Guidelines for Thrust Blocks

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Design Guidelines for Water and Sewer Facilities

MASTER TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL

SECTION SECTION NAME DATE PAGES

Introduction 09/07/2004 2

Signatory Agencies 09/07/2004 1

Technical Review 09/07/2004 1

Standard Terms and Definitions 09/07/2004 3

1.0 GENERAL

1.1 Drafting Guidelines 09/07/2004 11

1.2 AutoCAD Guidelines 09/07/2004 10

1.3 MicroStation Guidelines Future Release

1.4 Land Acquisition and Disposition 05/02/2006 5

1.5 Easements and Encroachments 09/07/2004 6

1.6 Survey Standards Guideline 09/07/2004 5

1.7 Record Drawing Guidelines 09/07/2004 3

2.0 PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

2.1 Procedural Guidelines 09/07/2004 5

2.2 Development Plan and Permit Processing Procedures 09/07/2004 12

2.3 Water Facility Guidelines 09/07/2004 4

2.4 Sewer Facility Guidelines 09/07/2004 4

2.5 Recycled Water Facility Guidelines 09/07/2004 11

3.0 AGENCY IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS

3.1 Agency Capital Improvement Projects 09/07/2004 2 3.2 Design Project Progress Submittals 09/07/2004 6

3.3 Submittals (Shop) 09/07/2004 3

3.4 Project Cost Estimates 05/02/2006 13

3.5 Technical Specifications 09/07/2004 4

4.0 PLANNING

4.1 Water Planning 09/07/2004 13

4.2 Sewer Planning 09/07/2004 8

4.3 Recycled Water Planning 09/07/2004 5

4.4 Sub-Area Master Plan Development 09/07/2004 6

4.5 Environmental Review 09/07/2004 11

4.6 National Pollutant Elimination System (NPDES) 09/07/2004 5

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Design Guidelines for Water and Sewer Facilities

MASTER TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTINUED

APPROVAL

SECTION SECTION NAME DATE PAGES

5.0 WATER PIPELINE DESIGN

5.1 Pressure Pipeline Design 09/07/2004 6

5.2 Thrust Restraint and Anchor Blocks 09/26/2007 8 5.3 Line Valves Selection and Placement 09/26/2007 5 5.4 Fire Hydrants and Fire Services 09/07/2004 4

5.5 Air Valves 09/07/2004 4

5.6 Blowoffs 09/07/2004 4

5.7 Water Services and Test Stations 09/07/2004 6

6.0 SEWER PIPELINE DESIGN

6.1 Gravity Sewer Pipeline Design 09/07/2004 5

6.2 Sewer Manholes and Cleanouts 09/07/2004 5

6.3 Sewer Laterals 09/07/2004 4

6.4 Pressure Systems (Force Mains) 05/02/2006 5

7.0 RESERVOIR DESIGN

7.1 Storage Facilities 05/02/2006 32

7.2 Seismic Sensing Devices Future release

8.0 CONTROL VALVES

8.1 Pressure/Flow Control Stations 05/02/2006 6 8.2 Vaults & Equipment Future Release

8.3 Agency Interconnections Future Release

9.0 WATER PUMP STATION DESIGN

9.1 Water Pump Station Design 05/01/2007 37

9.2 Structural Guidelines 05/01/2007 12

9.3 Noise Control Guidelines 05/01/2007 18

10.0 SEWAGE PUMP STATION DESIGN

10.1 Sewage Pump (Lift) Station Design Future Release 10.2 Surge Control/Analysis Future Release

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Design Guidelines for Water and Sewer Facilities

MASTER TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTINUED

APPROVAL

SECTION SECTION NAME DATE PAGES

11.0 CORROSION CONTROL

11.1 Pipeline Corrosion Control Systems Future Release 11.2 Reservoir Corrosion Control Systems Future Release

12.0 SPECIALIZED DESIGN

12.1 Bridge Crossings 05/02/2006 8

12.2 Trenchless Construction 05/02/2006 9

12.3 Pipe Bursting 05/02/2006 8

12.4 Railroad and Freeway Crossings 05/02/2006 2

12.5 Pipe Rehabilitation 05/01/2007 8

12.6 Temporary Above Ground Piping (Water) 05/02/2006 5 12.7 Temporary Bypass Requirements (Sewer) 05/02/2006 3

12.8 Facility Security Guidelines Future Release

13.0 APPENDICES

A Revisions 09/07/2004 3

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WATER AGENCIES’ STANDARDS

Design Guidelines for Water and Sewer Facilities

SECTION 5.2

THRUST RESTRAINT AND ANCHOR BLOCKS

5.2.1 PURPOSE

The purpose of this section is to provide guidelines for the design of thrust blocks and anchor blocks for underground pressure pipelines. In general, thrust blocks and anchor blocks are required to provide thrust restraint to counteract forces created by the contents of underground pressure pipelines. For design specific to steel pipelines the reader should also refer to AWWA M-11.

