Vibration Damping, Control, And Design

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(1)© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(2) © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(3) © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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(28) j[“. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. A‡ g)]A2u YA gd_™ Az”\ AbAd \‡ Y! YA :!bp\dQ ”‡A: \d YA ‡pA2\KA: A‡pgd‡A ‡pA2 ”b )A Az”!_ g Y! ”‡A: \d YA A‡ A‡pgd‡A ‡pA2 ”bu YA :AQ AA gJ :™d!b\2 \dA !2\gd )A—AAd YA A‡ g)]A2 !d: YA ‡Y!^A !)_A8 Yg—A–A 8 —\__ :ApAd: gd YA !2”!_ _A–A_ gJ :!bp\dQ \d YA‡A ‡™‡Ab‡u ” YA bg A8 —YAd A‡\dQ dA! YA A‡gd!d J Az”Ad2™ gJ ! A‡ g)]A28 \ \‡ :A‡\ !)_A g ^dg— !)g” YA :!bp\dQ \d YA A‡ g)]A2u d 2Y! !2A \›\dQ :!bp\dQ \d ! :™d!b\2 ‡™‡Ab \ \‡ \bpg !d8 K ‡8 g ”d:A ‡!d: YA b!]g bA2Y!d\‡b‡ !‡‡g2\!A: —\Y bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd \d YA ‡™‡Abu YAd ! ‡”\!)_A :!bp\dQ bg:A_ ‡Yg”_: )A 2Yg‡Ad g Ap A‡Ad YA !‡‡g2\!A: AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gdu \d!__™8 :!bp\dQ –!_”A‡ rbg:A_ p! !bAA ‡s ‡Yg”_: )A :AA b\dA:8 Jg A˜!bp_A8 )™ A‡\dQ YA ‡™‡Ab g ! Ap A‡Ad!\–A pY™‡\2!_ bg:A_8 )™ bgd\g \dQ ‡™‡Ab A‡pgd‡A ”d:A  !d‡\Ad 2gd:\\gd‡ :” \dQ dg b!_ gpA !\gd g )™ Abp_g™\dQ !_ A!:™ !–!\_!)_A :!!u. ju“. ™pA‡ gJ !bp\dQ. YA A \‡ ‡gbA Jg b gJ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd \d !d™ :™d!b\2 ‡™‡Abu d YA bg:A_\dQ gJ ‡™‡Ab‡8 :!bp\dQ 2!d )A dAQ_A2A: \J YA bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ Y! \‡ :\‡‡\p!A: :” \dQ YA \bA :” !\gd gJ \dA A‡ \‡ ‡b!__ \d 2gbp! \‡gd g YA \d\\!_ g!_ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ gJ A˜2\!\gd \d YA ‡™‡Abu –Ad Jg Y\QY_™ :!bpA: ‡™‡Ab‡8 \ \‡ ”‡AJ”_ g pA Jg b !d !d!_™‡\‡ —\Y YA :!bp\dQ A b‡ dAQ_A2A:8 \d g :A g ‡”:™ ‡A–A !_ 2 ”2\!_ :™d!b\2 2Y! !2A \‡\2‡8 AuQu8 bg:!_ 2Y! !2A \‡\2‡ r”d:!bpA: d!” !_ J Az”Ad2\A‡ !d: bg:A ‡Y!pA‡su A–A !_ ™pA‡ gJ :!bp\dQ ! A \dYA Ad_™ p A‡Ad \d ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Abu J YA _A–A_ gJ :!bp\dQ Y! \‡ !–!\_!)_A \d Y\‡ b!ddA \‡ dg !:Az”!A Jg p gpA J”d2\gd\dQ gJ YA ‡™‡Ab YAd A˜A d!_ :!bp\dQ :A–\2A‡ b!™ )A !::A: A\YA :” \dQ YA g \Q\d!_ :A‡\Qd g :” \dQ ‡”)‡Az”Ad :A‡\Qd bg:\K2!\gd‡ gJ YA ‡™‡Abu Y AA p \b! ™ bA2Y!d\‡b‡ gJ :!bp\dQ ! A \bpg !d \d YA ‡”:™ gJ bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Ab‡u YA™ ! A7 ju dA d!_ :!bp\dQ rgJ b!A \!_s “u  ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ r! ]g\d‡ !d: \dA J!2A‡s ‘u _”\: :!bp\dQ rY g”QY M”\: E‡ ”2” A \dA !2\gd‡s dA d!_ rb!A \!_s :!bp\dQ A‡”_‡ J gb bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd —\Y\d YA b!A \!_ :”A g –! \g”‡ b\2 g‡2gp\2 !d: b!2 g‡2gp\2 p g2A‡‡A‡u  ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ \‡ 2!”‡A: )™ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd A‡”_\dQ J gb A_!\–A bg\gd‡ )A—AAd 2gbpgdAd‡ \d ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡ ”2” A Y! Y!‡ 2gbbgd pg\d‡ gJ 2gd!28 ]g\d‡ g ‡”ppg ‡u _”\: :!bp\dQ ! \‡A‡ J gb YA bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd A‡”_\dQ J gb : !Q Jg 2A‡ !d: !‡‡g2\!A: :™d!b\2 \dA !2\gd‡ —YAd ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Ab g \‡ 2gbpgdAd‡ bg–A \d ! M”\:u —g QAdA !_ ™pA‡ gJ A˜A d!_ :!bpA ‡ b!™ )A !::A: g ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Ab \d g :A g \bp g–A \‡ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd 2Y! !2A \‡\2‡u YA™ ! A7 ju !‡‡\–A :!bpA ‡ “u 2\–A :!bpA ‡ !‡‡\–A :!bpA ‡ ! A :A–\2A‡ Y! :\‡‡\p!A AdA Q™ Y g”QY ‡gbA ^\d: gJ bg\gd8 —\Yg” dAA:\dQ !d A˜A d!_ pg—A ‡g” 2A g !2”!g ‡u 2\–A :!bpA ‡ Y!–A !2”!g ‡ Y! dAA: A˜A d!_ ‡g” 2A‡ gJ pg—A u YA™ gpA !A )™ !2\–A_™ 2gd g__\dQ YA bg\gd gJ YA ‡™‡Ab Y! dAA:‡ :!bp\dQu !bpA ‡ b!™ )A 2gd‡\:A A: !‡ –\) !\gd 2gd g__A ‡u d YA p A‡Ad 2Y!pA 8 YA AbpY!‡\‡ —\__ )A gd :!bp\dQ Y! \‡ \dYA Ad_™ p A‡Ad \d ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Abu. ju“uj. !A \!_ r dA d!_s !bp\dQ. dA d!_ :!bp\dQ gJ b!A \!_‡ g \Q\d!A‡ J gb YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd !‡‡g2\!A: —\Y b\2 g‡ ”2” A :AJA2‡8 ‡”2Y !‡ Q !\d )g”d:! \A‡ !d: \bp” \\A‡‰ YA bgA_!‡\2 AJJA2‡ 2!”‡A: )™ _g2!_ AbpA !” A Q !:\Ad‡ A‡”_\dQ J gb dgd”d\Jg b ‡ A‡‡A‡8 !‡ \d –\) !\dQ )A!b‡‰ A::™ 2” Ad AJJA2‡ \d JA gb!QdA\2. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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(30) >“«ˆ˜} >«>VˆÌÞ «iÀ 1˜ˆÌ 6œÕ“i _ggp AJJA2‡u YA ‡ A‡‡ SA7 !d: ‡ !\d S<7 A_!\gd‡ ! ! pg\d \d ! –\) !\dQ 2gd\d””b pg‡‡A‡‡ ! Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp8 ‡”2Y !‡ YA gdA ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A juju YA ! A! gJ YA Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp Q\–A‡   juj  ™p\2!_ Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp Jg bA2Y!d\2!_ YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd pA ”d\ –g_”bA gJ YA :!bp\dQu b!A \!_8 pA ‡ A‡‡ 2™2_Au Y\‡ \‡ A bA: YA pA [ ”d\[–g_”bA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™8 !d: \‡ :AdgA: )™ :  \‡ 2_A! Y! : \‡ Q\–Ad )™ YA 2™2_\2 \dAQ !_ } Sjj7 : h A :< d J!28 Jg !d™ :!bpA: :A–\2A8 YA A \‡ ! 2g A‡pgd:\dQ Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp \d YA :\‡p_!2AbAd EJg 2A p_!dA !‡ —A__u d Y\‡ 2!‡A8 YA 2™2_\2 \dAQ !