E15 and all other lines lies between these two.

Graph 4.3.3.Break specific fuel consumption vs. load

From above graph with increase in load by constant speed decrease in fuel consumption i.e. BSFC now it gives somewhat different result than that of compression ratio 18 and 17 i.e. the consumption graph for E20 is lower consumption with than that of other proportions of blends. And it remains unchanged with increase in load but it is observed that, with this compression ratio i.e. 16 results given by E5 are somewhat different than that of with compression ratio 18 and 17.

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Graph 4.3.4Break thermal efficiency vs. load

The graph shows that, it gives higher brake thermal efficiency for the E20 blend proportion & it increase rapidly as increase in load as seen in graph above. And higher brake thermal efficiency is 40.21% and is much higher than also that obtained with blend proportion E5 at compression ratio 18 i.e. 36%.but for other fuels like pure diesel & remaining proportions of blends we can’t get this much of increase in efficiency.

5. Conclusion

From the result obtained in this investigation the following conclusions have been drawn as, Percentage change in performance characteristics of engine with change in compression ratio from CR=18 to CR=15 at load 3.5 Kg in comparison with compression ratio (CR) =18.

Characteristic percentage change (%)

Fuel flow(Kg/hr) BSFC (%)

CR 18

(Kg/h) 17 (%)

16 (%)

15 (%)

18 (Kg/hKW)

17 (%)

16 (%)

15 (%)

Pure Diesel 0.65 1.53 -1.53 -40 0.63 0 -1.58 -42.85

E5 0.48 -20.83 -0.31 -70.83 0.47 -21.27 -31.91 -74.46

E10 0.63 -6.35 -4.76 -74.6 0.61 -6.55 -4.91 -78.68

E15 0.63 1.58 -12.7 -66.67 0.61 1.64 -13.11 -70.49

E20 0.64 1.56 28.2 -90 0.64 4.68 29.68 -93.75

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Characteristic percentage change (%)

B Th. Eff.

(%)

Vol. Eff.

(%)

CR 18

(%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%) 18 (%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%)

Pure Diesel 13.35 -0.075 1.87 30.26 86 -1.01 -1.04 -0.51

E5 18.16 17.78 25.27 42.95 82.9 0.25 -3.42 -0.04

E10 13.89 6.11 5.11 44.27 81.19 0.23 0.87 -1.32

E15 14.30 -1.74 11.74 41.32 83.98 1.92 2.19 -0.94

E20 14.07 -4.76 -42.78 48.33 87.44 2.91 5.75 -2.87

Characteristic percentage change (%)

Heat equivalent to work

(%)

Heat By Jacket cooling

(%)

CR 18

(%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%) 18 (%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%)

Pure Diesel 13.35 -0.075 1.87 30.26 30.64 10.83 14.84 70.31

E5 18.16 17.78 25.27 42.95 34.72 21.08 70.47 73.93

E10 13.89 6.11 5.11 44.27 32.7 18.38 23.24 46.91

E15 14.30 -1.74 11.74 41.32 21.04 -38.26 -14.25 14.63

E20 14.07 -4.76 -42.78 48.33 24.72 -19.94 -55.34 11.36

[Note: (-) negative value indicates there is percentage increase in value]

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Characteristic percentage change (%)

Heat equivalent to Exhaust

(%) Unaccountable Heat (%) CR 18 (%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%) 18 (%) 17 (%) 16 (%) 15 (%)

Pure Diesel 12.33 -26.84 -45.74 4.54 43.68 0.022 1.92 -59.86

E5 17.5 -3.6 61.65 68.28 29.62 -33.49 -134.53 -153

E10 10.93 -52.05 -57.54 -76.39 42.48 -2.77 -4.78 -30.93

E15 12.61 -37.19 -26.72 -96.03 52.06 24.97 9.02 6.01

E20 22.70 -0.30 16.16 20.61 38.52 14.74 41.61 -37.07

[Note: (-) negative value indicates there is percentage increase in value]

(2)It is obtained that, there is no significant change in Brake Power for the Pure Diesel and each fuel blend. But, as the compression ratio changes the slightly reduction in Brake Power having same characteristics of graph. (3)For fixed compression ratio (CR) 18 the fuel blend E5 has lower fuel flow among all fuels but as compression ratio decreases the Fuel Flow for E5, E10 and pure diesel increases. For other fuels it is slightly different characteristics as,

(i)For E15 it is firstly decreased at CR=17 and then increased for other compression ratios as observed from table above.