5.2.2 STANDARD TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Wherever technical terms or pronouns are used in these guidelines or in related documents, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as described in industry accepted nomenclature and reference materials.

5.2.3 GENERAL

It is the responsibility of the user of these documents to refer to and utilize industry standards not directly referenced within this document as necessary. The Engineer of Work may not deviate from the criteria presented in this section without prior written approval of the Agency’s Engineer.

5.2.4 GUIDELINE

Thrust blocks and anchor blocks are not required on steel pipe with welded joints where, in the opinion of the Agency’s Engineer, pipe design provides adequate thrust restraint. In addition, thrust blocks and anchor blocks are not required on steel or ductile-iron pipe with flanged joints if sufficient thrust restraint has been achieved by the restraint system. For design of collar, wrapper and crotch plates for steel pipe refer to AWWA M-11.

Thrust blocks and anchor blocks may also be eliminated in locations where thrust-restraining fittings (including flanged fittings) are utilized along with thrust-restraining pipe joints, provided that thrust restraint systems are designed by the Engineer of Work in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions, are approved by the Agency’s Engineer, and are shown on the Approved Plans.

The design and sizing of thrust blocks and anchor blocks shall conform to the following guidelines:

A. Thrust blocks or anchor blocks are required on all unrestrained pressure pipelines at locations where thrust forces caused by internal pressures act upon the sides or ends of pipelines.

1. Thrust blocks are required at all unrestrained tees, wyes, reducers, horizontal bends, ascending vertical bends, and dead-ends. Since the act of closing an in-line valve creates a dead-end, valves not connected to other fittings also require thrust blocks.

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2. Anchor blocks are required at all unrestrained descending vertical bends.

B. Thrust blocks and anchor blocks shall be formed from concrete poured against wetted, undisturbed soil. Concrete materials shall be in accordance with Section 03000 of the WAS Specifications unless otherwise directed by Agency’s Engineer. Concrete shall be placed in accordance with the WAS Standard Drawing WT-01 and such that fittings and valves are accessible for repairs or replacement.

5.2.5 THRUST CALCULATIONS

Pipeline thrust shall be calculated using the following formulae. Calculations below use standard American units.

A. Pipeline thrust at tees, wyes, in-line valves, and dead-ends:

2

25

.

0

pd

T

=

π

Where:

T

= resultant thrust force (lb),

p

= internal pressure (lb/in2), and

d

= outside diameter of side (branch) outlet piping (for tees or wyes) or dead-end pipe (in).

B. Pipeline thrust at bends:

)

2

/

(sin

50

.

0

2

Δ

=

pd

T

π

Where:

T

= resultant thrust force (lb),

p

= internal pressure (lb/in2),

d

= outside diameter of pipe adjacent to bend (in), and

Δ

= true angle of bend (degrees). C. Pipeline thrust at reducers:

)

(

25

.

0

p

D

2

d

2

T

=

π

Where:

T

= resultant thrust force (lb),

p

= internal pressure (lb/in2),

D

= outside diameter of pipe adjacent to the large end of the reducer (in), and

d

= outside diameter of pipe adjacent to the small end of the reducer (in).

D. Pipeline thrust at crosses:

For the most conservative approach and due to the fact that valves can be placed at crosses on any leg and the valve then closed the designer should use the approach above in Item B. for pipeline thrust at bends. The only difference is the angle at a cross will always be 90°.

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E. Thrust Table for C900/C905 PVC:

The following tables show the thrust, in pounds, resulting from the installation of the noted fittings per 100 lb/in2 of hydrostatic pressure applied to C900 and C905 PVC Pipe. For instance, if the required design pressure is 235 lb/in2, multiply the values in the table by 2.35. Note that the design pressure is the class of pipe. The safety factor in conjunction with using the class of pipe as the design pressure provides sufficient redundancy for hydro-test conditions and minor surges for both thrust and anchor blocks. Values in the following tables are identical to those derived from the formulae shown above and are listed for convenience. Refer to AWWA M23 Manual of Water Supply Practices for more detail. Thrust values for all other pipe materials shall be calculated by the Engineer of Work.