_ gJ Jg 2A —\Y A‡pA2 g YA :\‡p_!2AbAd8 —Y\2Y \‡ YA ! A! gJ YA Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp8 \‡ Az”!_ g YA —g ^ :gdA !Q!\d‡ YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2Au  Jg__g—‡ Y! Y\‡ \dAQ !_ r_ggp ! A!s \‡ YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!A: pA 2™2_A gJ bg\gdu Y\‡ \‡ YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ —Y\2Y8 —YAd :\–\:A: )™ YA b!A \!_ –g_”bA8 Q\–A‡ YA pA [”d\[–g_”bA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ !‡ )AJg Au  ‡Yg”_: )A 2_A! Y!8 ”d_\^A ! p” A A_!‡\2 Jg 2A rAuQu8 ! ‡p \dQ Jg 2As8 ! :!bp\dQ Jg 2A 2!ddg )A ! J”d2\gd gJ :\‡p_!2AbAd Sz7 !_gdAu YA A!‡gd \‡ ‡ !\QYJg —! :u gd‡\:A ! Jg 2A J Sz7 —Y\2Y :ApAd:‡ gd z !_gdAu YAd8 Jg ! p! \2”_! :\‡p_!2AbAd pg\d8 z gJ YA 2gbpgdAd YA Jg 2A —\__ )A YA ‡!bA AQ! :_A‡‡ gJ YA :\ A2\gd gJ bg\gd r\uAu8 YA ‡\Qd gJ zX su  Jg__g—‡ Y!8 \d ! _g!:\dQ !d: ”d_g!:\dQ 2™2_A8 YA ‡!bA p!Y —\__ )A Jg__g—A: \d )gY :\ A2\gd‡ gJ bg\gdu Ad2A8 ! Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp —\__ dg )A Jg bA:u d gYA —g :‡8 YA dA —g ^ :gdA \d ! 2gbp_AA 2™2_A gJ bg\gd —\__ )A ›A gu A˜ 2gd‡\:A ! Jg 2A J Sz zX s —Y\2Y :ApAd:‡ gd )gY z !d: zX  YAd8 ! ! Q\–Ad :\‡p_!2AbAd pg\d8 z YA Jg 2A —\__ :ApAd: gd zX !‡ —A__u. Ad2A8 Jg 2A \d gdA :\ A2\gd gJ bg\gd —\__ )A :\JJA Ad J gb Y! \d YA gppg‡\A :\ A2\gdu ‡ ! A‡”_8 ! Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp —\__ )A Jg bA:8 —Y\2Y 2g A‡pgd:‡ g —g ^ :gdA !Q!\d‡ YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A r\uAu8 AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gdsu A 2!d 2gd2_”:A YAd Y! YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A Y!‡ g :ApAd: gd ! A_!\–A –A_g2\™8 zX  \d ‡gbA b!ddA u d p! \2”_! 8 g”_gb) J \2\gd8 —Y\2Y :gA‡ dg :ApAd: gd YA b!Qd\”:A gJ zX  :gA‡ :ApAd: gd YA ‡\Qd r:\ A2\gds gJ zX  ju“ujuj. \‡2gA_!‡\2 !bp\dQ. g ! _\dA! –\‡2gA_!‡\2 b!A \!_8 YA ‡ A‡‡E‡ !\d A_!\gd‡Y\p \‡ Q\–Ad )™ ! _\dA! :\JJA Ad\!_ Az”!\gd —\Y A‡pA2 g \bA8 Y!–\dQ 2gd‡!d 2gAJK2\Ad‡u  2gbbgd_™ Abp_g™A: A_!\gd‡Y\p \‡. A h < | I. :< :. Sj“7. —Y\2Y \‡ ^dg—d !‡ YA A_–\dEg\Q bg:A_u d z”!\gd ju“8  \‡ g”dQ‚‡ bg:”_”‡ !d: I \‡ ! –\‡2gA_!‡\2 p! !bAA Y! \‡ !‡‡”bA: g )A \bA \d:ApAd:Adu YA A_!‡\2 A b < :gA‡ dg 2gd \)”A g :!bp\dQ8 !d:8 !‡ dgA: )AJg A8 b!YAb!\2!__™8 \‡ 2™2_\2 \dAQ !_ –!d\‡YA‡u gd‡Az”Ad_™8 Jg YA A_–\dEg\Q bg:A_8 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ –g_”bA \‡ } :< :<= Sj‘7 :– h  I :. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(31) j[O. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. g ! b!A \!_ Y! \‡ ‡”)]A2A: g ! Y! bgd\2 r‡\d”‡g\:!_s A˜2\!\gd8 ! ‡A!:™ ‡!A8 —A Y!–A < h <b!˜ 2g‡ K. SjO7. YAd z”!\gd juO \‡ ‡”)‡\”A: \d z”!\gd ju‘8 —A g)!\d :– h =KI <“b!˜. SjL7. g—8 < h <b!˜ —YAd  h œ \d z”!\gd juO8 g —YAd :< : h œ YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ ‡ A‡‡8 !22g :\dQ g z”!\gd ju“8 \‡ Ab!˜ h <b!˜   Jg__g—‡ Y! :– h. “ =KI Ab!˜ “. Sj‹7. YA‡A A˜p A‡‡\gd‡ Jg :– :ApAd: gd YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ A˜2\!\gd8 K p!  J gb YA A_–\dEg\Q bg:A_8 —g gYA bg:A_‡ gJ –\‡2gA_!‡\2 :!bp\dQ ! A !_‡g 2gbbgd_™ ”‡A:u YA™ ! A8 YA !˜—A__ bg:A_ Q\–Ad )™. A | 2‡. :A :< h I : :. SjŠ7. !d: YA ‡!d:! : _\dA! ‡g_\: bg:A_ Q\–Ad )™ :A :< SjB7 h < | I : :  \‡ 2_A! Y! YA ‡!d:! : _\dA! ‡g_\: bg:A_ Ap A‡Ad‡ ! 2gb)\d!\gd gJ YA A_–\dEg\Q bg:A_ !d: YA !˜—A__ bg:A_8 !d: \‡ YA bg‡ !22” !A gJ YA Y AAu ”8 Jg bg‡ p !2\2!_ p” pg‡A‡8 YA A_–\dE g\Q bg:A_ \‡ !:Az”!Au. A | 2‡. ju“uju“. ™‡A A\2 !bp\dQ.  —!‡ dgA: !)g–A Y! YA ‡ A‡‡8 !d: YAd2A YA \dA d!_ :!bp\dQ Jg 2A8 gJ ! –\‡2gA_!‡\2 :!bp\dQ b!A \!_ :ApAd:‡ gd YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ –! \!\gd gJ YA ‡ !\d r!d: 2gd‡Az”Ad_™ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ bg\gdsu g ‡gbA ™pA‡ gJ b!A \!_8 \ Y!‡ )AAd g)‡A –A: Y! YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A :gA‡ dg ‡\Qd\K2!d_™ :ApAd: gd YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ g‡2\__!\gd gJ ‡ !\d rg J Az”Ad2™ gJ Y! bgd\2 bg\gdsu Y\‡ ™pA gJ \dA d!_ :!bp\dQ \‡ ^dg—d !‡ Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQu !bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ –g_”bA S:Y 7 Jg Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ \‡ !_‡g \d:ApAd:Ad gJ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ bg\gd !d: 2!d )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ d :Y h

(32) Ab!˜. Sje7.  ‡\bp_A bg:A_ Y! ‡!\‡KA‡ z”!\gd jue8 Jg YA 2!‡A gJ d h “ \‡ Q\–Ad )™ ( :< Sjjœ7 A h < | K : —Y\2Y \‡ Az”\–!_Ad g ”‡\dQ ! –\‡2gA_!‡\2 p! !bAA 8 I  Y! :ApAd:‡ gd YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ bg\gd \d ( K z”!\gd ju“ !22g :\dQ g I h  gd‡\:A YA 2!‡A gJ Y! bgd\2 bg\gd ! J Az”Ad2™ K —\Y YA b!A \!_ ‡ !\d Q\–Ad )™ < h <œ 2g‡ K. Sjjj7.   ( œ ‡\d K h < 2g‡ K | < ( œ 2g‡ K | = A h <œ 2g‡ K r < “. Sjj“7. YAd8 z”!\gd jujœ )A2gbA‡. gA Y! YA b!A \!_ ‡ A‡‡ Y!‡ —g 2gbpgdAd‡8 !‡ Q\–Ad )™ YA \QY[Y!d: ‡\:A gJ z”!\gd juj“u YA K ‡ 2gbpgdAd 2g A‡pgd:‡ g YA _\dA! A_!‡\2 )AY!–\g gJ ! b!A \!_ !d: \‡ \d pY!‡A —\Y YA ‡ !\du YA ‡A2gd: 2gbpgdAd gJ ‡ A‡‡8 —Y\2Y 2g A‡pgd:‡ g Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ8 \‡ eœ? g” gJ pY!‡Au rY\‡ ‡ A‡‡ 2gbpgdAd _A!:‡ YA ‡ !\d )™ eœ?us  2gd–Ad\Ad b!YAb!\2!_ Ap A‡Ad!\gd \‡ pg‡‡\)_A8 )™ ”‡\dQ YA ”‡”!_ 2gbp_A˜ Jg b gJ YA A‡pgd‡A !22g :\dQ g < h <œ A]K. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Sjj‘7.