(ii)For E20 t is observed that there is increase in Fuel Flow up to CR=16 and decreased at CR=15 (4)There is increase in BSFC in Pure Diesel and all blends except E20 with decrease in compression ratio i.e. CR=18 to Cr=15 as observed in above table.

(5)At starting compression ratio CR=18 to CR=17 there is slightly increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency. For Pure diesel and for E20 it is being increasing for CR=16 and then decreased for CR=15.so t is been concluded that with increase in blend proportion increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency. But, as compression ratio is decreasing there is decrease in efficiency. It is same for Heat Equivalent to Work because it is same as Brake Thermal Efficiency.

(6)The Volumetric Efficiency is being increasing with decrease in compression ratio for only Pure Diesel but the condition is being different o other fuel it is being decreasing with decrease in compression ratio and we can observe from table above.

(7)The Heat Equivalent to the Work is same as the Brake Thermal Efficiency.

(8)The Heat For Jacket Cooling is being require more as the compression ratio decreases for the Pure Diesel , E5 and E10 but the condition is different for E15 and E20 as it is requiring low heat for jacket cooling at CR=16 and Cr=15

(9) Heat at exhaust is higher as decrease in compression ratio for Pure Diesel and all other fuel.

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6. References

[1] “Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food wastes” Leonardo Electronic Journal Practices & Technology, (December 2008). [2] R.K.Rajput “A text book of Thermal engineering”; Laxmi Publications (2007)

[3] İsmet Çelikten, İsmet ÇELİKTEN1♠ Ghazi University, Faculty of Technical Education, “The Effect of Biodiesel, Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Blends on The Performance and Exhaust Emissions in A DI Diesel Engine”, Department of Automotive, 06500, Teknikokullar, Ankara, TURKEY. 10.02.2011.

[4] “Ethanol-diesel blends: a step towards a bio-based fuel for diesel engines”, Paper Number: 01-6048An ASAE Meeting Presentation. Sacramento Convention Center & Sacramento, California, USA July 30-August 1, 2001.

[5] T. Krishnaswamy1 and N. Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi “Performance evaluation of diesel engine with oxygenated bio-fuel blends” 1) Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, India

2) Anna University of Technology, Tirunelveli, India. JANUARY 2012.

[6] www.alternativefuel.com

[7] Peterson & C.L. Wagner, “Vegetable Oil As Substitute For Diesel Fuel” G.L. Transactions of ASAE,(1983),Vol.26(2):322-327. [8] Peck ham J. (editorial), “Ethanol-Diesel rises, Safety, performance, health concern: Autos” Diesel Fuel News (2001).

[9] Er. Milind, S. Patil,” Performance Test On I.C. Engine Using Blends Of Ethanol & Kerosene With Diesel ”, International Journal Of Engineering Science & Technology ,(2010).

[10] www.wikipedia.com

[11] Uduak Georag, Akpan,” Production Of Ethanol Fuel From Organic & Food Wastes”, Leonardo Electronic Journal Practices & Technology, (December 2008).

[12] Kulkarni, “Organic Chemistry”, Ghalasasi.

[13] Mathur & Sharma, “Internal Combustion Engine”, Dhanpat Rai Publication, (2007). [14] www.amazon.com 

[15] Apex Innovation Ltd., “Engine Setup Manual”, (2012).

Figure

Table 1.  Detail of blends

Table 1.

Detail of blends p.2

References