Table 1 – Sample Table

Thrust for AWWA C900 PVC Pipe (lb)

Nominal Pipe Size (in) Average Outside Diameter (in) Pressure (lb/in2) Tees, Wyes, Valves, and Dead Ends 90° Bend 45° Bend 22.5° Bend 11.25° Bend Class 4 4.80 100 1,810 2,559 1,385 706 355 200 6 6.90 100 3,739 5,288 2,862 1,459 733 200 8 9.05 100 6,433 9,097 4,923 2,510 1,261 200 10 11.10 100 9,677 13,685 7,406 3,776 1,897 200 12 13.20 100 13,685 19,353 10,474 5,340 2,683 200

Table 2 – Sample Table

Thrust for AWWA C905 PVC Pipe (lb)

Nominal Pipe Size (in) *Outside Diameter (in) Pressure (lb/in2) Tees, Wyes, Valves, and Dead Ends 90° 45° 22.5° 11.25° Class 14 15.30 100 18,385 26,001 14,072 7,174 3,604 165/235 16 17.40 100 23,779 33,628 18,199 9,278 4,661 165/235 18 19.50 100 29,865 42,235 22,858 11,653 5,855 165/235 20 21.60 100 36,644 51,822 28,046 14,298 7,183 165/235 24 25.80 100 52,279 73,934 40,013 20,398 10,249 165/235

* The outside diameter is the same for both Class 165 and Class 235 PVC pipe. The thrust values are per 100 lb/in2.

5.2.6 ALLOWABLE SOIL BEARING CAPACITY

Calculations to determine the size of thrust blocks or valve support blocks shall use the results of soil bearing capacity tests performed by a qualified geotechnical engineer when such test results are available. In the absence of such test results, allowable soil bearing capacity shall be determined by using the following table:

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Chart 1 – Estimated Bearing Strength (Undisturbed Soil) Type of Soil Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity

Muck, peat, etc.* 0 lb/ft2 Soft Clay 500 lb/ft2 Fine Sand 1,000 lb/ft2 Decomposed Granite (D.G.) 1,500 lb/ft2 Sandy Gravel 2,000 lb/ft2 Cemented Sandy Gravel 4,000 lb/ft2 Hard Shale 5,000 lb/ft2

Granite 10,000 lb/ft2

*In muck, peat or other incompetent soils, resistance shall be achieved by removal and replacement with ballast of sufficient stability to resist the intended thrusts. Design of thrust restraint systems in such cases shall be prepared by a qualified geotechnical engineer and shall be approved by the Agency’s Engineer.

5.2.7 THRUST BLOCKS

A. Thrust blocks shall be installed on unrestrained pressure pipelines at all tees, wyes, reducers, horizontal bends, ascending vertical bends, and dead-ends, and shall bear directly against fittings and firm, wetted, undisturbed soil. Thrust blocks shall be located so that bearing areas on both fittings and soil are centered along the direction of thrust. For tees and wyes, the direction of thrust is along a line directly opposite the side outlet. For bends, the direction of thrust is along a line bisecting the outside angle formed by the adjacent pipe segments. For reducers, the direction of thrust is along the pipeline from the large end to the small end of the reducer. For dead-ends, including in-line valves, the direction of thrust is along the pipeline.

B. The required minimum area, in square feet, that a concrete thrust block must bear against undisturbed soil shall be in accordance with the following formula:

)

(SF

S

T

A

b

=

Where:

A

= area of thrust block (ft2),

T

= resultant thrust force (lb),

b

S

= allowable soil bearing capacity (lb/ft2), see Chart 1 for values, and

SF

= safety factor (Use 1.5)

A passive resistance thrust block design is required if the height of the thrust block is greater than 0.5 times the depth from finish grade to the bottom of the designed thrust block. The required thrust block area using this method can be calculated as follows:

d s d t

N

C

N

H

SF

T

A

2

)

(

+

=

γ

Where:

A

= area of thrust block (ft2),

T

= resultant thrust force (lb),

SF

= safety factor (Use 1.5),

γ

= unit weight of soil (lb/ft3), use appropriate soil value,

t

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d

N

= tan2 (450+ F/2),

F = soil internal friction angle (degrees), use appropriate soil value,

s

C

= soil cohesion (lb/ft2), use appropriate soil value

Note: The thrust block area using the passive resistance thrust block design is generally larger than what is shown in Table 3. The engineer shall calculate thrust block sizes for this condition based upon each specific case. Refer to AWWA M23 Manual of Water Supply Practices for more detail.