(33) \) !\gd !bp\dQ. YAd8 z”!\gd jujœ )A2gbA‡. j[L. ( A h S | ]7<. SjjO7.  Jg__g—‡ Y! Y\‡ Jg b gJ ‡\bp_\KA: Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ b!™ )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ ”‡\dQ ! 2gbp_A˜ bg:”_”‡ gJ A_!‡\2\™8 2gd‡\‡\dQ gJ ! A!_ p!  —Y\2Y 2g A‡pgd:‡ g YA ”‡”!_ _\dA! A_!‡\2 rAdA Q™ ‡g !QAs bg:”_”‡ rg g”dQ‚‡ bg:”_”‡s !d: !d \b!Q\d! ™ p!  —Y\2Y 2g A‡pgd:‡ g YA Y™‡A A\2 _g‡‡ rAdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gds bg:”_”‡u ™ 2gb)\d\dQ z”!\gd ju“ !d: z”!\gd jujœ8 ! ‡\bp_A bg:A_ Jg 2gb)\dA: –\‡2gA_!‡\2 !d: Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ b!™ )A Q\–Ad )™ { U ( :< I SjjL7 A h < |  | K : YA Az”!\gd gJ bg\gd Jg ! ‡™‡Ab —Yg‡A :!bp\dQ \‡ Ap A‡AdA: )™ z”!\gd jujL 2!d )A :A:”2A: J gb YA p” A A_!‡\2 Az”!\gd gJ bg\gd )™ ‡\bp_™ ‡”)‡\”\dQ  )™ YA gpA !g { U ( K I |  | K K \d YA \bA :gb!\du. ˜!bp_A juj AA b\dA YA Az”!\gd gJ MA˜” !_ bg\gd gJ ! dgd”d\Jg b ‡_Ad:A )A!b —Yg‡A b!A \!_ Y!‡ )gY –\‡2gA_!‡\2 !d: Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQu g_”\gd YA A dg”__\ E”_A Az”!\gd gJ )Ad:\dQ bg\gd gd !d ”d:!bpA: )A!b ‡”)]A2A: g ! :™d!b\2 _g!: gJ J S˜ 7 pA ”d\ _AdQY8 \‡ Q\–Ad )™ K“ K“ z K“ z  “ | ? “ h J S˜ 7 Sjj‹7 “ K˜ K˜ K. A A8 z \‡ YA  !d‡–A ‡A bg\gd ! ! :\‡!d2A8 ˜ !_gdQ YA )A!bu YAd8 Jg ! )A!b —\Y b!A \!_ :!bp\dQ r)gY –\‡2gA_!‡\2 !d: Y™‡A A\2s —A 2!d — \A { U K“ K“ z K“ K‘ z K“ z ( I  |  | | ?  h J S˜ 7 SjjŠ7. K˜“ K˜“ K˜“ K K K˜“ K “ \d —Y\2Y K \‡ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ YA A˜A d!_ A˜2\!\gd J S˜ 7 \d YA 2!‡A gJ ‡A!:™ Jg 2A: –\) !\gd‡u d YA 2!‡A gJ J AA –\) !\gd8 Yg—A–A 8 K Ap A‡Ad‡ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ J AA –\) !\gd :A2!™u gd‡Az”Ad_™8 —YAd !d!_™›\dQ YA bg:!_ :A2!™ gJ J AA –\) !\gd‡8 K \d z”!\gd jujŠ ‡Yg”_: )A Ap_!2A: )™ YA !pp gp \!A J Az”Ad2™ SK\ 7 gJ bg:!_ –\) !\gd \d A!2Y bg:!_ Az”!\gdu Ad2A8 YA A‡”_\dQ :!bpA: –\) !g ™ ‡™‡Ab pg‡‡A‡‡A‡ YA ‡!bA dg b!_ bg:A ‡Y!pA‡ !‡ YA ”d:!bpA: ‡™‡Abu YA !d!_™‡\‡ gJ YA :!bpA: 2!‡A \‡ –A ™ ‡\b\_! g Y! Jg YA ”d:!bpA: ‡™‡Abu. ju“u“.  ”2” !_ !bp\dQ.  ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ \‡ ! A‡”_ gJ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd 2!”‡A: )™ J \2\gd :”A g YA A_!\–A bg\gd )A—AAd 2gbpgdAd‡ !d: )™ \bp!2\dQ g \dA b\Ad 2gd!2 ! YA ]g\d‡ \d ! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Ab g ‡ ”2” Au dA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd )AY!–\g :ApAd:‡ gd YA :A!\_‡ gJ YA p! \2”_! bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Abu gd‡Az”Ad_™8 \ \‡ A˜ AbA_™ :\JK2”_ g :A–A_gp ! QAdA !_\›A: !d!_™\2!_ bg:A_ Y! —g”_: ‡!\‡J!2g \_™ :A‡2 \)A ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQu dA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd 2!”‡A: )™ ”))\dQ \‡ ”‡”!__™ Ap A‡AdA: )™ ! g”_gb) J \2\gd bg:A_u dA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd 2!”‡A: )™ \bp!2\dQ8 Yg—A–A 8 ‡Yg”_: )A :AA b\dA: J gb YA 2gAJK2\Ad gJ A‡\”\gd gJ YA —g bAb)A ‡ Y! ! A \d 2gd!2u YA bg‡ 2gbbgd bAYg: gJ A‡\b!\dQ ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ \‡ )™ bA!‡” AbAdu YA bA!‡” A: –!_”A‡8 Yg—A–A 8 Ap A‡Ad YA g–A !__ :!bp\dQ \d YA bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Abu YA ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ 2gbpgdAd \‡ g)!\dA: )™ ‡”) !2\dQ YA –!_”A‡ 2g A‡pgd:\dQ g gYA ™pA‡ gJ :!bp\dQ8 ‡”2Y !‡ b!A \!_ :!bp\dQ8 p A‡Ad \d YA ‡™‡Ab rA‡\b!A: )™ Ad–\ gdbAd[2gd g__A: A˜pA \bAd‡8 p A–\g”‡ :!!8 !d: ‡g Jg Ys J gb YA g–A !__ :!bp\dQ –!_”Au. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(34) j[‹. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. ‡”!__™8 \dA d!_ :!bp\dQ \‡ dAQ_\Q\)_A 2gbp! A: œÀVi v g ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQu  _! QA p gpg \gd gJ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd \d !__ )”\_:\dQ‡8 ) \:QA‡8 –AY\2_A Q”\:A—!™‡8 !d: b!d™ gYA 2\–\_ AdQ\dAA \dQ ‡ ”2” A‡ !d: \d b!2Y\dA ™8 ‡”2Y !‡ g)g‡ !d: –AY\2_A‡8 !^A‡ p_!2A Y g”QY YA µ ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ bA2Y!d\‡bu  b!]g Jg b gJ ­

(35) ˆÃ«>Vi“i˜Ì® ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ \‡ YA ‡_\p :!bp\dQ Y! A‡”_‡ J gb AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd )™ \dA J!2A ‡YA! ! ! ­>® ‡ ”2” !_ ]g\du YA :AQ AA gJ ‡_\p :!bp\dQ Y! \‡ :\ A2_™ 2!”‡A: )™ g”_gb) r: ™s J \2\gd :ApAd:‡ œÀVi v gd ‡”2Y J!2g ‡ !‡ ]g\d Jg 2A‡ rJg A˜!bp_A8 )g_ Ad‡\gd‡s8 ‡” J!2A p gpA \A‡ !d: YA d!” A gJ YA b!A \!_‡ gJ YA b!\dQ ‡” J!2A‡u Y\‡ \‡ !‡‡g2\!A: —\Y —A! 8 2g g‡\gd8 !d: QAdA !_ :AA \g !\gd gJ µ YA ‡ ”2” !_ ]g\du d Y\‡ ‡Ad‡A8 ‡_\p :!bp\dQ \‡ ­