The formulas above do not consider the weight of pipe and fittings. The Engineer of Work may alternately supply thrust block calculations that include the weight of the pipe and fittings to be restrained. Such alternate calculations shall be submitted to the Agency’s Engineer for review and approval.

An undisturbed section of trench wall adjacent to the fitting and centered in the direction of thrust shall be excavated to dimensions providing the minimum bearing area calculated from the formula given above. In general, the bearing area shall be as close to square as is possible given actual field conditions. The shape and location of all thrust block excavations shall be approved by the Agency’s Engineer prior to placing concrete. Thrust block excavations shall be keyed a minimum of twelve inches (12”) into undisturbed soil.

Table 3 – Sample Table

Thrust Block Size for PVC Pipe (ft2) Design Pressure = Class of Pipe; Sb=1,500 lb/ft2; SF=1.5

Nominal Pipe Size (in) Average Outside Diameter (in) Tees, Wyes Valves, and Dead Ends 90° Bend 45° Bend 22.5° Bend 11.25° Bend Class 4 4.80 3.6 5.1 2.8 2.0 2.0 200 6 6.90 7.5 10.6 5.7 2.9 2.0 200 8 9.05 12.9 18.2 9.8 5.0 2.5 200 10 11.10 19.4 27.4 14.8 7.6 3.8 200 12 13.20 27.4 38.7 20.9 10.7 5.4 200 14 15.30 30.3 42.9 23.2 11.8 5.9 165 16 17.40 39.2 55.5 30.0 15.3 7.7 165 18 19.50 49.3 69.7 37.7 19.2 9.7 165 20 21.60 60.5 85.5 46.3 23.6 11.9 165 24 25.80 86.3 122.0 66.0 33.7 16.9 165 14 15.30 43.2 61.1 33.1 16.9 8.5 235 16 17.40 55.9 79.0 42.8 21.8 11.0 235 18 19.50 70.2 99.3 53.7 27.4 13.8 235 20 21.60 86.1 121.8 65.9 33.6 16.9 235 24 25.80 122.9 173.7 94.0 47.9 24.1 235

* The values in this table were obtained assuming an allowable soil bearing capacity of 1500 lb/ft2 for decomposed granite and per 100 lb/in2. Differing soil conditions may apply.

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C. Thrust blocks are required for in-line valves not located adjacent to pipe fittings. Dead-end thrust is created when such valves are closed for repair or maintenance. Thrust blocks for in-line valves not located adjacent to pipe fittings shall be designed by the Engineer of Work for the approval of the Agency’s Engineer and shall be detailed on the Approved Plans. Concrete valve support blocks as described in Section 5.3 are not intended to provide thrust restraint, and cannot be substituted for concrete thrust blocks. D. Concrete support blocks are required for all valves and fittings.

E. Thrust blocks are to be placed in accordance with WAS Standard Drawing WT-01.

5.2.8 ANCHOR BLOCKS

A. Anchor blocks shall be located at all unrestrained descending vertical bends. Thrust blocks are not suited for such applications because excavation necessarily disturbs soil in the direction of thrust. Anchor blocks rely on the weight of the concrete used to restrain thrust. Anchor blocks must include as a minimum two (2) number four (#4) steel reinforcing bars with 2-inch minimum concrete embedment as directed by the Agency’s Engineer to assure secure attachment to the vertical bend.

B. The required minimum volume, in cubic feet, of concrete anchor blocks shall be in accordance with the following formula:

)

(

2

sin

2

)

(

SF

B

pA

SF

B

T

Volume

Δ

=

=

2

(

)

sin

5

.

0

2

SF

B

pd

Δ

=

π

Where:

T

= total thrust (lb),

p

= internal pressure (lb/in2),

A

= area of pipe using outside diameter (in2)

B

= density of block material, lb/ft3 (approximately 140 lb/ft3),

SF

= Safety Factor (suggest 1.5)

Δ

= true angle of bend (degrees).