(36) ˆÃ«>Vi“i˜Ì® \bA[:ApAd:Adu  \‡ ! 2gbbgd p !2\2A g p_!2A :!bp\dQ _!™A ‡ ! ]g\d‡ g A:”2A ”d:A‡\ !)_A :AA \g !\gd gJ YA ]g\d‡u _\:\dQ 2!”‡A‡ ‡YA! ­L® :\‡g \gd‡ \d YA :!bp\dQ _!™A ‡8 2!”‡\dQ AdA Q™ œÀVi :\‡‡\p!\gd )™ b!A \!_ :!bp\dQ !d: !_‡g Y g”QY v g”_gb) J \2\gdu d Y\‡ —!™8 ! Y\QY _A–A_ gJ Az”\–!_Ad ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ 2!d )A b!\d!\dA: —\Yg” 2!”‡\dQ A˜2A‡‡\–A ]g\d :AA \g !\gdu YA‡A :!bp\dQ _!™A ‡ ‡Yg”_: Y!–A ! Y\QY ‡\JJdA‡‡ µ r!‡ —A__ !‡ ! Y\QY ‡pA2\K2[:!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™s \d ­

(37) ˆÃ«>Vi“i˜Ì® g :A g !^A YA ‡ ”2” !_ _g!:‡ ! YA ]g\du g ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ ! ! ]g\d8 YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A –! \A‡ !‡ ‡_\p g22” ‡ ! YA ]g\du Y\‡ \‡ ­V® p \b! \_™ 2!”‡A: )™ _g2!_ :AJg b!\gd‡ ! YA ]g\d8 —Y\2Y g22” —\Y ‡_\pp\dQu  ™p\2!_ Y™‡A A‡\‡   ju“ gbA Ap A‡Ad!\–A Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp‡7 _ggp Jg Y\‡ 2!‡A \‡ ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A ju“r!su YA r!s ™p\2!_ ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ‰ r)s g”_gb) J \2\gd ! g—‡ gd YA Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp \d:\2!A YA :\ A2\gd bg:A_‰ !d: r2s ‡\bp_\KA: ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ bg:A_u gJ A_!\–A –A_g2\™u g \:A!_\›A: g”_gb) J \2\gd8 YA J \2\gd!_ Jg 2A S7 Ab!\d‡ 2gd‡!d \d A!2Y :\ A2\gd gJ A_!\–A bg\gdu d \:A!_\›A: Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp Jg ‡ ”2” !_ g”_gb) :!bp\dQ \‡ ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A ju“r)su YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ 2gd‡\”\–A A_!\gd \‡ J h 2 ‡QdSXz7. SjjB7. \d —Y\2Y J \‡ YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A8 z \‡ YA A_!\–A :\‡p_!2AbAd ! YA ]g\d !d: 2 \‡ ! J \2\gd p! !bAA u  ‡\bp_\KA: bg:A_ Jg ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ 2!”‡A: )™ _g2!_ :AJg b!\gd b!™ )A Q\–Ad )™ J h 2'z'‡QdSXz7. Sjje7. YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp \‡ ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A ju“r2su gA Y! YA ‡\Qd”b J”d2\gd \‡ :AKdA: )™ k j Jg – = œ ‡QdS–7 h Sj“œ7 rj Jg – 9 œ. ju“u‘. _”\: !bp\dQ. gd‡\:A ! bA2Y!d\2!_ 2gbpgdAd bg–\dQ \d ! M”\: bA:\”bu YA :\ A2\gd gJ A_!\–A bg\gd \‡ ‡Yg—d p! !__A_ g YA ™[!˜\‡ \d \Q” A ju‘u g2!_ :\‡p_!2AbAd gJ YA A_AbAd A_!\–A g YA ‡” g”d:\dQ M”\: \‡ :AdgA: )™ zS˜ ™ 7. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(38) \) !\gd !bp\dQ. j[Š.   ju‘.  )g:™ bg–\dQ \d ! M”\: bA:\”bu. YA A‡”_\dQ : !Q Jg 2A pA ”d\ ! A! gJ p g]A2\gd gd YA ˜ E › p_!dA \‡ :AdgA: )™ J:  Y\‡ A‡\‡!d2A \‡ YA 2!”‡A gJ bA2Y!d\2!_ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd \d M”\: :!bp\dQu  \‡ ”‡”!__™ A˜p A‡‡A: !‡ J: h j“ 2: ?zX “ ‡QdSXz7. Sj“j7. \d —Y\2Y zX h KzS˜ › 7 K \‡ YA A_!\–A –A_g2\™u YA : !Q 2gAJK2\Ad8 2:  \‡ ! J”d2\gd gJ YA A™dg_:‚‡ d”b)A !d: YA QAgbA ™ gJ YA   juO A2Y!d\2‡ gJ M”\: :!bp\dQu ‡ ”2” !_ 2 g‡‡ ‡A2\gdu  dA :!bp\dQ AJJA2 \‡ QAdA !A: )™ –\‡2g”‡ : !Q p g:”2A: )™ YA )g”d:! ™ _!™A AJJA2‡ ! YA M”\: E‡ ”2” A \dA J!2A8 !d: )™ p A‡‡” A : !Q p g:”2A: )™ YA ” )”_Ad AJJA2‡ A‡”_\dQ J gb Mg— ‡Ap! !\gd ! YA —!^Au YA —g AJJA2‡ ! A \__”‡ !A: \d \Q” A juOu _”\: :Ad‡\™ \‡ ? g M”\: :!bp\dQ8 YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ –g_”bA !‡‡g2\!A: —\Y YA 2gdKQ” !\gd ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A ju‘ \‡ Q\–Ad )™ T ˜ T › J: :› :˜ :zS˜ › 7 œ œ Sj““7 :J h ˜ › zœ. 8. \d —Y\2Y8 ˜ !d: › ! A 2 g‡‡[‡A2\gd!_ :\bAd‡\gd‡ gJ YA A_AbAd \d YA ˜ !d: ™[:\ A2\gd‡8 A‡pA2\–A_™8 !d: zœ \‡ ! dg b!_\›\dQ !bp_\”:A p! !bAA Jg A_!\–A :\‡p_!2AbAdu. ˜!bp_A ju“ gd‡\:A ! )A!b gJ _AdQY  !d: ”d\Jg b A2!dQ”_! 2 g‡‡ ‡A2\gd Y! \‡ ”d:A Qg\dQ  !d‡–A ‡A –\) !\gd \d ! ‡!\gd! ™ M”\:u AA b\dA !d A˜p A‡‡\gd Jg YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ –g_”bA Jg Y\‡ M”\: E‡ ”2” A \dA !2\gdu g_”\gd ”ppg‡A Y! YA )A!b !˜\‡ \‡ !_gdQ YA ˜[:\ A2\gd !d: YA  !d‡–A ‡A bg\gd \‡ \d YA ›[:\ A2\gdu YA A \‡ dg –! \!\gd \d YA ™[:\ A2\gd8 !d: YAd2A8 YA _AdQY p! !bAA ‡ \d Y\‡ :\ A2\gd 2!d2A_ g”u T J: :˜ :zS˜ 7 œ :J h zœ g T T J: zX S˜ 7:˜ : œ œ :J h Sj“‘7 zœ. 8. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(39) j[B. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. \d —Y\2Y  \‡ YA pA \g: gJ YA g‡2\__!\gd‡u ‡‡”b\dQ 2gd‡!d 2:  —A ‡”)‡\”A z”!\gd ju“j \dg z”!\gd ju“‘7 j 2: ? T  T  ‘ 'Xz' : :˜ Sj“O7 :J h “ zœ œ œ g ‡A!:™[A˜2\A: Y! bgd\2 –\) !\gd ! J Az”Ad2™ K !d: ‡Y!pA J”d2\gd S˜7 rg Jg J AA[bg:!_ –\) !\gd ! d!” !_ J Az”Ad2™ K !d: bg:A ‡Y!pA S˜7s —A Y!–A zS˜ 7 h zb!˜ S˜7 ‡\d K. Sj“L7. d Y\‡ 2!‡A8 —\Y YA 2Y!dQA gJ –! \!)_A J h K z”!\gd ju“O )A2gbA‡ :J h “2: ?. T= “ z‘b!˜ T 'S˜7'‘ :˜ K“ 2g‡‘J :J zœ œ œ. g T O :J h 2: ?z‘b!˜ K“ ‘. œ. 'S˜7'‘ :˜ zœ. gAu YA \dAQ !\gd \dA –!_ gJ  h œ g  )A2gbA‡ J h œ g “= g Jg” \bA‡ Y! J gb J h œ g = “ J YA dg b!_\›\dQ p! !bAA \‡ :AKdA: !‡ T j zœ h zb!˜ 'S˜7'‘ :˜  œ YAd8 —A QA :J h. O 2 ?z“ K“ ‘ : b!˜. Sj“‹7.  ”‡AJ”_ 2_!‡‡\K2!\gd gJ :!bp\dQ \‡ Q\–Ad \d g˜ juju. g˜ juj       ™pA gJ !bp\dQ.  \Q\d. dA d!_ :!bp\dQ. !A \!_ p gpA \A‡.  ”2” !_ :!bp\dQ.  ”2” !_ ]g\d‡ !d: \dA J!2A‡. ™p\2!_ gd‡\”\–A A_!\gd \‡2gA_!‡\2. :< A h < | I :. ™‡A A\2 ( :< A h < | K :  ”2” !_ :AJg b!\gd J h 2'z' ‡QdSXz7 g”_gb) J h 2 ‡QdSXz7 AdA !_ \dA J!2A k J‡ J h J‡) S–7 ‡QdS–7. _”\: :!bp\dQ. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. _”\:E‡ ”2” A \dA !2\gd‡. J: h j“ 2: ?zX “ ‡QdSXz7. Jg – h œ Jg – L œ.

(40) \) !\gd !bp\dQ. ju‘. j[e. Ap A‡Ad!\gd gJ !bp\dQ \d \) !\gd d!_™‡\‡.  \‡ dg p !2\2!_ g \d2g pg !A :A!\_A: b\2 g‡2gp\2 Ap A‡Ad!\gd‡ gJ :!bp\dQ \d YA :™d!b\2 !d!_™‡\‡ gJ ‡™‡Ab‡u d‡A!:8 ‡\bp_\KA: bg:A_‡ gJ :!bp\dQ Y! ! A Ap A‡Ad!\–A gJ –! \g”‡ ™pA‡ gJ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd ! A ™p\2!__™ ”‡A:u gd‡\:A ! QAdA !_ d[:AQ AA[gJ[J AA:gb bA2Y!d\2!_ ‡™‡Abu ‡ bg\gd 2!d )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ YA –A2g ˜ gJ d QAdA !_\›A: 2gg :\d!A‡8 ˜\  Ap A‡Ad\dQ YA \d:ApAd:Ad bg\gd‡ gJ YA \dA \! A_AbAd‡u g ‡b!__ :\‡p_!2AbAd‡8 _\dA! ‡p \dQ A_AbAd‡ 2!d )A !‡‡”bA:u YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ Az”!\gd‡ gJ bg\gd b!™ )A A˜p A‡‡A: \d YA –A2g b! \˜ Jg b ˜ | : | ˜ h JS7. Sj“Š7. \d —Y\2Y  \‡ YA b!‡‡ r\dA \!s b! \˜ !d: \‡ YA ‡\JJdA‡‡ b! \˜u YA Jg 2\dQ[J”d2\gd –A2g \‡ JS7 YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A –A2g :S˜ ˜X 7 \‡ QAdA !__™ ! dgd_\dA! J”d2\gd gJ ˜ !d: ˜X  YA ™pA gJ :!bp\dQ ”‡A: \d YA ‡™‡Ab bg:A_ b!™ )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ YA d!” A gJ : Y! \‡ Abp_g™A: \d YA ‡™‡Ab Az”!\gd‡u YA –! \g”‡ :!bp\dQ bg:A_‡ Y! b!™ )A ”‡A:8 !‡ :\‡2”‡‡A: \d YA p A–\g”‡ ‡A2\gd8 ! A _\‡A: \d !)_A juju d_™ YA _\dA! –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ A b Q\–Ad \d !)_A juj \‡ !bAd!)_A g ‡\bp_\KA: b!YAb!\2!_ !d!_™‡\‡u d ‡\bp_\KA: :™d!b\2 bg:A_‡8 gYA ™pA‡ gJ :!bp\dQ A b‡ ! A ”‡”!__™ Ap_!2A: )™ !d Az”\–!_Ad –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ A bu z”\–!_Ad –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ \‡ 2Yg‡Ad ‡g Y! \‡ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd pA 2™2_A gJ g‡2\__!\gd \‡ Az”!_ g Y! Jg YA g \Q\d!_ :!bp\dQu YA A‡”_\dQ Az”!\gd‡ gJ bg\gd ! A A˜p A‡‡A: )™ ˜ | X˜ | ˜ h JS7. Sj“B7. d bg:!_ !d!_™‡\‡ gJ –\) !g ™ ‡™‡Ab‡8 YA bg‡ 2gbbgd_™ ”‡A: bg:A_ \‡ p gpg \gd!_ :!bp\dQ8 —YA A YA :!bp\dQ b! \˜ ‡!\‡KA‡  h 2b  | 2^ . Sj“e7. YA K ‡ A b gd YA \QY[Y!d: ‡\:A gJ z”!\gd ju“e \‡ ^dg—d !‡ YA \dA \!_ :!bp\dQ b! \˜u YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ :!bp\dQ Jg 2A gd A!2Y 2gd2Ad !A: b!‡‡ \‡ p gpg \gd!_ g \‡ bgbAd”bu  Ap A‡Ad‡ YA AdA Q™ _g‡‡ !‡‡g2\!A: —\Y ! 2Y!dQA \d bgbAd”b rJg A˜!bp_A8 :” \dQ !d \bp!2su YA ‡A2gd: A b \‡ ^dg—d !‡ YA ‡\JJdA‡‡ :!bp\dQ b! \˜u YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ :!bp\dQ Jg 2A \‡ p gpg \gd!_ g YA !A gJ 2Y!dQA gJ YA _g2!_ :AJg b!\gd Jg 2A‡ ! ]g\d‡ dA! YA 2gd2Ad !A: b!‡‡ A_AbAd‡u gd‡Az”Ad_™8 \ Ap A‡Ad‡ ! ‡\bp_\KA: Jg b gJ _\dA! ‡ ”2” !_ :!bp\dQu J :!bp\dQ \‡ gJ YA p gpg \gd!_ ™pA8 \ Jg__g—‡ Y! YA :!bpA: bg\gd 2!d )A ”d2g”p_A: \dg \d:\–\:”!_ bg:A‡u Y\‡ bA!d‡ Y!8 \J YA :!bp\dQ bg:A_ \‡ gJ YA p gpg \gd!_ ™pA8 YA :!bpA: ‡™‡Ab r!‡ —A__ !‡ YA ”d:!bpA: ‡™‡Abs —\__ pg‡‡A‡‡ A!_ bg:A‡u  juj z”!\gd‡. gbA gbbgd !bp\dQ g:A_‡ ‡A: \d ™d!b\2 ™‡Ab. !bp\dQ ™pA \‡2g”‡. ™‡A A\2  ”2” !_  ”2” !_ g”_gb) _”\:. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. \bp_\KA: g:A_ :\ 3 X] ] 2\] ˜ 3 j 2 ˜X ] K \] ] 3 ˜] 7 ] 2\] '˜] ' ‡QdSX 3 ˜] 7 ] 2\] ‡QdSX 3 ˜] 'X˜] ] 2\] 'X.