The formula above does not consider the weight of pipe and fittings. The Engineer of Work may alternately supply anchor block calculations that include the weight of the pipe and fittings to be restrained. Such alternate calculations shall be submitted to the Agency’s Engineer for review and approval. In addition, the buoyant density of the thrust block material must be used if it is anticipated that the soil could become saturated or if the water table is above the thrust block elevation.

The shape and location of all anchor blocks shall be approved by the Agency’s Engineer prior to placing concrete.

5.2.9 NOTATIONS ON PLANS

A. The Engineer of Work shall show the results of calculations for all thrust blocks and anchor blocks on the Approved Plans.

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B. Results of calculations for all thrust blocks and anchor blocks may be individually noted in plan drawings at the location(s) required, or may be presented in the form of a clear and complete “Thrust/Anchor Block Table.” Thrust block and anchor block information shall include pipe station, type of block (Thrust or Anchor), test pressure, total thrust, assumed or tested soil capacity, and area or volume of block(s) required. If Thrust/Anchor Block Table(s) are used, they shall be shown on the same plan sheet as the fittings for which the thrust block(s) or anchor block(s) are required. An example of a typical Thrust/Anchor Block Table is shown in Figure A below:

FIGURE A Sample Table

THRUST/ANCHOR BLOCK TABLE

Pipe Sta. Type/ Dia, of Pipe Type of Block Type of Appurtenance Design Pressure Total Thrust Assumed Soil Capacity Area or Volume of Block 3+52.50 PVC/8” Thrust 22.5° Hor Bend 200 lb/in 2 5,020 lb 1,500 lb/ft 2 5.0 ft2 6+10.00 PVC/8” Thrust 45° Hor Bend 200 lb/in2 9,847

lb 1,500 lb/ft 2 10.0 ft2 6+20.00 PVC/8” Anchor 22.5° Vert Bend 200 lb/in 2 5,020 lb *N/A 54.0 ft 3

6+30.00 PVC/8” Anchor 45° Vert Bend 200 lb/in2 9,847

lb *N/A 105.5 ft

3

* The specific weight of concrete is 140lb/ft3.

The example table shown above is intended to be representative only. Any similar format that conveys all information required to size thrust blocks and anchor blocks is acceptable.

Calculated areas or volumes shown in Thrust/Anchor Block tables shall be rounded up to the next ½ ft2 or ½ ft3. In the example above, an assumed soil capacity of 1,500 lb/ft2 is used. If soil bearing capacities are assumed, and, in the opinion of the Agency’s Engineer, soils actually encountered on-site are not equal to or better than those assumed, the Engineer of Work shall promptly recalculate thrust block sizes based on observed soil conditions or on soil capacity tests and transmit such recalculations to the Agency’s Engineer. If thrust block calculations rely upon the results of soils capacity tests, the appropriate column shall be labeled “Tested Soil Capacity” and the soils tests shall be submitted to the Agency’s Engineer for review.

C. In locations where restraining fittings (including flanged fittings) and thrust-restraining pipe joints are used in lieu of concrete thrust blocks, the length of the required thrust-restraining pipe system shall be clearly delineated and noted on the pipeline profile drawing(s). Thrust restraining systems shall not be used in conjunction with thrust blocks. The Engineer of Work shall submit calculations confirming the adequacy of the thrust restraint design detailed in the drawing(s) for the review and approval of the Agency’s Engineer.

5.2.10 REFERENCES

A. Should the reader have any suggestions or questions concerning the material in this section, contact one of the member agencies listed.

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B. The publications listed below form a part of this section to the extent referenced and are referred to in the text by the basic designation only. Reference shall be made to the latest edition of said publications unless otherwise called for. The following list of publications, as directly referenced within the body of this document, has been provided for convenience. It is the responsibility of the user of these documents to make reference to and/or utilize industry standards not otherwise directly referenced within this document.

1. Water Agencies’ Standards (WAS) a. Design Guidelines:

1. Section 5.3, Line Valves b. Standard Specifications:

1. Section 03000 Cast in Place Concrete c. Standard Drawings:

1. WT-01

2. AWWA M23 PVC – Design and Installation

3. AWWA M11 Steel Pipe – A Guide for Design and Installation

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WATER AGENCIES’ STANDARDS

Design Guidelines for Water and Sewer Facilities

SECTION 5.3

LINE VALVES

5.3.1 PURPOSE

The purpose of this section is to provide guidelines for the type, spacing and location of line valves on water pipeline projects.