(41) j[jœ. ju‘uj. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. z”\–!_Ad \‡2g”‡ !bp\dQ. gd‡\:A ! _\dA! 8 ‡\dQ_A[g ‡™‡Ab —\Y –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ8 ‡”)]A2A: g !d A˜A d!_ A˜2\!\gdu YA Az”!\gd gJ bg\gd8 Jg ! ”d\ b!‡‡8 \‡ Q\–Ad )™ ˜ | “OKd ˜X | K“d ˜ h K“d ”S7. Sj‘œ7. J YA A˜2\!\gd Jg 2A \‡ Y! bgd\28 —\Y J Az”Ad2™ K —A Y!–A ”S7 h ”œ 2g‡ K. Sj‘j7. YAd8 YA A‡pgd‡A gJ YA ‡™‡Ab ! ‡A!:™ ‡!A \‡ Q\–Ad )™ ˜ h ˜œ 2g‡SK | *7. Sj‘“7. \d —Y\2Y YA A‡pgd‡A !bp_\”:A \‡ ˜ œ h ”œ . K“d SK“d r K“ 7 | OO“ K“d K“. j “. Sj‘‘7. !d: YA A‡pgd‡A pY!‡A _A!: \‡. * h r!drj. “OKd K SK“d r K“ 7. Sj‘O7. YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd r\uAu8 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™s8 8 pA ”d\ b!‡‡ \d gdA 2™2_A \‡ Q\–Ad )™ YA dA —g ^ :gdA )™ YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A8 J: S Y”‡8 } TS“=r*7K  h J: :˜ h J: ˜X : Sj‘L7 r* K. \d2A YA –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ Jg 2A8 dg b!_\›A: —\Y A‡pA2 g b!‡‡ r‡AA z”!\gd ju‘œs8 \‡ Q\–Ad )™ J: h “OKd ˜X. Sj‘‹7. YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™8 –  Jg –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ8 2!d )A g)!\dA: !‡ – h “OKd. T“= K œ. ˜X “ :. Sj‘Š7. \d!__™8 ”‡\dQ z”!\gd ju‘“ \d z”!\gd ju‘Š —A QA – h “=˜œ“ Kd KO. Sj‘B7. g !d™ QAdA !_ ™pA gJ :!bp\dQ r‡AA !)_A jujs8 YA Az”!\gd gJ bg\gd )A2gbA‡ ˜ | :S˜ ˜X 7 | K“d ˜ h K“d ”S7. Sj‘e7. YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gd \d gdA 2™2_A rz”!\gd ju‘Ls \‡ Q\–Ad )™ TS“=r*7 K  h. r* K. :S˜ ˜X 7X˜ :. SjOœ7. ! \g”‡ :!bp\dQ Jg 2A A˜p A‡‡\gd‡8 :S˜ ˜X 7 dg b!_\›A: —\Y A‡pA2 g b!‡‡8 ! A Q\–Ad \d !)_A ju“u g M”\: :!bp\dQ8 Jg A˜!bp_A8 YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ \‡ TS“=r*7 K J h. r* K. 2'X˜'X˜“ :. SjOj7. ™ ‡”)‡\”\dQ z”!\gd ju‘“ \d z”!\gd juOj Jg ‡A!:™8 Y! bgd\2 bg\gd —A g)!\d J h B‘ 2˜œ‘ K“. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. SjO“7.

(42) \) !\gd !bp\dQ  ju“. j[jj. z”\–!_Ad !bp\dQ !\g ˜p A‡‡\gd‡ Jg gbA gbbgd ™pA‡ gJ !bp\dQ. !bp\dQ ™pA. z”\–!_Ad !bp\dQ !\g8 OAz. !bp\dQ g 2A8 :S˜ ˜X 7 pA d\ !‡‡ “OKd ˜X 2 ˜X K. \‡2g”‡. ™‡A A\2  ”2” !_. 2'˜' ‡QdSX˜7.  ”2” !_ g”_gb). 2 ‡QdSX˜7. _”\:. 2'X˜'X˜. O 2 “Kd K 2 =Kd K “2 =˜œ Kd K O K ˜2 ‘= Kd œ. ™ 2gbp! \dQ z”!\gd juO“ —\Y z”!\gd ju‘B8 YA Az”\–!_Ad :!bp\dQ !\g Jg M”\: :!bp\dQ \‡ g)!\dA: !‡   O K ˜2 OJ h SjO‘7 ‘= Kd œ \d —Y\2Y ˜œ \‡ YA !bp_\”:A gJ ‡A!:™[‡!A –\) !\gd‡8 !‡ Q\–Ad )™ z”!\gd ju‘‘u g YA gYA ™pA‡ gJ :!bp\dQ _\‡A: \d !)_A juj8 A˜p A‡‡\gd‡ Jg YA Az”\–!_Ad :!bp\dQ !\g 2!d )A g)!\dA: \d ! ‡\b\_! b!ddA u YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ Az”\–!_Ad :!bp\dQ !\g A˜p A‡‡\gd‡ ! A Q\–Ad \d !)_A ju“u  ‡Yg”_: )A dgA: Y!8 Jg dgd–\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ ™pA‡8 O \‡ QAdA !__™ ! J”d2\gd gJ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ g‡2\__!\gd8 K !d: YA !bp_\”:A gJ A˜2\!\gd8 ”œ   ‡Yg”_: )A dgA: Y! YA A˜p A‡‡\gd‡ Q\–Ad \d !)_A ju“ ! A :A \–A: !‡‡”b\dQ Y! bgd\2 A˜2\!\gdu dQ\dAA \dQ ]”:QbAd ‡Yg”_: )A A˜A 2\‡A: —YAd Abp_g™\dQ YA‡A A˜p A‡‡\gd‡ Jg dgdY! bgd\2 A˜2\!\gd‡u g b”_\[g ‡™‡Ab‡ Y! \d2g pg !A p gpg \gd!_ :!bp\dQ8 YA Az”!\gd‡ gJ bg\gd 2!d )A  !d‡Jg bA: \dg ! ‡A gJ gdA[g Az”!\gd‡ rbg:!_ Az”!\gd‡s gJ YA ™pA Q\–Ad \d z”!\gd ju‘œu d Y\‡ 2!‡A8 YA :!bp\dQ !\g !d: d!” !_ J Az”Ad2™ 2g A‡pgd: g YA A‡pA2\–A bg:!_ –!_”A‡ !d:8 \d p! \2”_! 8 K h Kd . ju‘u“. gbp_A˜ \JJdA‡‡. gd‡\:A ! _\dA! ‡p \dQ gJ ‡\JJdA‡‡ ^ 2gddA2A: \d p! !__A_ —\Y ! _\dA! –\‡2g”‡ :!bpA gJ :!bp\dQ 2gd‡!d 2 !‡ ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A juLr!su ”ppg‡A Y! ! Jg 2A8 J  \‡ !pp_\A: g YA ‡™‡Ab8 bg–\dQ \ Y g”QY :\‡!d2A ˜ J gb YA A_!˜A: pg‡\\gd gJ YA ‡p \dQu YAd —A Y!–A J h ^˜ | 2X˜. SjOO7. Ý Ž. °. v r ŽÝ ³ VÝ ­>®. V. ”ppg‡A Y! YA bg\gd \‡ Y! bgd\28 !‡ Q\–Ad )™ ˜ h ˜œ 2g‡ K.  \‡ 2_A! Y! YA ‡p \dQ Jg 2A8 ^˜ \‡ \d pY!‡A —\Y YA :\‡p_!2AbAd8 )” YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A8 2X˜ Y!‡ ! eœ? pY!‡A _A!: —\Y A‡pA2 g YA :\‡p_!2AbAdu Y\‡ \‡ )A2!”‡A YA –A_g2\™8 ˜X h r˜œ K ‡\d K h ˜œ K 2g‡SK | = “7 Y!‡ ! eœ? pY!‡A _A!: —\Y A‡pA2 g ˜u pA2\K2!__™8 —A Y!–A   = SjO‹7 J h ^˜œ 2g‡ K | 2˜œ K 2g‡ K | “. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Ý r ݜ VœÃ · Ì. SjOL7 Ž. ° v r ŽÝ ³ · Ý ­L®. .   juL p \dQ A_AbAd \d p! !__A_ —\Y r!s ! –\‡2g”‡ :!bpA !d: r)s ! Y™‡A A\2 :!bpA u.

(43) j[j“. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. Y\‡ ‡!bA J!2 b!™ )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ ”‡\dQ 2gbp_A˜ d”b)A ‡8 —YA A YA \d[pY!‡A 2gbpgdAd \‡ 2gd‡\:A A: !‡ YA A!_ p!  !d: YA eœ? pY!‡A _A!: 2gbpgdAd \‡ 2gd‡\:A A: !‡ YA \b!Q\d! ™ p!  —\Y A!2Y 2gbpgdAd g‡2\__!\dQ ! YA ‡!bA J Az”Ad2™ K YAd8 —A 2!d — \A z”!\gd juO‹ \d YA Az”\–!_Ad Jg b J h ^˜ | ]K2˜. SjOŠ7. Y\‡ \‡ A˜!2_™ —Y! —A QA )™ ‡! \dQ —\Y YA 2gbp_A˜ Ap A‡Ad!\gd gJ YA :\‡p_!2AbAd ˜ h ˜œ A]K. SjOB7. !d: ‡”)‡\”\dQ \ \d z”!\gd juOOu A dgA Y! z”!\gd juOŠ b!™ )A — \Ad !‡ J h ^I ˜. SjOe7. ^I h ^ | ]K2. SjLœ7. —YA A ^I \‡ ! 2gbp_A˜€ ‡\JJdA‡‡8 Q\–Ad )™. _A! _™8 YA ‡™‡Ab \‡A_J !d: \‡ —g 2gbpgdAd‡ r‡p \dQ !d: :!bpA s ! A A!_u YA\ \d:\–\:”!_ Jg 2A‡ ! A !_‡g A!_u YA 2gbp_A˜ ‡\JJdA‡‡ \‡ ‡\bp_™ ! b!YAb!\2!_ Ap A‡Ad!\gd gJ YA —g Jg 2A 2gbpgdAd‡ r‡p \dQ Jg 2A !d: :!bp\dQ Jg 2As8 —Y\2Y ! A eœ? g” gJ pY!‡A8 —YAd ‡”)]A2A: g Y! bgd\2 bg\gdu  Jg__g—‡ Y! YA _\dA! :!bpA b!™ )A b!YAb!\2!__™€ Ap A‡AdA: )™ !d \b!Q\d! ™€ ‡\JJdA‡‡u d YA 2!‡A gJ –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ Y\‡ \b!Q\d! ™ ‡\JJdA‡‡ r!d: YAd2A8 YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A b!Qd\”:As \d2 A!‡A‡ _\dA! _™ —\Y YA J Az”Ad2™8 K gJ YA Y! bgd\2 bg\gdu YA 2gd2Ap gJ 2gbp_A˜ ‡\JJdA‡‡ —YAd :A!_\dQ —\Y :\‡2 AA :!bpA ‡ \‡ !d!_gQg”‡ g YA ”‡A gJ 2gbp_A˜ A_!‡\2 bg:”_”‡ \d b!A \!_ :!bp\dQ8 !‡ :\‡2”‡‡A: A! _\A \d Y\‡ 2Y!pA u A Y!–A dgA: Y!8 Jg Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ8 YA :!bp\dQ Jg 2A rg :!bp\dQ ‡ A‡‡s \‡ \d:ApAd:Ad gJ YA J Az”Ad2™ \d Y! bgd\2 bg\gdu  Jg__g—‡ Y! ! Y™‡A A\2 :!bpA b!™ )A Ap A‡AdA: )™ !d Az”\–!_Ad :!bp\dQ 2gd‡!d gJ 2h. Y K. SjLj7. —Y\2Y \‡ –!_\: Jg ! Y! bgd\2 bg\gd rAuQu8 bg:!_ bg\gd g Jg 2A: bg\gds gJ J Az”Ad2™ K Y\‡ ‡\”!\gd \‡ ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A juLr)su  2!d )A ‡AAd Y! YA 2g A‡pgd:\dQ 2gbp_A˜ ‡\JJdA‡‡ \‡ ^I h ^ | ]Y. SjL“7. ˜!bp_A ju‘  MA˜\)_A ‡™‡Ab 2gd‡\‡‡ gJ ! b!‡‡8 b !!2YA: g YA Y™‡A A\2 :!bpA !d: ‡p \dQ 2gb)\d!\gd ‡Yg—d \d \Q” A juLr)su Y! \‡ YA J Az”Ad2™ A‡pgd‡A J”d2\gd gJ YA ‡™‡Ab A_!\dQ !d A˜2\!\gd Jg 2A8 J  !pp_\A: g YA b!‡‡ !d: YA A‡”_\dQ :\‡p_!2AbAd A‡pgd‡A8 ˜{ )!\d YA A‡gd!d J Az”Ad2™ gJ YA ‡™‡Abu gbp! A YA A‡”_‡ —\Y YA 2!‡A Jg –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQu. g_”\gd g ! Y! bgd\2 bg\gd gJ J Az”Ad2™ K YA Az”!\gd gJ bg\gd gJ YA ‡™‡Ab \‡ b˜ |. Y ˜X | ^˜ h J K. SjL‘7. \Y ! Jg 2\dQ A˜2\!\gd gJ J h Jœ A]K !d: YA A‡”_\dQ ‡A!:™[‡!A A‡pgd‡A8 ˜ h ˜œ A]K  —YA A ˜œ Y!‡ ! pY!‡A :\JJA Ad2A r\uAu8 \ \‡ ! 2gbp_A˜ J”d2\gds —\Y A‡pA2 g Jœ  YAd8 \d YA J Az”Ad2™ :gb!\d8 ‡”)‡\”\dQ YA Y! bgd\2 A‡pgd‡A ˜ h ˜œ A]K \dg z”!\gd juL‘ —A QA   Y “ r K b | ]K | ^ ˜ h J K. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(44) \) !\gd !bp\dQ. j[j‘. A‡”_\dQ \d YA J Az”Ad2™  !d‡JA J”d2\gd ˜ j h “ J g^ r K b | ]Y. SjLO7. gA Y!8 !‡ ”‡”!_8 Y\‡ A‡”_ \‡ g)!\dA: ‡\bp_™ )™ ‡”)‡\”\dQ ]K Jg : : YA b!Qd\”:A gJ  !d‡JA J”d2\gd \‡ ! ! b!˜\b”b ! A‡gd!d2Au Y\‡ 2g A‡pgd:‡ g ! b\d\b”b –!_”A gJ pSK7 h S^ r K“ b7“ | Y“ J —A ‡A :p :K h œ —A QA8 “S^ r K“ b7Sr“K7 h œ. Ad2A8 YA A‡gd!d J Az”Ad2™ 2g A‡pgd:‡ g YA gg gJ ^ r K“ b h œ Y\‡ Q\–A‡ YA A‡gd!d J Az”Ad2™. vWWWW ^ K h b. SjLL7. gA Y!8 \d YA 2!‡A gJ Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ8 YA A‡gd!d J Az”Ad2™ \‡ Az”!_ g YA ”d:!bpA: d!” !_ J Az”Ad2™8 Kd  !d:8 ”d_\^A \d YA 2!‡A gJ –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ8 :gA‡ dg :ApAd: gd YA _A–A_ gJ :!bp\dQ \‡A_Ju g 2gd–Ad\Ad2A 2gd‡\:A YA ‡™‡Ab A‡pgd‡A !‡ YA ‡p \dQ Jg 2A J‡ h ^˜. SjL‹7. YAd8 ! dg b!_\›A:  !d‡JA J”d2\gd \‡ g)!\dA:8 !‡ Q\–Ad )™ J‡ j  h S]K7 h  b Y J j r K“ | ] ^ ^. SjLŠ7. g 8 J‡ j h gj r “ | ] J. SjLB7. —YA A h. K Kd. !d:. h. Y ^. SjLe7. —Y\2Y ! A YA dg b!_\›A: J Az”Ad2™ !d: YA dg b!_\›A: Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQ8 A‡pA2\–A_™u YA b!Qd\”:A gJ YA  !d‡JA J”d2\gd \‡   J  j  ‡ Sj‹œ7   h jWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW J  Sj r “ 7“ | “ !d: YA pY!