5.3.2 STANDARD TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Wherever technical terms or pronouns occur in these guidelines or in related documents, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as described in Standard Terms and Definitions. The following terms and definitions as found in this section shall have the following meaning: DU: Dwelling Unit

5.3.3 GENERAL

It is the responsibility of the user of these documents to make reference to and/or utilize industry standards not otherwise directly referenced within this document. The Engineer of Work may not deviate from the criteria presented in this section without prior written approval of the Agency’s Engineer.

5.3.4 GUIDELINES

A. In general, line valves are installed in distribution and transmission pipelines to isolate and depressurize pipeline segments for repairs, modifications, inspections or maintenance.

B. Isolation of water lines during repairs, modifications, inspection or maintenance causes a temporary loss of water service within the affected area. Locations of line valves shall be based on the following considerations:

1. Limiting the number of customers that will be out of service, 2. Limiting the number of fire hydrants out of service,

3. Limiting the time it takes to drain a pipe segment,

4. Limiting the number of customers impacted by future system modifications, 5. Limiting future construction within major streets or intersections,

6. Conformance to State of California Codes and Regulations

7. Avoiding excessive number of valves thus reducing initial capital cost, exercising and maintenance of valves, and replacement costs.

C. Valves shall be placed on all branches of crosses and tees unless otherwise directed by the Agency’s Engineer. Valves may be placed at each street intersection on the main prior to the branch and on each branch if the system is looped in a fashion that allows isolation of each reach of pipe segment.

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D. In high-density residential (ten (10) + DU’s per acre) areas and commercial areas, the valve placement is not to exceed one city block up to a maximum of one thousand feet (1,000’).

E. In medium density residential (five (5) + DU’s per acre) areas, the valve placement is not to exceed one quarter (¼) mile or seventy (70) DU’s out of service.

F. In low-density residential (two (2) + DU’s per acre) or rural areas (one (1) DU per acre), the valve placement is not to exceed one quarter (¼) mile or thirty (30) DU’s out of service,

G. Line valves shall be incorporated into the design to ensure that no more than two (2) fire hydrants are out of service when a line valve is closed. Fire hydrants shall be spaced in accordance with Section 5.4.

H. Valves are placed on fire hydrants and private fire service laterals, air/vacuum valves, three inch (3) and larger service connections and blow-offs in accordance with the WAS Standard Drawings.

I. Line valves may be located between each fire hydrant and/or side connection in commercial areas as required by the Agency’s Engineer.

J. The maximum spacing between valves on distribution lines twelve inch (12”) or less shall be one-quarter (¼) mile. The maximum spacing between valves on transmission lines sixteen inch (16”) or larger shall be one half (½) mile.

K. For maintenance purposes the line valve spacing may be reduced to accommodate the location of blowoff, air release, and air/vacuum valves. Typically blowoff, air re release, and air/vacuum valves should be placed at no greater spacing than that which allows the pipe to be drained in the time specified in Section 5.6.

L. Where future water main extensions are anticipated, valves shall be located on the branch line at the tee or cross and blind flanged only as directed by the Agency’s Engineer.

M. The maximum spacing for line valves on distribution lines is governed by the one thousand three hundred twenty foot (1,320’) maximum distance recommended by the California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 21, Public Works.

N. Selection of valves and appurtenances to be used with the installation of valves shall be in accordance with WAS Standard Specification 15100 and 15102 and the Approved Materials List.

O. Concrete support blocks are required for all valves, and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements shown in the WAS Standard Drawings. Concrete support blocks are not intended to provide thrust restraint when valves are operated. In locations where valves are not adjacent to pipe fittings or are otherwise not provided with thrust restraint when valves are operated, thrust blocks are required instead of support blocks. The Engineer of work shall design thrust blocks in accordance with Section 5.2.

5.3.5 MISCELLANEOUS VALVE INFORMATION

A. Motor operated valves will be used in locations where valves are operated and installed in a vault or on inlet/outlets of reservoirs as required by the Agency’s Engineer. Locations shall be approved by the Agency’s Engineer during the sixty percent (60%) submittal plan review.