‡A !dQ_A rpY!‡A _A!:s \‡ ZJ‡ J h r!drj.  Sj r “ 7. Sj‹j7. YA‡A A‡”_‡ ! A ‡^A2YA: \d \Q” A ju‹u. ju‘u‘. g‡‡ !2g . A :AKdA YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ gJ ! :A–\2A r:!bpA s !‡ YA AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!A: \d ! 2gbp_AA 2™2_A gJ bg\gd‰ ‡pA2\K2!__™ } Sj‹“7  h J: :˜. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(45) j[jO. \) !\gd !bp\dQ8 gd g_8 !d: A‡\Qd. Ã. ˜. Ã. w.   ju‹.  Az”Ad2™  !d‡JA J”d2\gd gJ ! ‡\bp_A g‡2\__!g —\Y Y™‡A A\2 :!bp\dQu. Y\‡ \‡ Q\–Ad )™ YA ! A! gJ YA Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggp \d YA :\‡p_!2AbAd Jg 2A p_!dAu J YA \d\\!_ rg!_s AdA Q™ gJ YA ‡™‡Ab \‡ :AdgA: )™ b!˜  YAd YA ‡pA2\K2 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™8  \‡ Q\–Ad )™ YA !\g h.  b!˜. Sj‹‘7. YA _g‡‡ J!2g 8 0 \‡ YA ‡pA2\K2 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA !:\!d gJ YA :!bp\dQ 2™2_Au Ad2A8. 0h.  “=b!˜. Sj‹O7. gA Y! b!˜ \‡ !pp g˜\b!A_™ Az”!_ g YA b!˜\b”b ^\dA\2 AdA Q™ !d: !_‡g g YA b!˜\b”b pgAd\!_ AdA Q™ gJ YA :A–\2A —YAd YA :!bp\dQ \‡ _g—u z”!\gd ju‘B Q\–A‡ YA :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ b!‡‡ gJ ! :A–\2A —\Y –\‡2g”‡ :!bp\dQ !‡  h “=˜œ“ Kd KO. Sj‹L7. A A8 ˜œ \‡ YA !bp_\”:A !d: K \‡ YA J Az”Ad2™ gJ Y! bgd\2 bg\gd gJ YA :A–\2A8 Kd \‡ YA ”d:!bpA: d!” !_ J Az”Ad2™ !d: O \‡ YA :!bp\dQ !\gu YA b!˜\b”b pgAd\!_ AdA Q™ pA ”d\ b!‡‡ gJ YA ‡™‡Ab \‡ b!˜ h. j ^ “ j ˜œ h K“d ˜œ“ “ b “. Sj‹‹7. Ad2A8 J gb z”!\gd ju‹O8 YA _g‡‡ J!2g Jg ! –\‡2g”‡ :!bpA: ‡\bp_A g‡2\__!g \‡ Q\–Ad )™. 0h. “=˜œ“ Kd KO “KO h Kd “= t j“ K“d ˜œ“. Sj‹Š7. g J AA :A2!™ gJ YA ‡™‡Ab8 —A Y!–A K h K: Z Kd  —YA A YA _!A !pp g˜\b!\gd Yg_:‡ Jg _g— :!bp\dQu g Jg 2A: g‡2\__!\gd8 YA —g ‡ A‡pgd‡A 2gd:\\gd‡ g22” —YAd K h K: Z Kd  —Y\2Y \‡ —Y! gdA b”‡ 2gd‡\:A —\Y AQ! : g AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!\gdu d A\YA 2!‡A8 YA _g‡‡ J!2g \‡ !pp g˜\b!A_™. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

(46) \) !\gd !bp\dQ. j[jL. Q\–Ad )™. 0 h “O. Sj‹B7. g gYA ™pA‡ gJ :!bp\dQ8 z”!\gd ju‹B —\__ ‡\__ Yg_: —YAd YA Az”\–!_Ad :!bp\dQ !\g8 OAz  r‡AA !)_A ju“s \‡ ”‡A: \d p_!2A gJ O YA _g‡‡ J!2g ‡ gJ ‡gbA 2gbbgd b!A \!_‡ ! A Q\–Ad \d !)_A ju‘u AKd\\gd‡ gJ ”‡AJ”_ :!bp\dQ p! !bAA ‡8 !‡ :AKdA: YA A8 ! A ‡”bb! \›A: \d !)_A juOu ˜p A‡‡\gd‡ gJ _g‡‡ J!2g ‡ Jg ‡gbA ”‡AJ”_ :!bp\dQ bg:A_‡ ! A Q\–Ad \d !)_A juLu  ju‘.  juO. g‡‡ !2g ‡ gJ gbA ‡AJ”_ !A \!_‡. !A \!_. g‡‡ !2g 0 Z “O. _”b\d”b gd2 AA _!‡‡ ”))A AA_ gg:. “ t jœrL g “ t jœr‘ œuœ“ g œuœ‹ œuœœj g œuœœ“ œuj g juœ œuœœ“ g œuœj œuœœL g œuœj. AKd\\gd‡ gJ !bp\dQ ! !bAA ‡. ! !bAA . AKd\\gd. !bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ S7. dA Q™ :\‡‡\p!A: pA 2™2_A gJ bg\gd r! A! gJ :\‡p_!2AbAdEJg 2A Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggps dA Q™ :\‡‡\p!A: pA 2™2_A pA ”d\ b!A \!_ –g_”bA r! A! gJ ‡ !\dE ‡ A‡‡ Y™‡A A‡\‡ _ggps !\g gJ AdA Q™ :\‡‡\p!A: pA 2™2_A S7 g YA \d\\!_ b!˜\b”b AdA Q™ Sb!˜ 7 gA7 Jg _g— :!bp\dQ8 b!˜ h b!˜\b”b pgAd\!_ AdA Q™ h b!˜\b”b ^\dA\2 AdA Q™ pA2\K2 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA ”d\ !dQ_A gJ 2™2_Au gA7 Jg _g— :!bp\dQ8 0 h “ t :!bp\dQ !\g. !bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ pA –g_”bA S:7 pA2\K2 :!bp\dQ 2!p!2\™ S7. g‡‡ J!2g S07.  juL. !YAb!\2!_ g b”_! 8 J: :˜ 8. A :<.  b!˜.  “=b!˜. g‡‡ !2g ‡ Jg A–A !_ !A \!_ !bp\dQ g:A_‡. !A \!_ !bp\dQ g:A_. :< :. \‡2gA_!‡\2 A_–\d Eg\Q. A h < | I. ™‡A A\2 A_–\d Eg\Q. A h < |. \‡2gA_!‡\2 ‡!d:! : _\dA! ‡g_\:. :A :< A | 2‡ h < | I : :. ™‡A A\2 ‡!d:! : _\dA! ‡g_\:. A | 2‡. © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. g‡‡ !2g S07.  A‡‡E  !\d gd‡\”A A_!\gd. ( :< K :. :A ( :< h < | : K :. KI  ( . KI Sj r 2‡  I 7  Sj | K“ 2‡ 7 ( ( Sj r K2‡  7  Sj | K“ 2‡ 7.

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