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B. Installation: Valves and gate wells shall be installed at locations shown on the approved plans in accordance with the applicable sections of the WAS Standard Specification and Standard Drawings.

C. Only resilient-seated gate valves (twelve inch (12”) or less) and butterfly valves (sixteen inch (16”) or larger) are allowed in accordance with the Approved Materials List. The Agency’s Engineer may require the use of plug valves or ball valves in high-pressure locations and other locations.

D. Valves rated for higher pressures are available (i.e. two hundred fifty (250) psi class), but are not covered by the AWWA Standards. In these situations, valve specifications must be individually prepared to meet the requirements of each project. E. Vaults should have a hole cored in the lid above the valve actuator nut to allow for an extension and portable motor operator to be used to operate the valve above ground without entering a confined space.

5.3.6 NOTATIONS ON PLANS

Valves shall be shown in the plan view portion of the sheet(s) only and include, but not limited to, the following information.

A. Standard symbols, stationing and plan callout notes shall be in accordance with Section 1.1. Note: butterfly valves shall be shown with the valve operator located to the curb line side of the water main.

B. Valves shall be shown with the following information: • Stationing of the valve.

• Size of valve.

• Refer to Figure 1 below.

Figure 1

Plan Callouts for Line Valves

5.3.7 DESIGN NOTES

A. Gate Valves: The decision to limit gate valves to a maximum size of twelve inch (12”) is based on the standard depth of cover criteria of forty-two inches (42”). Gate valves over twelve inches (12”) in size have such a tall bonnet that the operating nut is too close to finish grade. An auxiliary reason is the number of turns required to close a gate valve larger than twelve inch (12”).

B. Butterfly Valves: Pipeline design criteria limits flow velocity to ten (10) feet per second (fps). Class 150A valves are designed for eight (8) fps, Class 150B valves are designed for sixteen (16) fps, therefore only Class 150B butterfly valves are allowed. C. Holes cored in the valve vault lids will allow the use of portable motor operators and

reduce the need for entry into a confined space. Confined space rules significantly increase the cost of accessing vaults and therefore are avoided by designing for operation without entry by operations personnel.

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5.3.8 REFERENCE

Reference shall be made to the latest edition of the following publications unless otherwise called for. The following list of publications, as directly referenced within the body of this document, has been provided for the users convenience. It is the responsibility of the user of these documents to make reference to and/or utilize industry standards not otherwise directly referenced within this document.

1. Water Agencies’ Standards (WAS): a. Design Guidelines:

1. Section 1.1, Drafting Guidelines 2. Section 5.5, Air Valves

3. Section 5.6, Blowoffs b. Standard Specifications

1. Section 15000, General Piping System and Appurtenances 2. Section 15100, Resilient Wedge Gate Valves

3. Section 15102, Butterfly Valves

c. Standard Drawings

1. WV-01, Gate Well Installation d. Approved Materials List for Water Facilities 2. American Water Works Association (AWWA):

a. C504, Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves b. C509, Resilient Seated Gate Valves 3. California Code of Regulations (CCR):

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LINE VALVE SPACING AND LOCATION FLOWCHART

Place Valves So N o M ore Than 2 FH out of Service H igh D ensity R esidential > 10 D U / Acre C om m erical Area M edium D ensity R esidential > 5 D U / Acre

Place Valves at O ne City Block but not >1000 feet

Place Valves at All Tees and Xs on Branch and M ain

System Looping Allow s Elim ination of

a Valve on M ain Place Valves at All Tees and

Xs on Branch and one on M ain Prior to Each Branch

Place Valves So N o M ore Than 1 FH out of Service as D irected by Agency Engineer YES

N O

YES

Place Valves so no M ore Than 70 D U s O ut of Service but not > ¼ m ile

Low D ensity R esidential < 2 D U / Acre Place Valves so no M ore Than 30 D U s

O ut of Service but not > ¼ m ile

YES

N O N O Place Valves at no M ore Than ½ m ile

Place Valves at no G reater Than 1/4 m ile

16-in or G reater PL- N o Braches, D U s, or

FH s for over ½ M ile

12-in or Less PL , N o Branches, D U s, or

FH s for over 1/4 M ile Pipeline

> 30-in C alculate Valve

Spacing Per 5.6 YES YES

NO YES NO N O YES N O

Adjust Spacing of Line Valves for Location of Blow offs and Air/Vacum

Valves per 5.5 and 5.6

Figure

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References

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